INTEL 80286 PROGRAMMER'S REFERENCE MANUAL 1987

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Preface

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This manual describes the 80286, the most powerful 16-bit microprocessor in
the 8086 family, and the 80287 Numeric Processor Extension (NPX).

Organization of This Manual

80286

The 80286 contains a table of contents, eleven chapters, four appendices,
and an index. For more information on the 80286 book's organization, see its
first chapter, Chapter 1, "Introduction to the 80286." Section 1.4 in that
chapter explains the organization in detail.

Notational Conventions
This manual uses special notation to represent sub- and superscript
characters. Subscript characters are surrounded by {curly brackets}, for
example 10{2} = 10 base 2. Superscript characters are preceeded by a caret
and enclosed within (parentheses), for example 10^(3) = 10 to the third
power.

Table of Contents

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Chapter 1  Introduction to the 80286

1.1  General Attributes
1.2  Modes of Operation
1.3  Advanced Features
      1.3.1  Memory Management
      1.3.2  Task Management
      1.3.3  Protection Mechanisms
      1.3.4  Support for Operating Systems

1.4  Organization of This Book
1.5  Related Publications

Chapter 2  80286 Base Architecture

2.1  Memory Organization and Segmentation
2.2  Data Types
2.3  Registers
      2.3.1  General Registers
      2.3.2  Memory Segmentation and Segment Registers
      2.3.3  Index, Pointer, and Base Registers
      2.3.4  Status and Control Registers

2.4  Addressing Modes
      2.4.1  Operands
      2.4.2  Register and Immediate Modes
      2.4.3  Memory Addressing Modes
              2.4.3.1  Segment Selection
              2.4.3.2  Offset Computation
              2.4.3.3  Memory Mode

2.5  Input/Output
      2.5.1  I/O Address Space
      2.5.2  Memory-Mapped I\0

2.6  Interrupts and Exceptions
2.7  Hierarchy of Instruction Sets

Chapter 3  Basic Instruction Set

3.1  Data Movement Instructions
      3.1.1  General-Purpose Data Movement Instructions
      3.1.2  Stack Manipulation Instructions

3.2  Flag Operation with the Basic Instruction Set
      3.2.1  Status Flags  4
      3.2.2  Control Flags 4

3.3  Arithmetic Instructions
      3.3.1  Addition Instructions
      3.3.2  Subtraction Instructions
      3.3.3  Muitiplication Instructions
      3.3.4  Division Instructions

3.4  Logical Instructions
      3.4.1  Boolean Operation Instructions
      3.4.2  Shift and Rotate Instructions
              3.4.2.1  Shift Instructions
              3.4.2.2  Rotate Instructions

      3.4.3  Type Conversion and No-Operation Instructions

3.5  Test and Compare Instructions
3.6  Control Transfer Instructions
      3.6.1  Unconditional Transfer Instructions
              3.6.1.1  Jump instruction
              3.6.1.2  Call Instruction
              3.6.1.3  Return and Return from interrupt Instruction

      3.6.2  Conditional Transfer Instructions
              3.6.2.1  Conditional Jump Instructions
              3.6.2.2  Loop Instructions
              3.6.2.3  Executing a Loop or Repeat Zero Times

      3.6.3  Software-Generated Interrupts
              3.6.3.1  Software Interrupt Instruction
      
3.7  Character Translation and String Instructions
      3.7.1  Translate Instruction
      3.7.2  String Manipulation Instructions and Repeat Prefixes
              3.7.2.1  String Movement Instructions
              3.7.2.2  Other String Operations
   
3.8  Address Manipulation Instructions
3.9  Flag Control instructions
      3.9.1  Carry Flag Control Instructions
      3.9.2  Direction Flag Control Instructions
      3.9.3  Flag Transfer Instructions

3.10  Binary-Coded Decimal Arithmetic Instructions
       3.10.1  Packed BCD Adjustment Instructions
       3.10.2  Unpacked BCD Adjustment Instructions

3.11  Trusted Instructions
       3.11.1  Trusted and Privileged Restrictions on POPF and IRET
       3.11.2  Machine State Instructions
       3.11.3  Inputand Output Instructions

3.12  Processor Extension Instructions
       3.12.1  Processor Extension Synchronization Instructions
       3.12.2  Numeric Data Processor Instructions
                3.12.2.1  Arithmetic Instructions
                3.12.2.2  Comparison Instructions
                3.12.2.3  Transcendental Instructions
                3.12.2.4  Data Transfer Instructions
                3.12.2.5  Constant Instructions

Chapter 4  Extended Instruction Set

4.1  Block I\O Instructions
4.2  High-Level Instructions

Chapter 5  Real Address Mode

5.1  Addressing and Segmentation
5.2  Interrupt Handling
      5.2.1  Interrupt Vector Table
               5.2.1.1  Interrupt Procedures
      5.2.2  Interrupt Priorities
      5.2.3  Reserved and Dedicated Interrupt Vectors

5.3  System Initialization.

Chapter 6  Memory Management and Virtual Addressing

6.1  Memory Management Overview
6.2  Virtual Addresses
6.3  Descriptor Tables
6.4  Virtual-to-Physical Address Translation
6.5  Segments and Segment Descriptors
6.6  Memory Management Registers
      6.6.1  Segment Address Translation Registers
      6.6.2  System Address Registers

Chapter 7  Protection

7.1  Introduction
      7.1.1  Types of Protection
      7.1.2  Protection Implementation

7.2  Memory Management and Protection
      7.2.1  Separation of Address Spaces
      7.2.2  LDT and GDT Access Checks
      7.2.3  Type Validation

7.3  Privilege Levels and Protection
      7.3.1  Example of Using Four Privilege Levels
      7.3.2  Privilege Usage

7.4  Segment Descriptor
      7.4.1  Data Accesses
      7.4.2  Code Segment Access
      7.4.3  Data Access Restriction by Privilege Level
      7.4.4  Pointer Privilege Stamping via ARPL

7.5  Control Transfers
      7.5.1  Gates
              7.5.1.1  Call Gates
              7.5.1.2  Intra-Level Transfers via Call Gate
              7.5.1.3  Inter-Level Control Transfer via Call Gates
              7.5.1.4  Stack Changes Caused by Call Gates

      7.5.2  Inter-Level Returns

Chapter 8  Tasks and State Transitions

8.1  Introduction
8.2  Task State Segments and Descriptors
      8.2.1  Task State Segment Descriptors

8.3  Task Switching
8.4  Task Linking
8.5  Task Gates 

Chapter 9  Interrupts and Exceptions

9.1  Interrupt Descriptor Table
9.2  Hardware Initiated Interrupts
9.3  Software Initiated Interrupts
9.4  Interrupt Gates and Trap Gates
9.5  Task Gates and Interrupt Tasks
      9.5.1  Scheduling Considerations
      9.5.2  Deciding Between Task, Trap, and Interrupt Gates

9.6  Protection Exceptions and Reserved Vectors
      9.6.1  Invalid OP-Code (Interrupt 6)
      9.6.2  Double Fault (Interrupt 8)
      9.6.3  Processor Extension Segment Overrun (Interrupt 9)
      9.6.4  Invalid Task State Segment (Interrupt 10)
      9.6.5  Not Present (Interrupt 11)
      9.6.6  Stack Fault (Interrupt 12)
      9.6.7  General Protection Fault (Interrupt 13)

9.7  Additional Exceptions and Interrupts
      9.7.1  Single Step Interrupt (Interrupt 1)

Chapter 10  System Control and Initialization

10.1  System Flags and Registers
       10.1.1  Descriptor Table Registers

10.2  System Control Instructions
       10.2.1  Machine Status Word
       10.2.2  Other Instructions

10.3  Privileged and Trusted Instructions

10.4  Initialization
       10.4.1  Real Address Mode
       10.4.2  Protected Mode

Chapter 11  Advanced Topics

11.1  Virtual Memory Management
11.2  Special Segment Attributes
       11.2.1  Conforming Code Segments
       11.2.2  Expand-Down Data Segments

11.3  Pointer Validation
       11.3.1  Descriptor Validation
       11.3.2  Pointer Integrity: RPL and the"Trojan Horse Problem"

11.4  NPX Context Switching
11.5  Multiprocessor Considerations
11.6  Shutdown

Appendix A  80286 System Initialization

Appendix B  The 80286 Instruction Set

Appendix C  8086/8088 Compatibility Considerations

Appendix D  80286/80386 Software Compatibility Considerations

Index

Figures

1-1     Four Privilege Levels

2-1     Segmented Virtual Memory
2-2     Bytes and Words in Memory.
2-3     80286/80287 Supported Data Types
2-4     80286 Base Architecture Register Set
2-5     Real Address Mode Segment Selector Interpretation
2-6     Protected Mode Segment Selector Interpretation
2-7     80286 Stack
2-8     Stack Operation
2-9     BP Usage as a Stack Frame Base Pointer
2-10    Flags Register.
2-11    Two-Component Address
2-12    Use of Memory Segmentation
2-13    Complex Addressing Modes
2-14    Memory-Mapped I/O
2-15    Hierarchy of Instructions

3-1     PUSH
3-2     PUSHA
3-3     POP
3-4     POPA.
3-5     Flag Word Contents
3-6     SAL and SHL
3-7     SHR
3-8     SAR
3-9     ROL
3-10    ROR
3-11    RCL
3-12    RCR
3-13    LAHF and SAHF
3-14    PUSHF and POPF

4-1     Formal Definition of the ENTER Instruction
4-2     Variable Access in Nested Procedures
4-2a    Stack Frame for MAIN at Level 1
4-2b    Stack Frame for Procedure A
4-2c    Stack Frame for Procedure B at Level 3 Called from A
4-2d    Stack Frame for Procedure C at Level 3 Called from B

5-1a    Forming the Segment Base Address
5-1b    Forming the 20-Bit Physical Address in the Real Address Mode
5-2     Overlapping Segments to Save Physical Memory
5-3     Interrupt Vector Table for Real Address Mode
5-4     Stack Structure after Interrupt (Real Address Mode)

6-1     Format of the Segment Selector Component
6-2     Address Spaces and Task Isolation
6-3     Segment Descriptor (S=1)
6-4     Special Purpose Descriptors or System Segment Descriptors (S=O)
6-5     LDT Descriptor
6-6     Virtual-to-Physical Address Translation
6-7     Segment Descriptor Access Bytes
6-8     Memory Management Registers
6-9     Descriptor Loading

7-1     Addressing Segments of a Module within a Task
7-2     Descriptor Cache Registers
7-3     80286 Virtual Address Space
7-4     Local and Global Descriptor Table Definitions
7-5     Error Code Format (on the stack)
7-6     Code and Data Segments Assigned to a Privilege Level.
7-7     Selector Fields
7-8     Access Byte Examples.
7-9     Pointer Privilege Stamping
7-10    Gate Descriptor Format.
7-11    Call Gate
7-12    Stack Contents after an Inter-Level Call

8-1     Task State Segment and TSS Registers
8-2     TSS Descriptor
8-3     Task Gate Descriptor
8-4     Task Switch Through a Task Gate

9-1     Interrupt Descriptor Table Definition
9-2     IDT Selector Error Code.
9-3     Trap/Interrupt Gate Descriptors
9-4     Stack Layout after an Exception with an Error Code

10-1    Local and Global Descriptor Table Definition
10-2    Interrupt Descriptor Table Definition
10-3    Data Type for Global Descriptor Table and Interrupt Descriptor Table

11-1    Expand-Down Segment
11-2    Dynamic Segment Relocation and Expansion of Segment Limit
11-3    Example of NPX Context Switching

B-1     /n Instruction Byte Format
B-2     /r Instruction Byte Format

Tables

2-1     Implied Segment Usage by Index, Pointer, and Base Registers
2-2     Segment Register Selection Rules
2-3     Memory Operand Addressing Modes
2-4     80286 Interrupt Vector Assignments (Real Address Mode)

3-1     Status Flags' Functions
3-2     Control Flags' Functions
3-3     Interpretation of Conditional Transfers

5-1     Interrupt Processing Order
5-2     Dedicated and Reserved Interrupt Vectors in Real Address Mode
5-3     Processor State after RESET

7-1     Segment Access Rights Byte Format
7-2     Allowed Segment Types in Segment Registers
7-3     Call Gate Checks
7-4     Inter-Level Return Checks

8-1     Checks Made during a Task Switch
8-2     Effect of a Task Switch on BUSY and NT Bits and the Link Word

9-1     Trap and Interrupt Gate Checks
9-2     Interrupt and Gate Interactions
9-3     Reserved Exceptions and Interrupts
9-4     Interrupt Processing Order
9-5     Conditions That Invalidate the TSS

10-1    MSW Bit Functions
10-2    Recommended MSW Encodings for Processor Extension Control

11-1    NPX Context Switching

B-1     ModRM Values
B-2     Protection Exceptions of the 80286
B-3     Hexadecimal Values for the Access Rights Byte

C-1     New 80286 Interrupts



Chapter 1  Introduction to the 80286

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The 80286 is the most powerful 16-bit processor in the 8086 series of
microprocessors, which includes the 8086, the 8088, the 80186, the 80188,
and the 80286. It is designed for applications that require very high
performance. It is also an excellent choice for sophisticated "high end"
applications that will benefit from its advanced architectural features:
memory management, protection mechanisms, task management, and virtual
memory support. The 80286 provides, on a single VLSI chip, computational
and architectural characteristics normally associated with much larger
minicomputers.

Sections 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3 of this chapter provide an overview of the 80286
architecture. Because the 80286 represents an extension of the 8086
architecture, some of this overview material may be new and unfamiliar to
previous users of the 8086 and similar microprocessors. But the 80286 is
also an evolutionary development, with the new architecture superimposed
upon the industry standard 8086 in such a way as to affect only the design
and programming of operating systems and other such system software.
Section 1.4 of this chapter provides a guide to the organization of this
manual, suggesting which chapters are relevant to the needs of particular
readers.


1.1  General Attributes

The 80286 base architecture has many features in common with the
architecture of other members of the 8086 family, such as byte addressable
memory, I/O interfacing hardware, interrupt vectoring, and support for both
multiprocessing and processor extensions. The entire family has a common
set of addressing modes and basic instructions. The 80286 base architecture
also includes a number of extensions which add to the versatility of the
computer.

The 80286 processor can function in two modes of operation (see section 1.2
of this chapter, Modes of Operation). In one of these modes only the base
architecture is available to programmers, whereas in the other mode a number
of very powerful advanced features have been added, including support for
virtual memory, multitasking, and a sophisticated protection mechanism.
These advanced features are described in section 1.3 of this chapter.

The 80286 base architecture was designed to support programming in
high-level languages, such as Pascal, C or PL/M. The register set and
instructions are well suited to compiler-generated code. The addressing
modes (see section 2.4.3 in Chapter 2) allow efficient addressing
of complex data structures, such as static and dynamic arrays, records,
and arrays within records, which are commonly supported by high-level
languages. The data types supported by the architecture include, along with
bytes and words, high level language constructs such as strings, BCD, and
floating point.

The memory architecture of the 80286 was designed to support modular
programming techniques. Memory is divided into segments, which may be of
arbitrary size, that can be used to contain procedures and data structures.
Segmentation has several advantages over more conventional linear memory
architectures. It supports structured software, since segments can contain
meaningful program units and data, and more compact code, since references
within a segment can be shorter (and locality of reference usually insures
that the next few references will be within the same segment). Segmentation
also lends itself to efficient implementation of sophisticated memory
management, virtual memory, and memory protection.

In addition, new instructions have been added to the base architecture to
give hardware support for procedure invocations, parameter passing, and
array bounds checking.


1.2  Modes of Operation

The 80286 can be operated in either of two different modes: Real Address
Mode or Protected Virtual Address Mode (also referred to as Protected Mode).
In either mode of operation, the 80286 represents an upwardly compatible
addition to the 8086 family of processors.

In Real Address Mode, the 80286 operates essentially as a very
high-performance 8086. Programs written for the 8086 or the 80186 can be
executed in this mode without any modification (the few exceptions are
described in Appendix C, "Compatibility Considerations"). Such upward
compatibility extends even to the object code level; for example, an 8086
program stored in read-only memory will execute successfully in 80286 Real
Address Mode. An 80286 operating in Real Address Mode provides a number of
instructions not found on the 8086. These additional instructions, also
present with the 80186, allow for efficient subroutine linkage, parameter
validation, index calculations, and block I/O transfers.

The advanced architectural features and full capabilities of the 80286 are
realized in its native Protected Mode. Among these features are
sophisticated mechanisms to support data protection, system integrity, task
concurrency, and memory management, including virtual storage.
Nevertheless, even in Protected Mode, the 80286 remains upwardly compatible
with most 8086 and 80186 application programs. Most 8086 applications
programs can be re-compiled or re-assembled and executed on the 80286 in
Protected Mode.


1.3  Advanced Features

The architectural features described in section 1.1 of this chapter
are common to both operating modes of the processor. In addition to these
common features, Protected Mode provides a number of advanced features,
including a greatly extended physical and logical address space, new
instructions, and support for additional hardware-recognized data
structures. The Protected Mode 80286 includes a sophisticated memory
management and multilevel protection mechanism. Full hardware support is
included for multitasking and task switching operations.


1.3.1  Memory Management

The memory architecture of the Protected Mode 80286 represents a
significant advance over that of the 8086. The physical address space has
been increased from 1 megabyte to 16 megabytes (2^(24) bytes), while the
virtual address space (i.e., the address space visible to a program) has
been increased from 1 megabyte to 1 gigabyte (2^(30) bytes). Moreover,
separate virtual address spaces are provided for each task in a
multi-tasking system (see the next section, 1.3.2, "Task Management").

The 80286 supports on-chip memory management instead of relying on an
external memory management unit. The one-chip solution is preferable because
no software is required to manage an external memory management unit,
performance is much better, and hardware designs are significantly simpler.

Mechanisms have been included in the 80286 architecture to allow the
efficient implementation of virtual memory systems. (In virtual memory
systems, the user regards the combination of main and external storage as a
single large memory. The user can write large programs without worrying
about the physical memory limitations of the system. To accomplish this, the
operating system places some of the user programs and data in external
storage and brings them into main memory only as they are needed.) All
instructions that can cause a segment-not-present fault are fully
restartable. Thus, a not-present segment can be loaded from external
storage, and the task can be restarted at the point where the fault
occurred.

The 80286, like all members of the 8086 series, supports a segmented memory
architecture. The 80286 also fully integrates memory segmentation into a
comprehensive protection scheme. This protection scheme includes
hardware-enforced length and type checking to protect segments from
inadvertent misuse.


1.3.2  Task Management

The 80286 is designed to support multi-tasking systems. The architecture
provides direct support for the concept of a task. For example, task state
segments (see section 8.2 in Chapter 8) are hardware-recognized and
hardware-manipulated structures that contain information on the current
state of all tasks in the system.

Very efficient context-switching (task-switching) can be invoked with a
single instruction. Separate logical address spaces are provided for each
task in the system. Finally, mechanisms exist to support intertask
communication, synchronization, memory sharing, and task scheduling. Task
Management is described in Chapter 8.


1.3.3  Protection Mechanisms

The 80286 allows the system designer to define a comprehensive protection
policy to be applied, uniformly and continuously, to all ongoing operations
of the system. Such a policy may be desirable to ensure system reliability,
privacy of data, rapid error recovery, and separation of multiple users.

The 80286 protection mechanisms are based on the notion of a "hierarchy of
trust." Four privilege levels are distinguished, ranging from Level 0 (most
trusted) to Level 3 (least trusted). Level 0 is usually reserved for the
operating system kernel. The four levels may be visualized as concentric
rings, with the most privileged level in the center (see figure 1-1).

This four-level scheme offers system reliability, flexibility, and design
options not possible with the typical two-level (supervisor/user) separation
provided by other processors. A four-level division is capable of separating
kernel, executive, system services, and application software, each with
different privileges.

At any one time, a task executes at one of the four levels. Moreover, all
data segments and code segments are also assigned to privilege levels. A
task executing at one level cannot access data at a more privileged level,
nor can it call a procedure at a less privileged level (i.e., trust a less
privileged procedure to do work for it). Thus, both access to data and
transfer of control are restricted in appropriate ways.

A complete separation can exist between the logical address spaces local to
different tasks, providing users with automatic protection against
accidental or malicious interference by other users. The hardware also
provides immediate detection of a number of fault and error conditions, a
feature that can be useful in the development and maintenance of software.

Finally, these protection mechanisms require relatively little system
overhead because they are integrated into the memory management and
protection hardware of the processor itself.


Figure 1-1.  Four Privilege Levels

                       ‚ƒ
                       €          LEVEL 3 ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ī‘‘LEAST TRUSTED
                       €  ‚ƒ  €
                       €  €       LEVEL 2       €  €
                       €  €  ‚ƒ  €  €
                       €  €  €    LEVEL 1    €  €  €
                       €  €  €  ‚ƒ  €  €  €
                       €  €  €  € LEVEL 0 €  €  €  €
                       €  €  €  €        €  €  €  €
                       €  €  €  „Ļ…  €  €  €
                       €  €  €              €  €  €
                       €  €  „Ļ…  €  €
                       €  €                    €  €
                       €  „Ļ…  €
                       €                          €
                       „Ļ…
                                        
                                        ”MOST TRUSTED


1.3.4  Support for Operating Systems

Most operating systems involve some degree of concurrency, with multiple
tasks vying for system resources. The task management mechanisms described
above provide the 80286 with inherent support for such multi-tasking
systems. Moreover, the advanced memory management features of the 80286
allow the implementation of sophisticated virtual memory systems.

Operating system implementors have found that a multi-level approach to
system services provides better security and more reliable systems. For
example, a very secure kernel might implement critical functions such as
task scheduling and resource allocation, while less fundamental functions
(such asI/O) are built around the kernel. This layered approach also makes
program development and enhancement simpler and facilitates error detection
and debugging. The 80286 supports the layered approach through its
four-level privilege scheme.


1.4  Organization of This Book

To facilitate the use of this book both as an introduction to the 80286
architecture and as a reference guide, the remaining chapters are divided
into three major parts.

Part I, comprising chapters 2 through 4, should be read by all those who
wish to acquire a basic familiarity with the 80286 architecture. These
chapters provide detailed information on memory segmentation, registers,
addressing modes and the general (application level) 80286 instruction set.
In conjunction with the 80286 Assembly Language Reference Manual, these
chapters provide sufficient information for an assembly language programmer
to design and write application programs.

The chapters in Part I are:

Chapter 2, "Architectural Features." This chapter discusses those features
of the 80286 architecture that are significant for application programmers.
The information presented can also function as an introduction to the
machine for system programmers. Memory organization and segmentation,
processor registers, addressing modes, and instruction formats are all
discussed.

Chapter 3, "Basic Instruction Set." This chapter presents the core
instructions of the 8086 family.

Chapter 4, "Extended Instruction Set." This chapter presents the extended
instructions shared by the 80186 and 80286 processors.

Part II of the book consists of a single chapter:

Chapter 5, "Real Address Mode." This chapter presents the system
programmer's view of the 80286 when the processor is operated in Real
Address Mode.

Part III of the book comprises chapters 6 through 11. Aimed primarily at
system programmers, these chapters discuss the more advanced architectural
features of the 80286, which are available when the processor is in
Protected Mode. Details on memory management, protection mechanisms, and
task switching are provided.

The chapters in Part III are:

Chapter 6, "Virtual Memory." This chapter describes the 80286 address
translation mechanisms that support virtual memory. Segment descriptors,
global and local descriptor tables, and descriptor caches are discussed.

Chapter 7, "Protection." This chapter describes the protection features of
the 80286. Privilege levels, segment attributes, access restrictions, and
call gates are discussed.

Chapter 8, "Tasks and State Transitions." This chapter describes the 80286
mechanisms that support concurrent tasks. Context-switching, task state
segments, task gates, and interrupt tasks are discussed.

Chapter 9, "Interrupts, Traps and Faults." This chapter describes interrupt
and trap handling. Special attention is paid to the exception traps, or
faults, which may occur in Protected Mode. Interrupt gates, trap gates, and
the interrupt descriptor table are discussed.

Chapter 10, "System Control and Initialization." This chapter describes the
actual instructions used to implement the memory management, protection, and
task support features of the 80286. System registers, privileged
instructions, and the initial machine state are discussed.

Chapter 11, "Advanced Topics." This chapter completes Part III with a
description of several advanced topics, including special segment attributes
and pointer validation.


1.5  Related Publications

The following manuals also contain information of interest to programmers
of 80287 systems:

  Ž  Introduction to the 80286, order number 210308
  Ž  ASM286 Assembly Language Reference Manual, order number 121924
  Ž  80286 Operating System Writer's Guide, order number 121960
  Ž  80286 Hardware Reference Manual, order number 210760
  Ž  Microprocessor and Peripheral Handbook, order number 230843
  Ž  PL/M-286 User's Guide, order number 121945
  Ž  80287 Support Library Reference Manual, order number 122129
  Ž  8086 Software Toolbox Manual, order number 122203 (includes
     information about 80287 Emulator Software)


Chapter 2  80286 Base Architecture

‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘

This chapter describes the 80286 application programming environment as
seen by assembly language programmers. It is intended to introduce the
programmer to those features of the 80286 architecture that directly affect
the design and implementation of 80286 application programs.


2.1  Memory Organization and Segmentation

The main memory of an 80286 system makes up its physical address space.
This address space is organized as a sequence of 8-bit quantities, called
bytes. Each byte is assigned a unique address ranging from 0 up to a maximum
of 2^(20) (1 megabyte) in Real Address Mode, and up to 2^(24) (16 megabytes)
in Protected Mode.

A virtual address space is the organization of memory as viewed by a
program. Virtual address space is also organized in units of bytes. (Other
addressable units such as words, strings, and BCD digits are described below
in section 2.2, "Data Types.") In Real Address Mode, as with the 8086
itself, programs view physical memory directly, inasmuch as they manipulate
pure physical addresses. Thus, the virtual address space is identical to the
physical address space (1 megabyte).

In Protected Mode, however, programs have no direct access to physical
addresses. Instead, memory is viewed as a much larger virtual address space
of 2^(30) bytes (1 gigabyte). This 1 gigabyte virtual address is mapped onto
the Protected Mode's 16-megabyte physical address space by the address
translation mechanisms described in Chapter 6.

The programmer views the virtual address space on the 80286 as a collection
of up to sixteen thousand linear subspaces, each with a specified size or
length. Each of these linear address spaces is called a segment. A segment
is a logical unit of contiguous memory. Segment sizes may range from one
byte up to 64K (65,536) bytes.

80286 memory segmentation supports the logical structure of programs and
data in memory. Programs are not written as single linear sequences of
instructions and data, but rather as modules of code and data. For example,
program code may include a main routine and several separate procedures.
Data may also be organized into various data structures, some private and
some shared with other programs in the system. Run-time stacks constitute
yet another data requirement. Each of these several modules of code and
data, moreover, may be very different in size or vary dynamically with
program execution.

Segmentation supports this logical structure (see figure 2-1). Each
meaningful module of a program may be separately contained in individual
segments. The degree of modularization, of course, depends on the
requirements of a particular application. Use of segmentation benefits
almost all applications. Programs execute faster and require less space.
Segmentation also simplifies the design of structured software.


2.2  Data Types

Bytes and words are the fundamental units in which the 80286 manipulates
data, i.e., the fundamental data types.

A byte is 8 contiguous bits starting on an addressable byte boundary. The
bits are numbered 0 through 7, starting from the right. Bit 7 is the most
significant bit:

                    7                             0
                   ’‘‘‘˜‘‘‘˜‘‘‘˜‘‘‘˜‘‘‘˜‘‘‘˜‘‘‘˜‘‘‘“
                                 BYTE             
                   ”‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘•

A word is defined as two contiguous bytes starting on an arbitrary byte
boundary; a word thus contains 16 bits. The bits are numbered 0 through 15,
starting from the right. Bit 15 is the most significant bit. The byte
containing bit 0 of the word is called the low byte; the byte containing
bit 15 is called the high byte.

    15                                                             0
    ’‘‘‘˜‘‘‘˜‘‘‘˜‘‘‘˜‘‘‘˜‘‘‘˜‘‘‘˜‘‘‘˜‘‘‘˜‘‘‘˜‘‘‘˜‘‘‘˜‘‘‘˜‘‘‘˜‘‘‘˜‘‘‘“
               HIGH BYTE                      LOW BYTE            
    ”‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘•
             LOCATION N + 1                    LOCATION N

Each byte within a word has its own particular address, and the smaller of
the two addresses is used as the address of the word. The byte at this lower
address contains the eight least significant bits of the word, while the
byte at the higher address contains the eight most significant bits. The
arrangement of bytes within words is illustrated in figure 2-2.

Note that a word need not be aligned at an even-numbered byte address. This
allows maximum flexibility in data structures (e.g., records containing
mixed byte and word entries) and efficiency in memory utilization. Although
actual transfers of data between the processor and memory take place at
physically aligned word boundaries, the 80286 converts requests for
unaligned words into the appropriate sequences of requests acceptable to the
memory interface. Such odd aligned word transfers, however, may impact
performance by requiring two memory cycles to transfer the word rather than
one. Data structures (e.g., stacks) should therefore be designed in such a
way that word operands are aligned on word boundaries whenever possible for
maximum system performance. Due to instruction prefetching and queueing
within the CPU, there is no requirement for instructions to be aligned on
word boundaries and no performance loss if they are not.

Although bytes and words are the fundamental data types of operands, the
processor also supports additional interpretations on these bytes or words.
Depending on the instruction referencing the operand, the following
additional data types can be recognized:

Integer:
A signed binary numeric value contained in an 8-bit byte or a 16-bit word.
All operations assume a 2's complement representation. (Signed 32- and
64-bit integers are supported using the 80287 Numeric Data Processor.)

Ordinal:
An unsigned binary numeric value contained in an 8-bit byte or 16-bit word.

Pointer:
A 32-bit address quantity composed of a segment selector component and an
offset component. Each component is a 16-bit word.

String:
A contiguous sequence of bytes or words. A string may contain from 1 byte
to 64K bytes.

ASCII:
A byte representation of alphanumeric and control characters using the
ASCII standard of character representation.

BCD:
A byte (unpacked) representation of the decimal digits (0-9).

Packed BCD:
A byte (packed) representation of two decimal digits (0-9). One digit is
stored in each nibble of the byte.

Floating Point:
A signed 32-, 64-, or 80-bit real number representation. (Floating operands
are supported using the 80287 Numeric Processor Configuration.)

Figure 2-3 graphically represents the data types supported by the 80286.
80286 arithmetic operations may be performed on five types of numbers:
unsigned binary, signed binary (integers), unsigned packed decimal, unsigned
unpacked decimal, and floating point. Binary numbers may be 8 or 16 bits
long. Decimal numbers are stored in bytes; two digits per byte for packed
decimal, one digit per byte for unpacked decimal. The processor always
assumes that the operands specified in arithmetic instructions contain data
that represent valid numbers for the type of instruction being performed.
Invalid data may produce unpredictable results.

Unsigned binary numbers may be either 8 or 16 bits long; all bits are
considered in determining a number's magnitude. The value range of an 8-bit
unsigned binary number is 0-255; 16 bits can represent values from 0 through
65,535. Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division operations are
available for unsigned binary numbers.

Signed binary numbers (integers) may be either 8 or 16 bits long. The
high-order (leftmost) bit is interpreted as the number's sign: 0 = positive
and 1 = negative. Negative numbers are represented in standard two's
complement notation. Since the high-order bit is used for a sign, the range
of an 8-bit integer is -128 through +127; 16-bit integers may range from
-32,768 through +32,767. The value zero has a positive sign.

Separate multiplication and division operations are provided for both
signed and unsigned binary numbers. The same addition and subtraction
instructions are used with signed or unsigned binary values. Conditional
jump instructions, as well as an "interrupt on overflow" instruction, can
be used following an unsigned operation on an integer to detect overflow
into the sign bit.

Unpacked decimal numbers are stored as unsigned byte quantities. One digit
is stored in each byte. The magnitude of the number is determined from the
low-order half-byte; hexadecimal values 0-9 are valid and are interpreted as
decimal numbers. The high-order half-byte must be zero for multiplication
and division; it may contain any value for addition and subtraction.

Arithmetic on unpacked decimal numbers is performed in two steps. The
unsigned binary addition, subtraction and multiplication operations are used
to produce an intermediate result. An adjustment instruction then changes
the value to a final correct unpacked decimal number. Division is performed
similarly, except that the adjustment is carried out on the two digit
numerator operand in register AX first, followed by an unsigned binary
division instruction that produces a correct result.

Unpacked decimal numbers are similar to the ASCII character representations
of the digits 0-9. Note, however, that the high-order half-byte of an ASCII
numeral is always 3. Unpacked decimal arithmetic may be performed on ASCII
numeric characters under the following conditions:

  Ž  the high-order half-byte of an ASCII numeral must be set to 0H prior
     to multiplication or division.

  Ž  unpacked decimal arithmetic leaves the high-order half-byte set to 0H;
     it must be set to 3 to produce a valid ASCII numeral.

Packed decimal numbers are stored as unsigned byte quantities. The byte is
treated as having one decimal digit in each half-byte (nibble); the digit in
the high-order half-byte is the most significant. Values 0-9 are valid in
each half-byte, and the range of a packed decimal number is 0-99. Additions
and subtractions are performed in two steps. First, an addition or
subtraction instruction is used to produce an intermediate result. Then, an
adjustment operation is performed which changes the intermediate value to a
final correct packed decimal result. Multiplication and division
adjustments are only available for unpacked decimal numbers.

Pointers and addresses are described below in section 2.3.3, "Index,
Pointer, and Base Registers," and in section 3.8, "Address Manipulation
Instructions."

Strings are contiguous bytes or words from 1 to 64K bytes in length. They
generally contain ASCII or other character data representations. The 80286
provides string manipulation instructions to move, examine, or modify a
string (see section 3.7, "Character Translation and String Instructions").

If the 80287 numeric processor extension (NPX) is present in the system ‘‘
see the 80287 NPX book‘‘the 80286 architecture also supports floating point
numbers, 32- and 64-bit integers, and 18-digit BCD data types.

The 80287 Numeric Data Processor supports and stores real numbers in a
three-field binary format as required by IEEE standard 754 for floating
point numerics (see figure 2-3). The number's significant digits are held
in the significand field, the exponent field locates the binary point within
the significant digits (and therefore determines the number's magnitude),
and the sign field indicates whether the number is positive or negative.
(The exponent and significand are analogous to the terms "characteristic"
and "mantissa," typically used to describe floating point numbers on some
computers.) This format is used by the 80287 with various length
significands and exponents to support single precision, double precision and
extended (80-bit) precision floating point data types. Negative numbers
differ from positive numbers only in their sign bits.


Figure 2-1.  Segmented Virtual Memory

’‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ “
 20000‚ƒ      8000‚ƒ
     €CS              €         €               €   8600‚ƒ
      €      MAIN      €          €  PROCEDURE A  €       €   PROCEDURE   €
     €    PROCEDURE   €         €               €       €       B       €
     0„…         0„…      0„…
                          
      ‚ƒ     72535‚ƒ       ‚ƒ
     €DS              €         €               €       €               €
      €   DATA (MAIN)  €          €    DATA (A)   €       €    DATA (B)   €
    0„…        0„…      0„…
  2000‚ƒ
     €SS   PROCESS    €   
      €      STACK     €
    0„…   
      ‚ƒ
     €ES PROCESS-WIDE €   
      €       DATA     €
    0„…   
”‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ •
    CURRENTLY ACCESSIBLE


Figure 2-2.  Bytes and Words in Memory

BYTE
ADDRESS
All values in hexadecimal.     MEMORY VALUES
                              
       †‡
     E €                       €
       †‡
     D €                       €
       †‡
     C €          FE           €‘“
       †‡ –‘ WORD AT ADDRESS B CONTAINS FE06
     B €          06           €‘•
       †‡
     A €                       €
       †‡‘“
     9 €          1F           € –‘BYTE AT ADDRESS 9 CONTAINS 1F
       †‡‘•
     8 €                       €
       †‡
     7 €          23           €‘“
       †‡ –‘ WORD AT ADDRESS 6 CONTAINS 23OB
     6 €          OB           €‘•
       †‡
     5 €                       €
       †‡
     4 €                       €
       †‡
     3 €          74           € ‘“
       †‡‘“–‘ WORD AT ADDRESS 2 CONTAINS 74CB
     2 €          CB           € ‘•
       †‡ –‘ WORD AT ADDRESS 1 CONTAINS CB31
     1 €          31           € 
       †‡‘•
     0 €                       €
       „…


Figure 2-3.  80286/80287 Supported Data Types

                                                           +1       0
          7       0              7       0            15 14    8 7      0
   SIGNED ‚ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠƒ     UNSIGNED ‚ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠƒ       SIGNED ‚ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠƒ
     BYTE €     €         BYTE €      €         WORD €           €
          „¤…              „…              „¤¤…
  SIGN BIT•”‘‘‘‘‘‘•              ”MSB         SIGN BIT•”MSB           
           MAGNITUDE             ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•              ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•
                                 MAGNITUDE                  MAGNITUDE

                          +3      +2      +1       0
                        31            16 15             0
   SIGNED DOUBLE WORD
Supported by 80287 numeric data processor configuration. ‚ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠƒ
                       €                       €
                       „¤¤¤¤…
               SIGN BIT•”MBS                           
                       ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•
                                   MAGNITUDE

                         +7  +6  +5  +4  +3  +2  +1   0
                       63    48 47   32 31   16 15     0
     SIGNED QUAD WORD
Supported by 80287 numeric data processor configuration. ‚ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠƒ
                       €                       €
                       „¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤…
               SIGN BIT•”MSB                           
                        ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•
                                    MAGNITUDE

                          +1       0
                       15              0
         UNSIGNED WORD ‚ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠƒ
                       €           €
                       „¤¤…
                       ”MSB           
                       ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•
                           MAGNITUDE

                          +N                +1       0
                       7       0         7      0 7      0
  BINARY CODED DECIMAL ‚ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠƒ         ‚ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠƒ
         (BCD)         €      €      €            €
                       „…         „¤…
                          BCD               BCD     BCD
                        DIGIT N           DIGIT 1  DIGIT 0

                          +N                +1       0
                       7       0         7      0 7      0
                 ASCII ‚ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠƒ         ‚ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠƒ
                       €      €      €            €
                       „…         „¤…
                         ASCII              ASCII ASCII
                      CHARACTER[N]   CHARACTER{1} CHARACTER{0}

                          +N                +1       0
                       7       0         7      0 7      0
            PACKED BCD ‚ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠƒ         ‚ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠƒ
                       €      €      €            €
                       „…         „¤…
                       ”‘‘‘•                         ”‘‘‘•
                       MOST                          LEAST
                       SIGNIFICANT             SIGNIFICANT
                       DIGIT                         DIGIT

                          +N                +1       0
                       7/15    0         7/15   0 7/15   0
                STRING ‚ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠƒ         ‚ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠƒ
                       €      €      €            €
                       „…         „¤…
                      BYTE/WORD N       BYTE/WORD BYTE/WORD
                                            1         0

                          +3      +2      +1       0
                       31            16 15             0
               POINTER ‚ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠƒ
                       €                       €
                       „¤¤¤¤…
                       ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘™‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•
                            SELECTOR        OFFSET

                         +9  +8  +7  +6  +5  +4  +3  +2  +1   0
                       79                                       0
       FLOATING POINT
Supported by 80287 numeric data processor configuration. ‚ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠƒ
                       €                             €
                       „¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤…
               SIGN BIT•”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘™‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•
                          EXPONENT           MAGNITUDE


2.3  Registers

The 80286 contains a total of fourteen registers that are of interest to
the application programmer. (Five additional registers used by system
programmers are covered in section 10.1.) As shown in figure 2-4, these
registers may be grouped into four basic categories:

  Ž  General registers. These eight 16-bit general-purpose registers are
     used primarily to contain operands for arithmetic and logical
     operations.

  Ž  Segment registers. These four special-purpose registers determine, at
     any given time, which segments of memory are currently addressable.

  Ž  Status and Control registers. These three special-purpose registers
     are used to record and alter certain aspects of the 80286 processor
     state.


2.3.1  General Registers

The general registers of the 80286 are the 16-bit registers AX, BX, CX, DX,
SP, BP, SI, and DI. These registers are used interchangeably to contain the
operands of logical and arithmetic operations.

Some instructions and addressing modes (see section 2.4), however, dedicate
certain general registers to specific uses. BX and BP are often used to
contain the base address of data structures in memory (for example, the
starting address of an array); for this reason, they are often referred to
as the base registers. Similarly, SI and DI are often used to contain an
index value that will be incremented to step through a data structure; these
two registers are called the index registers. Finally, SP and BP are used
for stack manipulation. Both SP and BP normally contain offsets into the
current stack. SP generally contains the offset of the top of the stack and
BP contains the offset or base address of the current stack frame. The use
of these general-purpose registers for operand addressing is discussed in
section 2.3.3, "Index, Pointer, and Base Registers." Register usage for
individual instructions is discussed in chapters 3 and 4.

As shown in figure 2-4, eight byte registers overlap four of the 16-bit
general registers. These registers are named AH, BH, CH, and DH (high
bytes); and AL, BL, CL, and DL (low bytes); they overlap AX, BX, CX, and DX.
These registers can be used either in their entirety or as individual 8-bit
registers. This dual interpretation simplifies the handling of both 8- and
16-bit data elements.


Figure 2-4.  80286 Base Architecture Register Set

                      16-BIT                 SPECIAL
                     REGISTER                REGISTER
                       NAME                  FUNCTIONS
GENERAL REGISTERS           7    0 7    0
                      ’‘   ‚Šƒ‘“
                       AX €  AH    AL  € 
                 BYTE     Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā –‘MULTIPLY/DIVIDE
          ADDRESSABLE  DX €  DH    DL  €  I/O INSTRUCTIONS
               (8-BIT‘—    Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘ĀĮ
             REGISTER  CX €  CH    CL  € –‘LOOP/SHIFT/REPEAT COUNT
                NAMES     Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘ĀĮ
               SHOWN)  BX €  BH    BL  € 
                      ”‘   Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘™‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā –‘BASE REGISTERS
                        BP €             € 
                           Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘ĀĮ
                        SI €             € 
                           Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā –‘INDEX REGISTERS
                        DI €             € 
                           Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘ĀĮ
                        SP €             € –‘STACK POINTER
                           „…‘•
                            15          0

SEGMENT REGISTERS           15          0
                           ‚ƒ
                        CS €             € CODE SEGMENT SELECTOR
                           Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                        DS €             € DATA SEGMENT SELECTOR
                           Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                        SS €             € STACK SEGMENT SELECTOR
                           Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                        ES €             € EXTRA SEGMENT SELECTOR
                           „…

STATUS AND CONTROL          15          0
    REGISTERS              ‚ƒ
                         F €             € FLAGS
                           Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                        IP €             € INSTRUCTION POINTER
                           Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                       MSW €             € MACHINE STATUS WORD
                           „…


2.3.2  Memory Segmentation and Segment Registers

Complete programs generally consist of many different code modules (or
segments), and different types of data segments. However, at any given time
during program execution, only a small subset of a program's segments are
actually in use. Generally, this subset will include code, data, and
possibly a stack. The 80286 architecture takes advantage of this by
providing mechanisms to support direct access to the working set of a
program's execution environment and access to additional segments on
demand.

At any given instant, four segments of memory are immediately accessible to
an executing 80286 program. The segment registers DS, ES, SS, and CS are
used to identify these four current segments. Each of these registers
specifies a particular kind of segment, as characterized by the associated
mnemonics ("code," "stack," "data," or "extra") shown in figure 2-4.

An executing program is provided with concurrent access to the four
individual segments of memory‘‘a code segment, a stack segment, and two
data segments‘‘by means of the four segment registers. Each may be said to
select a segment, since it uniquely determines the one particular segment
from among the numerous segments in memory, which is to be immediately
accessible at highest speed. Thus, the 16-bit contents of a segment register
is called a segment selector.

Once a segment is selected, a base address is associated with it. To
address an element within a segment, a 16-bit offset from the segment's base
address must be supplied. The 16-bit segment selector and the 16-bit offset
taken together form the high and low order halves, respectively, of a
32-bit virtual address pointer. Once a segment is selected, only the lower
16-bits of the pointer, called the offset, generally need to be specified by
an instruction. Simple rules define which segment register is used to form
an address when only a 16-bit offset is specified.

An executing program requires, first of all, that its instructions reside
somewhere in memory. The segment of memory containing the currently
executing sequence of instructions is known as the current code segment; it
is specified by means of the CS register. All instructions are fetched from
this code segment, using as an offset the contents of the instruction
pointer (IP). The CS:IP register combination therefore forms the full 32-bit
pointer for the next sequential program instruction. The CS register is
manipulated indirectly. Transitions from one code segment to another (e.g.,
a procedure call) are effected implicitly as the result of control-transfer
instructions, interrupts, and trap operations.

Stacks play a fundamental role in the 80286 architecture; subroutine calls,
for example, involve a number of implicit stack operations. Thus, an
executing program will generally require a region of memory for its stack.
The segment containing this region is known as the current stack segment,
and it is specified by means of the SS register. All stack operations are
performed within this segment, usually in terms of address offsets contained
in the stack pointer (SP) and stack frame base (BP) registers. Unlike CS,
the SS register can be loaded explicitly for dynamic stack definition.

Beyond their code and stack requirements, most programs must also fetch and
store data in memory. The DS and ES registers allow the specification of two
data segments, each addressable by the currently executing program.
Accessibility to two separate data areas supports differentiation and
access requirements like local procedure data and global process data. An
operand within a data segment is addressed by specifying its offset either
directly in an instruction or indirectly via index and/or base registers
(described in the next subsection).

Depending on the data structure (e.g., the way data is parceled into one or
more segments), a program may require access to multiple data segments. To
access additional segments, the DS and ES registers can be loaded under
program control during the course of a program's execution. This simply
requires loading the appropriate data pointer prior to accessing the data.

The interpretation of segment selector values depends on the operating mode
of the processor. In Real Address Mode, a segment selector is a physical
address (figure 2-5). In Protected Mode, a segment selector selects a
segment of the user's virtual address space (figure 2-6). An intervening
level of logical-to-physical address translation converts the logical
address to a physical memory address. Chapter 6, "Memory Management,"
provides a detailed discussion of Protected Mode addressing. In general,
considerations of selector formats and the details of memory mapping need
not concern the application programmer.


2.3.3  Index, Pointer, and Base Registers

Five of the general-purpose registers are available for offset address
calculations. These five registers, shown in figure 2-4, are SP, BP, BX,
SI, and DI. SP is called a pointer register; BP and BX are called base
registers; SI and DI are called index registers.

As described in the previous section, segment registers define the set of
four segments currently addressable by a program. A pointer, base, or index
register may contain an offset value relative to the start of one of these
segments; it thereby points to a particular operand's location within that
segment. To allow for efficient computations of effective address offsets,
all base and index registers may participate interchangeably as operands in
most arithmetical operations.

Stack operations are facilitated by the stack pointer (SP) and stack frame
base (BP) registers. By specifying offsets into the current stack segment,
each of these registers provides access to data on the stack. The SP
register is the customary top-of-stack pointer, addressing the uppermost
datum on a push-down stack. It is referenced implicitly by PUSH and POP
operations, subroutine calls, and interrupt operations. The BP register
provides yet another offset into the stack segment. The existence of this
stack relative base register, in conjunction with certain addressing modes
described in section 2.4.3, is particularly useful for accessing data
structures, variables and dynamically allocated work space within the stack.

Stacks in the 80286 are implemented in memory and are located by the stack
segment register (SS) and the stack pointer register (SP). A system may have
an unlimited number of stacks, and a stack may be up to 64K bytes long, the
maximum length of a segment.

One stack is directly addressable at a time; this is the current stack,
often referred to simply as "the" stack. SP contains the current top of the
stack (TOS). In other words, SP contains the offset to the top of the push
down stack from the stack segment's base address. Note, however, that the
stack's base address (contained in SS) is not the "bottom" of the stack
(figure 2-7).

80286 stack entries are 16 bits wide. Instructions operate on the stack by
adding and removing stack items one word at a time. An item is pushed onto
the stack (see figure 2-8) by decrementing SP by 2 and writing the item at
the new TOS. An item is popped off the stack by copying it from TOS and then
incrementing SP by 2. In other words, the stack grows down in memory toward
its base address. Stack operations never move items on the stack; nor do
they erase them. The top of the stack changes only as a result of updating
the stack pointer.

The stack frame base pointer (BP) is often used to access elements on the
stack relative to a fixed point on the stack rather than relative to the
current TOS. It typically identifies the base address of the current
stack frame established for the current procedure (figure 2-9). If an index
register is used relative to BP (e.g., base + index addressing mode using BP
as the base), the offset will be calculated automatically in the current
stack segment.

Accessing data structures in data segments is facilitated by the BX
register, which has the same function in addressing operands within data
segments that BP does for stack segments. They are called base registers
because they may contain an offset to the base of a data structure. The
similar usage of these two registers is especially important when discussing
addressing modes (see section 2.4, "Addressing Modes").

Operations on data are also facilitated by the SI and DI registers. By
specifying an offset relative to the start of the currently addressable data
segment, an index register can be used to address an operand in the segment.
If an index register is used in conjunction with the BX base register
(i.e., base + index addressing) to form an offset address, the data is also
assumed to reside in the current data segment. As a rule, data referenced
through an index register or BX is presumed to reside in the current data
segment. That is, if an instruction invokes addressing for one of its
operands using either BX, DI, SI, or BX with SI or DI, the contents of the
register(s) (BX, DI, or SI) implicitly specify an offset in the current data
segment. As previously mentioned, data referenced via SP, BP or BP with SI
or DI implicitly specify an operand in the current stack segment (refer to
table 2-1).

There are two exceptions to the rules listed above. The first concerns the
operation of certain 80286 string instructions. For the most flexibility,
these instructions assume that the DI register addresses destination strings
not in the data segment, but rather in the extra segment (ES register).
This allows movement of strings between different segments. This has led to
the descriptive names "source index" and "destination index." In all cases
other than string instructions, however, the SI and DI registers may be used
interchangeably to reference either source or destination operands.

A second more general override capability allows the programmer complete
control of which segment is used for a specific operation. Segment-override
prefixes, discussed in section 2.4.3, allow the index and base registers to
address data in any of the four currently addressable segments.


Table 2-1. Implied Segment Usage by Index, Pointer, and Base Registers

 Register            Implied Segment
 SP                  SS
 BP                  SS
 BX                  DS
 DI                  DS, ES for String Operations
 BP + SI, DI         SS
 BX + SI, DI         DS

‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘
NOTE
  All implied Segment usage, except SP to SS and DI to ES for String
  Operations, may be explicitly specified with a segment override prefix for
  any of the four segments. The prefix precedes the instruction for which
  explicit reference is desired.
‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘


Figure 2-5.  Real Address Mode Segment Selector Interpretation

                                       ‚ƒ‘“
                                       €               € 
                                       €               € 
                                     ’‘†‡   1 MEGABYTE
              SEGMENT     64K BYTES ‘— €     SEG 1     € –‘ PHYSICAL
             ’‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘”‘†‡   ADDRESS
                  BASE ADDRESS        €               €   SPACE
                                      €               € 
       ‚¤Šƒ           €               € 
       €  SELECTOR   0000 €           „…‘•
       „¤…

‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘
NOTES:
  1. The selector inentifies a segment in physical memory.
  2. A selector specifies the segments base address, Modulo 16, within
     the 1 Megabyte address space.
  3. The selector is the 16 most significant bits of a segments physical
     base address.
  4. The values of selectors determines the amount they overlap in real
     memory.
  5. Segments may overlap by increments of 16 bytes. Overlap ranges from
     complete (SEG 1 = SEG 1) to none (SEG 1 Ļ SEG 2 ± 64K).
‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘


Figure 2-6.  Protected Mode Segment Selector Interpretation

                                        ‚ƒ‘“
                                        €  SEG 3FFF  € 
                                        †‡ 
                                        €  SEG 3FFE  € 
           ’‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘†‡ 
   ‚¤ƒ                     €  SEG 3FFD  € 
   €   SELECTOR   €                   ’‘†‡ 
   „…    1 TO 64K BYTES‘— €  SEG 3FFC  € 
                                      ”‘†‡ 
                                        €  SEG 3FFB  € 
                                        †‡   1 GIGABYTE
                                        ø            ø –‘ VIRTUAL
                                        †‡   ADDRESS
                                        €   SEG 4    €   SPACE
                                        †‡ 
                                        €   SEG 3    € 
                                        †‡ 
                                        €   SEG 2    € 
                                        †‡ 
                                        €   SEG 1    € 
                                        †‡ 
                                        €   SEG 0    € 
                                        „…‘•

‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘
NOTES:
  1. A selector uniquely identifies (names) one of 16K possible segments
     in the task's virtual address space.
  2. The selector value does not specify the segment's location in
     physical memory.
  3. The selector does not imply any overlap with other segments (This
     depends on the base address of the segment via the memory management
     and protection information).
‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘


Figure 2-7.  80286 Stack

                          ‚ƒ     LOGICAL
                          €                 €‘‘‘ BOTTOM OF STACK
                          †‡     (initial SP value)
                          €                 €
                          †‡
                          €                 €
                          †‡
                          €                 €    POP-UP
                          †‡  
             ’‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘€                 €‘‘‘ LOGICAL TOP OF STACK
                         †‡  
                         €                 €    PUSH-DOWN
  ‚Š¤ƒ         €                 €
  €  SS    SP  €         €                 €
  „Š¤…         €                 €
                         €                 €
                         €                 €
                         €                 €
     ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘„…  STACK SEGMENT BASE ADDRESS


Figure 2-8.  Stack Operation

  STACK OPERATION FOR CODE SEQUENCE:
  PUSH AX                                    STACK
  POP AX                                    SEGMENT
  POP BX         ’‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“                    
                 EXISTING STACK         Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā    BOTTOM
                  BEFORE PUSH      1062 € 0 0 0 0 €      OF
                 ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•         Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā    STACK
                                     1060 € 1 1 1 1 €
                                          Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                     105E € 2 2 2 2 €
                                          Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                     105C € 3 3 3 3 €
                                          Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                     105A € 4 4 4 4 €
                                          Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                   ’‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘  1058 € 5 5 5 5 €
  SS                  SP                 Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā‘“
  ‚Š¤ƒ            1056 € 6 6 6 6 € 
  € SELECTOR   OFFSET  €                 Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā   NOT
  „Š¤…            1054 € 7 7 7 7 € –‘ PRESENTLY
                                         Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā   USED
                                    1052 € 8 8 8 8 € 
                                         Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā‘•
                                    1050 € 9 9 9 9 €
                                         ø         ø
       ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘  0000 Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                                   

                                             STACK
                                            SEGMENT
                                                   
                                          Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                     1062 € 0 0 0 0 €
                                          Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                     1060 € 1 1 1 1 €
                                          Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                     105E € 2 2 2 2 €
                                          Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                     105C € 3 3 3 3 €
                                          Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                     105A € 4 4 4 4 €  PUSH AX
                                          Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā‚ƒ
                   ’‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘  1058 € 5 5 5 5 €€ A A A A €
  SS                  SP                 Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā„Š…
  ‚Š¤ƒ            1056 € A A A A €‘‘•
  € SELECTOR   OFFSET  €                 Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
  „Š¤…            1054 € 7 7 7 7 €
                                         Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                    1052 € 8 8 8 8 €
                                         Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                    1050 € 9 9 9 9 €
                                         ø         ø
       ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘  0000 Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                                   

                                             STACK
                                            SEGMENT
                                                   
                                          Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                     1062 € 0 0 0 0 €
                                          Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                     1060 € 1 1 1 1 €
                                          Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                     105E € 2 2 2 2 €
                                          Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā   POP BX
                                     105C € 3 3 3 3 € ‚ƒ
                                          Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā € 5 5 5 5 €
                                     105A € 4 4 4 4 € „…
                                          Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā      
                   ’‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘  1058 € 5 5 5 5 €‘‘‘‘‘‘•
  SS                  SP                 Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
  ‚Š¤ƒ            1056 € A A A A €‘‘‘‘‘‘“
  € SELECTOR   OFFSET  €                 Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā      
  „Š¤…            1054 € 7 7 7 7 € ‚ƒ
                                         Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā € A A A A €
                                    1052 € 8 8 8 8 € „…
                                         Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā   POP AX
                                    1050 € 9 9 9 9 €
                                         ø         ø
       ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘  0000 Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                                   


Figure 2-9.  BP Usage as a Stack Frame Base Pointer

BP is a constant pointer to stack based variables and work space. All
references use BP and are independent of SP, which may vary during a routine
execution.

PROC N
  PUSH AX
  PUSH ARRAY_SIZE
  CALL PROC_N 1 ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘ PROC_N+1
                ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“    PUSH BP
                            PUSH CX
                            MOVE BP, SP
                            SUB SP, WORK_SPACE
                                 Ø
                                 Ø
                                 Ø
                           "PROCEDURE BODY"
                                 Ø
                                 Ø
                                 Ø
                            MOV SP, BP
                            POP CX
                            POP BP
                        ”‘‘‘ RET

                                           
                              †‡‘“
                              €  PARAMETERS € 
                              Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
                              € RETURN ADDR € 
                              Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā –‘PROCEDURE N
              ‚  ƒ          €  REGISTERS  €  STACK FRAME
                BP  ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
              „  …          €             €   PROCEDURE
                             €  WORK_SPACE €   N+1 STACK
                     BOTTOM  Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘ĀĮ    FRAME
                     OF      €  PARAMETERS € –‘‘‘‘‘‘•
                     STACK   Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā  DYNAMICALLY
                              € RETURN ADDR €  ALLOCATED
                              Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā  ON DEMAND
              ‚ƒ          €  REGISTERS  €  RATHER THAN
              € BP Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā “STATICALLY
              „…          €             € –‘‘‘‘‘•
                              €  WORK_SPACE € 
                ’‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā‘•• ‘‘‘“
                –‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘€             €    TOP OF STACK
     ‚Š¤ƒ          €             €
     €  SS    SP  €          „… STACK SEGMENT BASE
     „¤…


2.3.4  Status and Control Registers

Two status and control registers are of immediate concern to applications
programmers: the instruction pointer and the FLAGS registers.

The instruction pointer register (IP) contains the offset address, relative
to the start of the current code segment, of the next sequential instruction
to be executed. Together, the CS:IP registers thus define a 32-bit
program-counter. The instruction pointer is not directly visible to the
programmer; it is controlled implicitly, by interrupts, traps, and
control-transfer operations.

The FLAGS register encompasses eleven flag fields, mostly one-bit wide, as
shown in figure 2-10. Six of the flags are status flags that record
processor status information. The status flags are affected by the execution
of arithmetic and logical instructions. The carry flag is also modifiable
with instructions that will clear, set or complement this flag bit. See
Chapters 3 and 4.

The carry flag (CF) generally indicates a carry or borrow out of the most
significant bit of an 8- or 16-bit operand after performing an arithmetic
operation; this flag is also useful for bit manipulation operations
involving the shift and rotate instructions. The effect on the remaining
status flags, when defined for a particular instruction, is generally as
follows: the zero flag (ZF) indicates a zero result when set; the sign flag
(SF) indicates whether the result was negative (SF=1) or positive (SF=0);
when set, the overflow flag (OF) indicates whether an operation results in
a carry into the high order bit of the result but not a carry out of the
high-order bit, or vice versa; the parity flag (PF) indicates whether the
modulo 2 sum of the low-order eight bits of the operation is even (PF=0) or
odd (PF=1) parity. The auxiliary carry flag (AF) represents a carry out of
or borrow into the least significant 4-bit digit when performing binary
coded decimal (BCD) arithmetic.

The FLAGS register also contains three control flags that are used, under
program control, to direct certain processor operations. The
interrupt-enable flag (IF), if set, enables external interrupts; otherwise,
interrupts are disabled. The trap flag (TF), if set, puts the processor
into a single-step mode for debugging purposes where the target program is
automatically interrupted to a user supplied debug routine after the
execution of each target program instruction. The direction flag (DF)
controls the forward or backward direction of string operations: 0 = forward
or auto increment the address register(s) (SI, DI or SI and DI),
1 = backward or auto-decrement the address register(s) (SI, DI or SI
and DI).

In general, the interrupt enable flag may be set or reset with special
instructions (STI = set, CLI = clear) or by placing the flags on the stack,
modifying the stack, and returning the flag image from the stack to the flag
register. If operating in Protected Mode, the ability to alter the IF bit
is subject to protection checks to prevent non-privileged programs from
effecting the interrupt state of the CPU. This applies to both instruction
and stack options for modifying the IF bit.

The TF flag may only be modified by copying the flag register to the stack,
setting the TF bit in the stack image, and returning the modified stack
image to the flag register. The trap interrupt occurs on completion of the
next instruction. Entry to the single step routine saves the flag register
on the stack with the TF bit set, and resets the TF bit in the register.
After completion of the single step routine, the TF bit is automatically set
on return to the program being single stepped to interrupt the program again
after completion of the next instruction. Use of TF is not inhibited by the
protection mechanism in Protected Mode.

The DF flag, like the IF flag, is controlled by instructions (CLD = clear,
STD = set) or flag register modification through the stack. Typically,
routines that use string instructions will save the flags on the stack,
modify DF as necessary via the instructions provided, and restore DF to its
original state by restoring the Flag register from the stack before
returning. Access or control of the DF flag is not inhibited by the
protection mechanism in Protected Mode.

The Special Fields bits are only relevant in Protected Mode. Real Address
Mode programs should treat these bits as don't-care's, making no assumption
about their status. Attempts to modify the IOPL and NT fields are subject to
protection checking in Protected Mode. In general, the application's
programmer will not be able to and should not attempt to modify these bits.
(See section 10.3, "Privileged and Trusted Instructions" for more details.)


Figure 2-10.  Flags Register

    STATUS FLAGS:
     CARRY‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“
     PARITY‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“     
     AUXILLIARY CARRY‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“          
     ZERO‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“               
     SIGN‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“                 
     OVERFLOW‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“                            
                                                     
              15 14 13 1211 10  9  8 7 6  5 4  3 2  1 0
            ‚ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠƒ
      FLAGS:€œœNTIOPL OFDFIFTFSFZFœœAFœœPFœœCF€
            „¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤…
                               
                                         CONTROL FLAGS:
                               ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘TRAP FLAG
                             ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘INTERRUPT ENABLE
                           ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘DIRECTION FLAG
                                            SPECIAL FIELDS:
                    ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘I/O PRIVILEGE LEVEL
                 ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘NESTED TASK FLAG


2.4  Addressing Modes

The information encoded in an 80286 instruction includes a specification of
the operation to be performed, the type of the operands to be manipulated,
and the location of these operands. If an operand is located in memory, the
instruction must also select, explicitly or implicitly, which of the
currently addressable segments contains the operand. This section covers the
operand addressing mechanisms; 80286 operators are discussed in Chapter 3.

The five elements of a general instruction are briefly described below. The
exact format of 80286 instructions is specified in Appendix B.

  Ž  The opcode is present in all instructions; in fact, it is the only
     required element. Its principal function is the specification of the
     operation performed by the instruction.

  Ž  A register specifier.

  Ž  The addressing mode specifier, when present, is used to specify the
     addressing mode of an operand for referencing data or performing
     indirect calls or jumps.

  Ž  The displacement, when present, is used to compute the effective
     address of an operand in memory.

  Ž  The immediate operand, when present, directly specifies one operand of
     the instruction.

Of the four elements, only one, the opcode, is always present. The other
elements may or may not be present, depending on the particular operation
involved and on the location and type of the operands.


2.4.1  Operands

Generally speaking, an instruction is an operation performed on zero, one,
or two operands, which are the data manipulated by the instruction. An
operand can be located either in a register (AX, BX, CX, DX, SI, DI, SP, or
BP in the case of 16-bit operands; AH, AL, BH, BL, CH, CL, DH, or DL in the
case of 8-bit operands; the FLAG register for flag operations in the
instruction itself (as an immediate operand)), or in memory or an I/O port.
Immediate operands and operands in registers can be accessed more rapidly
than operands in memory since memory operands must be fetched from memory
while immediate and register operands are available in the processor.

An 80286 instruction can reference zero, one, or two operands. The three
forms are as follows:

  Ž  Zero-operand instructions, such as RET, NOP, and HLT. Consult Appendix
     B.

  Ž  One-operand instructions, such as INC or DEC. The location of the
     single operand can be specified implicitly, as in AAM (where the
     register AX contains the operand), or explicitly, as in INC (where
     the operand can be in any register or memory location). Explicitly
     specified operands are accessed via one of the addressing modes
     described in section 2.4.2.

  Ž  Two operand instructions such as MOV, ADD, XOR, etc., generally
     overwrite one of the two participating operands with the result. A
     distinction can thus be made between the source operand (the one left
     unaffected by the operation) and the destination operand (the one
     overwritten by the result). Like one-operand instructions, two-operand
     instructions can specify the location of operands either explicitly or
     implicitly. If an instruction contains two explicitly specified
     operands, only one of them‘‘either the source or the destination‘‘can
     be in a register or memory location. The other operand must be in a
     register or be an immediate source operand. Special cases of
     two-operand instructions are the string instructions and stack
     manipulation. Both operands of some string instructions are in memory
     and are explicitly specified. Push and pop stack operations allow
     transfer between memory operands and the memory based stack.

Thus, the two-operand instructions of the 80286 permit operations of the
following sort:

  Ž  Register-to-register
  Ž  Register-to-memory
  Ž  Memory-to-register
  Ž  Immediate-to-register
  Ž  Immediate-to-memory
  Ž  Memory-to-memory

Instructions can specify the location of their operands by means of eight
addressing modes, which are described in sections 2.4.2 and 2.4.3.


2.4.2  Register and Immediate Modes

Two addressing modes are used to reference operands contained in registers
and instructions:

  Ž  Register Operand Mode. The operand is located in one of the 16-bit
     registers (AX, BX, CX, DX, SI, DI, SP, or BP) or in one of the 8-bit
     general registers (AH, BH, CH, DH, AL, BL, CL, or DL).

Special instructions are also included for referencing the CS, DS, ES, SS,
and Flag registers as operands also.

  Ž  Immediate Operand Mode. The operand is part of the instruction itself
     (the immediate operand element).


2.4.3  Memory Addressing Modes

Six modes are used to access operands in memory. Memory operands are
accessed by means of a pointer consisting of a segment selector (see section
2.3.2) and an offset, which specifies the operand's displacement in bytes
from the beginning of the segment in which it resides. Both the segment
selector component and the offset component are 16-bit values. (See section
2.1 for a discussion of segmentation.) Only some instructions use a full
32-bit address.

Most memory references do not require the instruction to specify a full
32-bit pointer address. Operands that are located within one of the
currently addressable segments, as determined by the four segment registers
(see section 2.3.2, "Segment Registers"), can be referenced very
efficiently simply by means of the 16-bit offset. This form of address is
called by short address. The choice of segment (CS, DS, ES, or SS) is either
implicit within the instruction itself or explicitly specified by means of
a segment override prefix (see below).

See figure 2-11 for a diagram of the addressing process.


2.4.3.1  Segment Selection

All instructions that address operands in memory must specify the segment
and the offset. For speed and compact instruction encoding, segment
selectors are usually stored in the high speed segment registers. An
instruction need specify only the desired segment register and an offset in
order to address a memory operand.

Most instructions need not explicitly specify which segment register is
used. The correct segment register is automatically chosen according to the
rules of table 2-1 and table 2-2. These rules follow the way programs are
written (see figure 2-12) as independent modules that require areas for
code and data, a stack, and access to external data areas.

There is a close connection between the type of memory reference and the
segment in which that operand resides (see the next section for a
discussion of how memory addressing mode calculations are performed). As a
rule, a memory reference implies the current data segment (i.e., the
implicit segment selector is in DS) unless the BP register is involved in
the address specification, in which case the current stack segment is
implied (i.e, SS contains the selector).

The 80286 instruction set defines special instruction prefix elements (see
Appendix B). One of these is SEG, the segment-override prefix.
Segment-override prefixes allow an explicit segment selection. Only in two
special cases‘‘namely, the use of DI to reference destination strings in
the ES segment, and the use of SP to reference stack locations in the SS
segment‘‘is there an implied segment selection which cannot be overridden.
The format of segment override prefixes is shown in Appendix B.


Table 2-2 Segment Register Selection Rules

Memory Reference       Segment Register     Implicit Segment
 Needed                 Used                 Selection Rule

Instructions            Code (CS)            Automatic with
                                             instruction prefetch.

Stack                   Stack (SS)           All stack pushes and
                                             pops. Any memory reference
                                             which uses BP as a base
                                             register.

Local Data              Data (DS)            All data references
                                             except when relative to
                                             stack or string destination.

External (Global)       Extra (ES)           Alternate data segment
 Data                                        and destination of string
                                             operation.


Figure 2-11.  Two-Component Address

                                                         
              POINTER                       €             €
     ’‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘™‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“              †‡‘“
     ‚Šƒ              €             € 
     €  SEGMENT    OFFSET   €              €             € 
     „¤…              €             € 
      31       16 15        0               Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
      ”‘‘‘‘˜‘‘‘‘• ”‘‘‘‘˜‘‘‘‘•               €   OPERAND   €   SELECTED
                                          €   SELECTED  € –‘ SEGMENT
                      ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
                                           €             € 
                                           €             € 
                                           €             € 
                                           €             € 
           ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘†‡‘•
                                            €             €
                                               MEMORY    


2.4.3.2  Offset Computation

The offset within the desired segment is calculated in accordance with the
desired addressing mode. The offset is calculated by taking the sum of up to
three components:

  Ž  the displacement element in the instruction
  Ž  the base (contents of BX or BP‘‘a base register)
  Ž  the index (contents of SI or DI‘‘an index register)

Each of the three components of an offset may be either a positive or
negative value. Offsets are calculated modulo 2^(16).

The six memory addressing modes are generated using various combinations of
these three components. The six modes are used for accessing different types
of data stored in memory:

addressing mode                        offset calculation
direct address                         displacement alone
register indirect                      base or index alone
based                                  base + displacement
indexed                                index + displacement
based indexed                          base + index
based indexed with displacement        base + index + disp

In all six modes, the operand is located at the specified offset within the
selected segment. All displacements, except direct address mode, are
optionally 8- or 16-bit values. 8-bit displacements are automatically
sign-extended to 16 bits. The six addressing modes are described and
demonstrated in the following section on memory addressing modes.


Figure 2-12.  Use of Memory Segmentation

                                              ’‘ ‘‘ ‘“
                                              ‚ƒ
                                              € CODE €
                                              Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘Ā  MODULE A
                                              € DATA €
                                              „…
            CPU                                     
       ’‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“                          ‚ƒ
        ‚ƒ                           € CODE €
        € CODE  Ƒš‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘Ā  MODULE B
        Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā                           € DATA €
        € DATA  Ƒš‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘„…
        Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā                                 
        € STACK Ƒš‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“          ‚ƒ
        Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā                          €      €  PROCESS STACK
        € EXTRA Ƒš‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“   ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘„…
        „…                                
         SEGMENT                           ‚ƒ  PROCESS
        REGISTERS                          €      €  DATA
       ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•           ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘„…  BLOCK 1
                                                    
                                              ‚ƒ  PROCESS
                                              €      €  DATA
                                              „…  BLOCK 2
                                              ”‘ ‘‘ ‘•
                                               MEMORY


2.4.3.3  Memory Mode

Two modes are used for simple scalar operands located in memory:

  Ž  Direct Address Mode. The offset of the operand is contained in the
     instruction as the displacement element. The offset is a 16-bit
     quantity.

  Ž  Register Indirect Mode. The offset of the operand is in one of the
     registers SI, DI, or BX. (BP is excluded; if BP is used as a stack
     frame base, it requires an index or displacement component to reference
     either parameters passed on the stack or temporary variables allocated
     on the stack. The instruction level bit encoding for the BP only
     address mode is used to specify Direct Address mode.)

The following four modes are used for accessing complex data structures in
memory (see figure 2-13):

  Ž  Based Mode. The operand is located within the selected segment at an
     offset computed as the sum of the displacement and the contents of a
     base register (BX or BP). Based mode is often used to access the same
     field in different copies of a structure (often called a record). The
     base register points to the base of the structure (hence the term
     "base" register), and the displacement selects a particular field.
     Corresponding fields within a collection of structures can be accessed
     simply by changing the base register. (See figure 2-13, example 1.)

  Ž  Indexed Mode. The operand is located within the selected segment at an
     offset computed as the sum of the displacement and the contents of an
     index register (SI or DI). Indexed mode is often used to access
     elements in a static array (e.g., an array whose starting location is
     fixed at translation time). The displacement locates the beginning of
     the array, and the value of the index register selects one element.
     Since all array elements are the same length, simple arithmetic on the
     index register will select any element. (See figure 2-13, example 2.)

  Ž  Based Indexed Mode. The operand is located within the selected segment
     at an offset computed as the sum of the base register's contents and an
     index register's contents. Based Indexed mode is often used to access
     elements of a dynamic array (i.e., an array whose base address can
     change during execution). The base register points to the base of the
     array, and the value of the index register is used to select one
     element. (See figure 2-13, example 3.)

  Ž  Based Indexed Mode with Displacement. The operand is located with the
     selected segment at an offset computed as the sum of a base register's
     contents, an index register's contents, and the displacement. This mode
     is often used to access elements of an array within a structure. For
     example, the structure could be an activation record (i.e., a region
     of the stack containing the register contents, parameters, and
     variables associated with one instance of a procedure); and one
     variable could be an array. The base register points to the start of
     the activation record, the displacement expresses the distance from the
     start of the record to the beginning of the array variable, and the
     index register selects a particular element of the array. (See figure
     2-13, example 4.)

Table 2-3 gives a summary of all memory operand addressing options.


Table 2-3. Memory Operand Addressing Modes

Addressing Mode                  Offset Calculation

Direct                           16-bit Displacement in the instruction
Register Indirect                BX, SI, DI
Based                            (BX or BP) + Displacement
The displacement can be a 0, 8 or 16-bit value.
Indexed                          (SI or DI) + Displacement
The displacement can be a 0, 8 or 16-bit value.
Based Indexed                    (BX or BP) + (SI or DI)
Based Indexed + Displacement     (BX or BP) + (SI or DI) + Displacement
The displacement can be a 0, 8 or 16-bit value.


Figure 2-13. Complex Addressing Modes

1. BASED MODE                         2. INDEXED MODE

MOV AX, [BP + DATE_CODE]              MOV ID[SI], DX
ADD[BX + BALANCE], CX                 SUB BX, DATA_TBL[SI]

                                                                    F
                  †‡‘“                       †‡‘“ I
                  €           €                        €           €  X
‚ƒ     Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā      ‚ƒ     Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā  E
€   DISPL   Ƒ‘‘‘€  OPERAND  € –‘    €   INDEX   Ƒ‘‘‘€  OPERAND  € –‘D
„…     Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā      „…     Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
      +           €           €            +           €           €  A
‚ƒ ’‘‘Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā‘•     ‚ƒ ’‘‘Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā‘• R
€   BASE    Ƒ•   €           €       €   DISPL   Ƒ•   €           €   R
„…     €           €       „…     €           €   A
      +           €           €             +           €           €   Y
‚ƒ     €           €       ‚ƒ     €           €
€  SEGMENT  Ƒ‘‘‘„…       €  SEGMENT  Ƒ‘‘‘„…
„…                         „…

3. BASED INDEXED                      4. BASED INDEXED MODE
                                         WITH DISPLACEMENT             BASED
MOV DX, [BP][DI]                                                   STRUCTURE
AND [BX + SI], 3FFH                   MOV CX, [BP][SI + CNT]      CONTAINING
                                      SHR[BX + DI + MASK]              ARRAY
                                B                                    ”‘“
                  †‡‘“ A                     †‡   ‘‘“
                  €           €  S                     €           €     
‚ƒ     Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā  E   ‚ƒ     Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā‘“   
€   INDEX   Ƒ‘‘‘€  OPERAND  € –‘D   €   INDEX   Ƒ‘‘“ €œœœœœœœœœœœ€  A 
„…     Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā      „…    Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā  R 
      +           €           €  A         +         ”€  OPERAND  € –‘R –•
‚ƒ ’‘‘Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā‘• R   ‚ƒ ’‘‘Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā  A 
€   BASE    Ƒ•   €           €   R   €   DISPL   Ƒ•   €œœœœœœœœœœœ€  Y 
„…     €           €   A   „…   ’Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā‘•   
      +           €           €   Y         +          €           €     
‚ƒ     €           €       ‚ƒ    Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā   ‘‘•
€  SEGMENT  Ƒ‘‘‘„…       €   BASE    Ƒ‘‘• €           €
„…                         „…     €           €
                                            +           €           €
                                      ‚ƒ     €           €
                                      €  SEGMENT  Ƒ‘‘‘„…
                                      „…


2.5  Input/Output

The 80286 allows input/output to be performed in either of two ways: by
means of a separate I/O address space (using specific I/O instructions) or
by means of memory-mapped I/O (using general-purpose operand manipulation
instructions).


2.5.1  I/O Address Space

The 80286 provides a separate I/O address space, distinct from physical
memory, to address the input/output ports that are used for external
devices. The I/O address space consists of 2^(16) (64K) individually
addressable 8-bit ports. Any two consecutive 8-bit ports can be treated as
a 16-bit port. Thus, the I/O address space can accommodate up to 64K 8-bit
ports or up to 32K 16-bit ports. I/O port addresses 00F8H to 00FFH are
reserved by Intel.

The 80286 can transfer either 8 or 16 bits at a time to a device located in
the I/O space. Like words in memory, 16-bit ports should be aligned at
even-numbered addresses so that the 16 bits will be transferred in a single
access. An 8-bit port may be located at either an even or odd address. The
internal registers in a given peripheral controller device should be
assigned addresses as shown below.

Port Register              Port Addresses            Example

16-bit                     even word addresses       OUT  FE,AX
8-bit; device on
lower half of 16-bit

data bus                   even byte addresses       IN  AL,FE

8-bit; device on upper
half of 16-bit data bus    odd byte addresses        OUT  FF,AL

The I/O instructions IN and OUT (described in section 3.11.3) are provided
to move data between I/O ports and the AX (16-bit I/O) or AL (8-bit I/O)
general registers. The block I/O instructions INS and OUTS (described in
section 4.1) move blocks of data between I/O ports and memory space (as
shown below). In Protected Mode, an operating system may prevent a program
from executing these I/O instructions. Otherwise, the function of the I/O
instructions and the structure of the I/O space are identical for both modes
of operation.

INS  es:byte ptr [di], DX
OUTS DX, byte ptr [si]

IN and OUT instructions address I/O with either a direct address to one of
up to 256 port addresses, or indirectly via the DX register to one of up to
64K port addresses. Block I/O uses the DX register to specify the I/O
address and either SI or DI to designate the source or destination memory
address. For each transfer, SI or DI are either incremented or decremented
as specified by the direction bit in the flag word while DX is constant to
select the I/O device.


2.5.2  Memory-Mapped I/O

I/O devices also may be placed in the 80286 memory address space. So long
as the devices respond like memory components, they are indistinguishable to
the processor.

Memory-mapped I/O provides additional programming flexibility. Any
instruction that references memory may be used to access an I/O port located
in the memory space. For example, the MOV instruction can transfer data
between any register and a port; and the AND, OR, and TEST instructions may
be used to manipulate bits in the internal registers of a device (see
figure 2-14). Memory-mapped I/O performed via the full instruction set
maintains the full complement of addressing modes for selecting the desired
I/O device.

Memory-mapped I/O, like any other memory reference, is subject to access
protection and control when executing in protected mode.


Figure 2-14.  Memory-Mapped I/O

                MEMORY
             ADDRESS SPACE
          ‚ƒ                     I/O DEVICE 1
          €                €                ‚ƒ
          €                €                €  INTERNAL REGISTER  €
          Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā‘ ‘‘ ‘ ‘‘ ‘ ‘‘ ‘€‘‚ƒ €
          €                €                € €                 € €
          Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā‘ ‘‘ ‘ ‘‘ ‘ ‘‘ ‘€‘„… €
          €                €                „…
          €                €
          €                €                     I/O DEVICE 2
          €                €                ‚ƒ
          €                €                €  INTERNAL REGISTER  €
          €‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘€‘ ‘‘ ‘ ‘‘ ‘ ‘‘ ‘€‘‚ƒ €
          €                €                € €                 € €
          €‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘€‘ ‘‘ ‘ ‘‘ ‘ ‘‘ ‘€‘„… €
          €                €                „…
          €                €
          „…


2.6  Interrupts and Exceptions

The 80286 architecture supports several mechanisms for interrupting program
execution. Internal interrupts are synchronous events that are the responses
of the CPU to certain events detected during the execution of an
instruction. External interrupts are asynchronous events typically
triggered by external devices needing attention. The 80286 supports both
maskable (controlled by the IF flag) and non-maskable interrupts. They cause
the processor to temporarily suspend its present program execution in order
to service the requesting device. The major distinction between these two
kinds of interrupts is their origin: an internal interrupt is always
reproducible by re-executing with the program and data that caused the
interrupt, whereas an external interrupt is generally independent of the
currently executing task.

Interrupts 0-31 are reserved by Intel.

Application programmers will normally not be concerned with servicing
external interrupts. More information on external interrupts for system
programmers may be found in Chapter 5, section 5.2, "Interrupt Handling for
Real Address Mode," and in Chapter 9, "Interrupts, Traps and Faults for
Protected Virtual Address Mode."

In Real Address Mode, the application programmer is affected by two kinds
of internal interrupts. (Internal interrupts are the result of executing an
instruction which causes the interrupt.) One type of interrupt is called an
exception because the interrupt only occurs if a particular fault condition
exists. The other type of interrupt generates the interrupt every time the
instruction is executed.

The exceptions are: divide error, INTO detected overflow, bounds check,
segment overrun, invalid operation code, and processor extension error (see
table 2-4). A divide error exception results when the instructions DIV or
IDIV are executed with a zero denominator; otherwise, the quotient will be
too large for the destination operand (see section 3.3.4 for a discussion
of DIV and IDIV). An overflow exception results when the INTO instruction is
executed and the OF flag is set (after an arithmetic operation that set the
overflow (OF) flag). (See section 3.6.3, "Software Generated Interrupts,"
for a discussion of INTO.) A bounds check exception results when the BOUND
instruction is executed and the array index it checks falls outside the
bounds of the array. (See section 4.2 for a discussion of the BOUND
instruction.) The segment overrun exception occurs when a word memory
reference is attempted which extends beyond the end of a segment. An invalid
operation code exception occurs if an attempt is made to execute an
undefined instruction operation code. A processor extension error is
generated when a processor extension detects an illegal operation. Refer to
Chapter 5 for a more complete description of these exception conditions.

The instruction INT generates an internal interrupt whenever it is
executed. The effects of this interrupt (and the effects of all interrupts)
is determined by the interrupt handler routines provided by the application
program or as part of the system software (provided by system programmers).
See Chapter 5 for more on this topic. The INT instruction itself is
discussed in section 3.6.3.

In Protected Mode, many more fault conditions are detected and result in
internal interrupts. Protected Mode interrupts and faults are discussed in
Chapter 9.


2.7  Hierarchy of Instruction Sets

For descriptive purposes, the 80286 instruction set is partitioned into
three distinct subsets: the Basic Instruction Set, the Extended Instruction
Set, and the System Control Instruction Set. The "hierarchy" of instruction
sets defined by this partitioning helps to clarify the relationships
between the various processors in the 8086 family (see figure 2-15).

The Basic Instruction Set, presented in Chapter 3, comprises the common
subset of instructions found on all processors of the 8086 family. Included
are instructions for logical and arithmetic operations, data movement,
input/output, string manipulation, and transfer of control.

The Extended Instruction Set, presented in Chapter 4, consists of those
instructions found only on the 80186, 80188, and 80286 processors. Included
are instructions for block structured procedure entry and exit, parameter
validation, and block I/O transfers.

The System Control Instruction Set, presented in Chapter 10, consists of
those instructions unique to the 80286. These instructions control the
memory management and protection mechanisms of the 80286.


Table 2-4. 80286 Interrupt Vector Assignments (Real Address Mode)


Function                           Interupt   Related        Return Address
                                   Number     Instructions   Before Instruction
                                                             Causing Exception?
Divide error exception             0          DIV, IDIV          Yes
Single step interrupt              1          All
NMI interrupt                      2          All
Breakpoint interrupt               3          INT
INTO detected overflow exception   4          INTO               No
BOUND range exceeded exception     5          BOUND              Yes
Invalid opcode exception           6          Any undefined      Yes
                                              opcode
Processor extension                7          ESC or WAIT        Yes
not available exception
Interrupt table limit              8          INT vector         Yes
too small exception                           is not within
                                              table limit
Processor extension segment        9          ESC with memory    No
overrun   interrupt                           operand extending
                                              beyond offset
                                              FFFF(H)
Reserved                          10-12
Segment overrun exception         13          Word memory        Yes
                                              reference with
                                              offset = FFFF(H)
                                              or an attempt to
                                              execute past the
                                              end of a segment
Reserved                          14, 15
Processor extension               16          ESC or WAIT
error interrupt
Reserved                          17-31
User defined                      32-255



Figure 2-15.  Hierarchy of Instructions

             ‚ƒ
             €                      €
             €                      €
             €  ‚ƒ  €
             €  €                €  €
             €  €  ‚ƒ  €  €
             €  €  €   8086  Ī‘‘Ī‘‘Ī‘‘BASIC INSTRUCTION SET
             €  €  €   8088   €  €  €
             €  €  „…  €  €
             €  €      80186 ‘‘‘Ī‘‘Ī‘‘EXTENDED INSTRUCTION SET
             €  €      80188     €  €
             €  „…  €
             €         80286 ‘‘‘‘‘‘Ī‘‘SYSTEM CONTROL INSTRUCTION SET
             €                      €
             „…


Chapter 3  Basic Instruction Set

‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘

The base architecture of the 80286 is identical to the complete instruction
set of the 8086, 8088, 80188, and 80186 processors. The 80286 instruction
set includes new forms of some instructions. These new forms reduce program
size and improve the performance and ease of implementation of source code.

This chapter describes the instructions which programmers can use to write
application software for the 80286. The following chapters describe the
operation of more complicated I/O and system control instructions.

All instructions described in this chapter are available for both Real
Address Mode and Protected Virtual Address Mode operation. The instruction
descriptions note any differences that exist between the operation of an
instruction in these two modes.

This chapter also describes the operation of each application
program-relative instruction and includes an example of using the
instruction. The Instruction Dictionary in Appendix B contains formal
descriptions of all instructions. Any opcode pattern that is not described
in the Instruction Dictionary is undefined and results in an opcode
violation trap (interrupt 6).


3.1  Data Movement Instructions

These instructions provide convenient methods for moving bytes or words of
data between memory and the registers of the base architecture.


3.1.1  General-Purpose Data Movement Instructions

MOV (Move) transfers a byte or a word from the source operand to the
destination operand. The MOV instruction is useful for transferring data to
a register from memory, to memory from a register, between registers,
immediate-to-register, or immediate-to-memory. Memory-to-memory or segment
register-to-segment register moves are not allowed.

Example:
  MOV DS,AX. Replaces the contents of register DS with the contents of
  register AX.

XCHG (Exchange) swaps the contents of two operands. This instruction takes
the place of three MOV instructions. It does not require a temporary memory
location to save the contents of one operand while you load the other.

The XCHG instruction can swap two byte operands or two word operands, but
not a byte for a word or a word for a byte. The operands for the XCHG
instruction may be two register operands, or a register operand with a
memory operand. When used with a memory operand, XCHG automatically
activates the LOCK signal.

Example:
  XCHG BX,WORDOPRND. Swaps the contents of register BX with the contents
  of the memory word identified by the label WORDOPRND after asserting
  bus lock.


3.1.2  Stack Manipulation Instructions

PUSH (Push) decrements the stack pointer (SP) by two and then transfers a
word from the source operand to the top of stack indicated by SP. See figure
3-1. PUSH is often used to place parameters on the stack before calling a
procedure; it is also the basic means of storing temporary variables on the
stack. The PUSH instruction operates on memory operands, immediate operands
(new with the 80286), and register operands (including segment registers).

Example:
  PUSH WORDOPRND. Transfers a 16-bit value from the memory word identified
  by the label WORDOPRND to the memory location which represents the current
  top of stack (byte transfers are not allowed).

PUSHA (Push All Registers) saves the contents of the eight general
registers on the stack. See figure 3-2. This instruction simplifies
procedure calls by reducing the number of instructions required to retain
the contents of the general registers for use in a procedure. PUSHA is
complemented by POPA (see below).

The processor pushes the general registers on the stack in the following
order: AX, CX, DX, BX, the initial value of SP before AX was pushed, BP, SI,
and DI.

Example:
  PUSHA. Pushes onto the stack the contents of the eight general registers.

POP (Pop) transfers the word at the current top of stack (indicated by SP)
to the destination operand, and then increments SP by two to point to the
new top of stack. See figure 3-3. POP moves information from the stack to
either a register or memory. The only restriction on POP is that it cannot
place a value in register CS.

Example:
  POP BX. Replaces the contents of register BX with the contents of the
  memory location at the top of stack.

POPA (Pop All Registers) restores the registers saved on the stack by
PUSHA, except that it ignores the value of SP. See figure 3-4.

Example:
  POPA. Pops from the stack the saved contents of the general registers,
  and restores the registers (except SP) to their original state.


Figure 3-1.  PUSH

                                                     
HIGH ADDRESS       €               €    €               €
                   †‡    †‡  SS LIMIT
OPERANDS FROM      €œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ€    €œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ€
PREVIOUS PUSH      †‡    †‡
INSTRUCTIONS   SP‘€œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ€    €œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ€
                   †‡    †‡  SP ALWAYS POINTS
                   €               €    €    OPERAND    €‘TO THE LAST WORD
                   †‡    †‡  PUSHED ONTO THE
                   €               €    €               €  STACK (TOS)
                   †‡    †‡
                   ø               ø    ø               ø
                   †‡    †‡
                   €               €    €               €  SS ALWAYS POINTS
    LOW ADDRESS    †‡    †‡  TO LOWEST ADDRESS
                   €               €    €               €  USED BY THE STACK
                    BEFORE             AFTER         
                     PUSH OPERAND         PUSH OPERAND

 PUSH decrements SP by 2 bytes and places the operand in the stack at the
 location to which SP points.


Figure 3-2.  PUSHA

                                                      
   HIGH ADDRESS     €               €    €               €
                    †‡    †‡    SS LIMIT
OPERANDS FROM       €œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ€    €œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ€
PREVIOUS PUSH       †‡    †‡
INSTRUCTIONS    ’‘‘€œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ€    €œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ€
                   †‡    †‡
            SP‘‘•   €               €    €      AX       €
                    †‡    †‡
                    €               €    €      CX       €
                    †‡    †‡
                    €               €    €      DX       €
                    †‡    †‡
                    €               €    €      BX       €
                    †‡    †‡
                    €               €    €    OLD SP     €
                    †‡    †‡
                    €               €    €      BP       €
                    †‡    †‡
                    €               €    €      SI       €
                    †‡    †‡
                    €               €    €      DI       €‘‘‘SP
                    †‡    †‡
                    €               €    €               €
                    †‡    †‡
                    ø               ø    ø               ø
                    †‡    †‡
                    €               €    €               €
                    †‡    †‡
                    €               €    €               €
                    †‡    †‡
                    €               €    €               €
    LOW ADDRESS     †‡    †‡   SS
                    €               €    €               €
                                                      
                      BEFORE               AFTER
                      PUSHA                PUSHA

 PUSHA copies the contents of the eight general registers to the stack in
 the above order. The instruction decrements SP by 16 bytes (8 words) to
 point to the last word pushed on the stack.


Figure 3-3.  POP

                                                       
    HIGH ADDRESS     €               €    €               €
                     †‡    †‡    SS LIMIT
 OPERANDS FROM       €œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ€    €œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ€
 PREVIOUS PUSH       †‡    †‡
 INSTRUCTIONS        €œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ€    €œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ€‘‘‘SP
                     †‡    †‡
               SP‘‘‘€    OPERAND    €    €               €
                     †‡    †‡
                     €               €    €               €
                     †‡    †‡
                     ø               ø    ø               ø
                     †‡    †‡
                     €               €    €               €
     LOW ADDRESS     †‡    †‡   SS
                     €               €    €               €
                      BEFORE             AFTER         
                       POP OPERAND          POP OPERAND

 POP copies the contents of the stack location before SP to the operand in
 the instruction. POP then increments SP by 2 bytes (1 word).

Figure 3-4.  POPA

                                                       
    HIGH ADDRESS     €               €    €               €
                     †‡    †‡    SS LIMIT
 OPERANDS FROM       €œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ€    €œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ€
 PREVIOUS PUSH       †‡    †‡
 INSTRUCTIONS        €œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ€    €œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ€‘‘‘SP
                     †‡    †‡
                     €      AX       €    €               €
                     †‡    †‡
                     €      CX       €    €               €
                     †‡    †‡
                     €      DX       €    €               €
                     †‡    †‡
                     €      BX       €    €               €
                     †‡    †‡
                     €      SP       €    €               €
                     †‡    †‡
                     €      BP       €    €               €
                     †‡    †‡
                     €      SI       €    €               €
                     †‡    †‡
               SP‘‘‘€      DI       €    €               €
                     †‡    †‡
                     €               €    €               €
                     †‡    †‡
                     ø               ø    ø               ø
                     †‡    †‡
                     €               €    €               €
                     †‡    †‡
                     €               €    €               €
                     †‡    †‡
                     €               €    €               €
    LOW ADDRESS      †‡    †‡   SS
                      BEFORE             AFTER         
                       POPA                 POPA

 POPA copies the contents of seven stack locations to the corresponding
 general registers. POPA discards the stored value of SP.


3.2  Flag Operation With the Basic Instruction Set


3.2.1  Status Flags

The status flags of the FLAGS register reflect conditions that result from
a previous instruction or instructions. The arithmetic instructions use OF,
SF, ZF, AF, PF, and CF.

The SCAS (Scan String), CMPS (Compare String), and LOOP instructions use ZF
to signal that their operations are complete. The base architecture includes
instructions to set, clear, and complement CF before execution of an
arithmetic instruction. See figure 3-5 and tables 3-1 and 3-2.


3.2.2  Control Flags

The control flags of the FLAGS register determine processor operations for
string instructions, maskable interrupts, and debugging.

Setting DF (direction flag) causes string instructions to auto-decrement;
that is, to process strings from high addresses to low addresses, or from
"right-to-left." Clearing DF causes string instructions to auto-increment,
or to process strings from "left-to-right."

Setting IF (interrupt flag) allows the CPU to recognize external (maskable)
interrupt requests. Clearing IF disables these interrupts. IF has no effect
on either internally generated interrupts, nonmaskable external interrupts,
or processor extension segment overrun interrupts.

Setting TF (trap flag) puts the processor into single-step mode for
debugging. In this mode, the CPU automatically generates an internal
interrupt after each instruction, allowing a program to be inspected as it
executes each instruction, instruction by instruction.


Table 3-1. Status Flags' Functions

Bit Position    Name  Function

 0              CF    Carry Flag--Set on high-order bit carry or borrow;
                      cleared otherwise

 2              PF    Parity Flag--Set if low-order eight bits of result
                      contain an even number of 1 bits; cleared otherwise

 4              AF    Set on carry from or borrow to the low order four
                      bits of AL; cleared otherwise

 6              ZF    Zero Flag--Set if result is zero; cleared otherwise

 7              SF    Sign Flag--Set equal to high-order bit of result (0
                      if positive, 1 if negative)

 11             OF    Overflow Flag--Set if result is too-large a positive
                      number or too-small a negative number (excluding
                      sign-bit) to fit in destination operand; cleared
                      otherwise


Table 3-2. Control Flags' Functions

Bit Position   Name   Function

 8             TF     Trap (Single Step) Flag--Once set, a single step
                      interrupt occurs after the next instruction executes.
                      TF is cleared by the single step interrupt.

 9             IF     Interrupt-enable Flag--When set, maskable interrupts
                      will cause the CPU to transfer control to an interrupt
                      vector-specified location.

10             DF     Direction Flag--Causes string instructions to auto
                      decrement the appropriate index registers when set.
                      Clearing DF causes auto increment.


Figure 3-5.  Flag Word Contents

    STATUS FLAGS:
     CARRY‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“
     PARITY‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“     
     AUXILLIARY CARRY‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“          
     ZERO‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“               
     SIGN‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“                 
     OVERFLOW‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“                            
                                                     
              15 14 13 1211 10  9  8 7 6  5 4  3 2  1 0
            ‚ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠƒ
      FLAGS:€œœNTIOPL OFDFIFTFSFZFœœAFœœPFœœCF€
            „¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤…
                               
                                         CONTROL FLAGS:
                               ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘TRAP FLAG
                             ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘INTERRUPT ENABLE
                           ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘DIRECTION FLAG
                                            SPECIAL FIELDS:
                    ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘I/O PRIVILEGE LEVEL
                 ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘NESTED TASK FLAG


3.3  Arithmetic Instructions

The arithmetic instructions of the 8086-family processors simplify the
manipulation of numerical data. Multiplication and division instructions
ease the handling of signed and unsigned binary integers as well as unpacked
decimal integers.

An arithmetic operation may consist of two register operands, a general
register source operand with a memory destination operand, a memory source
operand with a register destination operand, or an immediate field with
either a register or memory destination operand, but not two memory
operands. Arithmetic instructions can operate on either byte or word
operands.


3.3.1  Addition Instructions

ADD (Add Integers) replaces the destination operand with the sum of the
source and destination operands. ADD affects OF, SF, AF, PF, CF, and ZF.

Example:
  ADD BL, BYTEOPRND. Adds the contents of the memory byte labeled
  BYTEOPRND to the contents of BL, and replaces BL with the resulting sum.

ADC (Add Integers with Carry) sums the operands, adds one if CF is set, and
replaces the destination operand with the result. ADC can be used to add
numbers longer than 16 bits. ADC affects OF, SF, AF, PF, CF, and ZF.

Example:
  ADC BX, CX. Replaces the contents of the destination operand BX with
  the sum of BX, CS, and 1 (if CF is set). If CF is cleared, ADC
  performs the same operation as the ADD instruction.

INC (Increment) adds one to the destination operand. The processor treats
the operand as an unsigned binary number. INC updates AF, OF, PF, SF, and
ZF, but it does not affect CF. Use ADD with an immediate value of 1 if an
increment that updates carry (CF) is needed.

Example:
  INC BL. Adds 1 to the contents of BL.


3.3.2  Subtraction Instructions

SUB (Subtract Integers) subtracts the source operand from the destination
operand and replaces the destination operand with the result. If a borrow is
required, carry flag is set. The operands may be signed or unsigned bytes or
words. SUB affects OF, SF, ZF, AF, PF, and CF.

Example:
  SUB WORDOPRND, AX. Replaces the contents of the destination operand
  WORDOPRND with the result obtained by subtracting the contents of AX from
  the contents of the memory word labeled WORDOPRND.

SBB (Subtract Integers with Borrow) subtracts the source operand from the
destination operand, subtracts 1 if CF is set, and returns the result to the
destination operand. The operands may be signed or unsigned bytes or words.
SBB may be used to subtract numbers longer than 16 bits. This instruction
affects OF, SF, ZF, AF, PF, and CF. The carry flag is set if a borrow is
required.

Example:
  SBB BL, 32. Subtracts 32 from the contents of BL and then decrements the
  result of this subtraction by one if CF is set. If CF is cleared, SBB
  performs the same operation as SUB.

DEC (Decrement) subtracts 1 from the destination operand. DEC updates AF,
OF, PF, SF, and ZF, but it does not affect CF. Use SUB with an immediate
value of 1 to perform a decrement that affects carry.

Example:
  DEC BX. Subtracts 1 from the contents of BX and places the result back in
  BX.


3.3.3  Multiplication Instructions

MUL (Unsigned Integer Multiply) performs an unsigned multiplication of the
source operand and the accumulator. If the source is a byte, the processor
multiplies it by the contents of AL and returns the double-length result to
AH and AL.

If the source operand is a word, the processor multiplies it by the
contents of AX and returns the double-length result to DX and AX. MUL sets
CF and OF to indicate that the upper half of the result is nonzero;
otherwise, they are cleared. This instruction leaves SF, ZF, AF, and PF
undefined.

Example:
  MUL BX. Replaces the contents of DX and AX with the product of BX and AX.
  The low-order 16 bits of the result replace the contents of AX; the
  high-order word goes to DX. The processor sets CF and OF if the unsigned
  result is greater than 16 bits.

IMUL (Signed Integer Multiply) performs a signed multiplication operation.
IMUL uses AX and DX in the same way as the MUL instruction, except when used
in the immediate form.

The immediate form of IMUL allows the specification of a destination
register other than the combination of DX and AX. In this case, the result
cannot exceed 16 bits without causing an overflow. If the immediate operand
is a byte, the processor automatically extends it to 16 bits before
performing the multiplication.

The immediate form of IMUL may also be used with unsigned operands because
the low 16 bits of a signed or unsigned multiplication of two 16-bit values
will always be the same.

IMUL clears CF and OF to indicate that the upper half of the result is the
sign of the lower half. This instruction leaves SF, ZF, AF, and PF
undefined.

Example:
  IMUL BL. Replaces the contents of AX with the product of BL and AL. The
  processor sets CF and OF if the result is more than 8 bits long.

Example:
  IMUL BX, SI, 5. Replaces the contents of BX with the product of the
  contents of SI and an immediate value of 5. The processor sets CF and OF
  if the signed result is longer than 16 bits.


3.3.4  Division Instructions

DIV (Unsigned Integer Divide) performs an unsigned division of the
accumulator by the source operand. If the source operand is a byte, it is
divided into the double-length dividend assumed to be in registers AL and AH
(AH = most significant byte; AL = least significant byte). The
single-length quotient is returned in AL, and the single-length remainder is
returned in AH.

If the source operand is a word, it is divided into the double-length
dividend in registers AX and DX. The single-length quotient is returned in
AX, and the single-length remainder is returned in DX. Non-integral
quotients are truncated to integers toward 0. The remainder is always less
than the quotient.

For unsigned byte division, the largest quotient is 255. For unsigned word
division, the largest quotient is 65,535. DIV leaves OF, SF, ZF, AF, PF, and
CF undefined. Interrupt (INT 0) occurs if the divisor is zero or if the
quotient is too large for AL or AX.

Example:
  DIV BX. Replaces the contents of AX with the unsigned quotient of the
  doubleword value contained in DX and AX, divided by BX. The unsigned
  modulo replaces the contents of DX.

Example:
  DIV BL. Replaces the contents of AL with the unsigned quotient of the
  word value in AX, divided by BL. The unsigned modulo replaces the
  contents of AH.

IDIV (Signed Integer Divide) performs a signed division of the accumulator
by the source operand. IDIV uses the same registers as the DIV instruction.

For signed byte division, the maximum positive quotient is +127 and the
minimum negative quotient is -128. For signed word division, the maximum
positive quotient is +32,767 and the minimum negative quotient is -32,768.
Non-integral results are truncated towards 0. The remainder will always
have the same sign as the dividend and will be less than the divisor in
magnitude. IDIV leaves OF, SF, ZF, AF, PF, and CF undefined. A division by
zero causes an interrupt (INT 0) to occur if the divisor is 0 or if the
quotient is too large for AL or AX.

Example:
  IDIV WORDOPRND. Replaces the contents of AX with the signed quotient
  of the double-word value contained in DX and AX, divided by the value
  contained in the memory word labeled WORDOPRND. The signed modulo
  replaces the contents of DX.


3.4  Logical Instructions

The group of logical instructions includes the Boolean operation
instructions, rotate and shift instructions, type conversion instructions,
and the no-operation (NOP)instruction.


3.4.1  Boolean Operation Instructions

Except for the NOT and NEG instructions, the Boolean operation instructions
can use two register operands, a general purpose register operand with a
memory operand, an immediate operand with a general purpose register
operand, or a memory operand. The NOT and NEG instructions are unary
operations that use a single operand in a register or memory.

AND (And) performs the logical "and" of the operands (byte or word) and
returns the result to the destination operand. AND clears OF and DF, leaves
AF undefined, and updates SF, ZF, and PF.

Example:
  AND WORDOPRND, BX. Replaces the contents of WORDOPRND with the logical
  "and" of the contents of the memory word labeled WORDOPRND and the
  contents of BX.

NOT (Not) inverts the bits in the specified operand to form a one's
complement of the operand. NOT has no effect on the flags.

Example:
  NOT BYTEOPRND. Replaces the original contents of BYTEOPRND with the
  one's complement of the contents of the memory word labeled BYTEOPRND.

OR (Or) performs the logical "inclusive or" of the two operands and returns
the result to the destination operand. OR clears OF and DF, leaves AF
undefined, and updates SF, ZF, and PF.

Example:
  OR AL,5. Replaces the original contents of AL with the logical
  "inclusive or" of the contents of AL and the immediate value 5.

XOR (Exclusive OR) performs the logical "exclusive or" of the two operands
and returns the result to the destination operand. XOR clears OF and DF,
leaves AF undefined, and updates SF, ZF, and PF.

Example:
  XOR DX, WORDOPRND. Replaces the original contents of DX with the logical
  "exclusive or" or the contents of DX and the contents of the memory word
  labeled WORDOPRND.

NEG (Negate) forms a two's complement of a signed byte or word operand. The
effect of NEG is to reverse the sign of the operand from positive to
negative or from negative to positive. NEG updates OF, SF, ZF, AF, PF, and
CF.

Example:
  NEG AX. Replaces the original contents of AX with the two's complement
  of the contents of AX.


3.4.2  Shift and Rotate Instructions

The shift and rotate instructions reposition the bits within the specified
operand. The shift instructions provide a convenient way to accomplish
division or multiplication by binary power. The rotate instructions are
useful for bit testing.


3.4.2.1  Shift Instructions

The bits in bytes and words may be shifted arithmetically or logically.
Depending on the value of a specified count, up to 31 shifts may be
performed.

A shift instruction can specify the count in one of three ways. One form of
shift instruction implicitly specifies the count as a single shift. The
second form specifies the count as an immediate value. The third form
specifies the count as the value contained in CL. This last form allows the
shift count to be a variable that the program supplies during execution.
Only the low order 5 bits of CL are used.

Shift instructions affect the flags as follows. AF is always undefined
following a shift operation. PF, SF, and ZF are updated normally as in the
logical instructions.

CF always contains the value of the last bit shifted out of the destination
operand. In a single-bit shift, OF is set if the value of the high-order
(sign) bit was changed by the operation. Otherwise, OF is cleared. Following
a multibit shift, however, the content of OF is always undefined.

SAL (Shift Arithmetic Left) shifts the destination byte or word operand left
by one or by the number of bits specified in the count operand (an immediate
value or the value contained in CL). The processor shifts zeros in from the
right side of the operand as bits exit from the left side. See figure 3-6.

Example:
  SAL BL,2. Shifts the contents of BL left by 2 bits and replaces the two
  low-order bits with zeros.

Example:
  SAL BL,1. Shifts the contents of BL left by 1 bit and replaces the
  low-order bit with a zero. Because the processor does not have to decode
  the immediate count operand to obtain the shift count, this from of the
  instruction takes 2 clock cycles rather than the 6 clock cycles (5 + 1
  cycle for each bit shifted) required by the previous example.

SHL (Shift Logical Left) is physically the same instruction as SAL (see SAL
above).

SHR (Shift Logical Right) shifts the destination byte or word operand right
by one or by the number of bits specified in the count operand (an immediate
value or the value contained in CL). The processor shifts zeros in from the
left side of the operand as bits exit from the right side. See figure 3-7.

Example:
  SHR BYTEOPRND, CL. Shifts the contents of the memory byte labeled
  BYTEOPRND right by the number of bits specified in CL, and pads the left
  side of BYTEOPRND with an equal number of zeros.

SAR (Shift Arithmetic Right) shifts the destination byte or word operand to
the right by one or by the number of bits specified in the count operand (an
immediate value or the value contained in CL). The processor preserves the
sign of the operand by shifting in zeros on the left side if the value is
positive or by shifting by ones if the value is negative. See figure 3-8.

Example:
  SAR WORDPRND,1. Shifts the contents of the memory byte labeled WORDPRND
  right by one, and replaces the high-order sign bit with a value equal to
  the original sign of WORDPRND.

SHR shifts the bits in the register or memory operand to the right by the
specified number of bit positions. CF receives the last bit shifted out of
the right of the operand. SHR shifts in zeros to fill the vacated bit
locations. This instruction operates on byte operands as well as word
operands.


Figure 3-6.  SAL and SHL

                          BEFORE SAL OR SHL
‚ƒ ‚ƒ  ‚ˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆƒ
€X€ €X€  € 1 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 1 € 1 €
„… „…  „‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰…

                     AFTER SAL OR SHL BY 1 BIT
‚ƒ ‚ƒ  ‚ˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆƒ
€0€ €1€‘Ā 1 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 0 €
„… „…  „‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰…

                     AFTER SAL OR SHL BY 8 BITS
‚ƒ ‚ƒ  ‚ˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆƒ
€X€ € €‘Ā 1 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 €
„… „…  „‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰…
OF  CF

 Both SAL and SHL shift the bits in the register or memory operand to the
 left by the specified number of bit positions. CF receives the last bit
 shifted out of the left of the operand. SAL and SHL shift in zeros to fill
 the vacated bit locations. These instructions operate on byte operands as
 well as word operands.


Figure 3-7.  SHR

                                 BEFORE SHR
 ‚ƒ ‚ˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆƒ  ‚ƒ
 €X€ € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 1 €  €X€
 „… „‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰…  „…

                             AFTER SHR BY 1 BIT
 ‚ƒ ‚ˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆƒ  ‚ƒ
 €1€ € 0 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 0 Ƒ€1€
 „… „‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰…  „…

                            AFTER SHR BY 10 BITS
 ‚ƒ ‚ˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆƒ  ‚ƒ
 €X€ € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 1 Ƒ€1€
 „… „‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰…  „…
 OF                                OPERAND                              CF

 SHR shifts the bits in the register or memory operand to the right by the
 specified number of bit positions. CF receives the last bit shifted out of
 the right of the operand. SHR shifts in zeros to fill the vacated bit
 locations. This instruction operates on byte operands as well as word
 operands.


Figure 3-8.  SAR

                     BEFORE SAR WITH A POSITIVE OPERAND
 ‚ƒ ‚ˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆƒ  ‚ƒ
 €X€ € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 1 €  €X€
 „… „‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰…  „…

              AFTER SAR WITH A POSITIVE OPERAND SHIFTED 1 BIT
 ‚ƒ ‚ˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆƒ  ‚ƒ
 €X€ € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 Ƒ€1€
 „… „‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰…  „…

                     BEFORE SAR WITH A NEGATIVE OPERAND
 ‚ƒ ‚ˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆƒ  ‚ƒ
 €X€ € 1 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 1 € 0 Ƒ€X€
 „… „‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰…  „…

              AFTER SAR WITH A NEGATIVE OPERAND SHIFTED 6 BITS
 ‚ƒ ‚ˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆƒ  ‚ƒ
 €X€ € 1 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 Ƒ€0€
 „… „‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰…  „…
 OF                               OPERAND                               CF

 SAR preserves the sign of the register or memory operand as it shifts the
 operand to the right the specified number of bit positions. CF receives the
 last bit shifted out of the right of the operand. This instruction also
 operates on byte operands.


3.4.2.2  Rotate Instructions

Rotate instructions allow bits in bytes and words to be rotated. Bits
rotated out of an operand are not lost as in a shift, but are "circled" back
into the other "end" of the operand.

Rotates affect only the carry and overflow flags. CF may act as an
extension of the operand in two of the rotate instructions, allowing a bit
to be isolated and then tested by a conditional jump instruction (JC or
JNC). CF always contains the value of the last bit rotated out, even if the
instruction does not use this bit as an extension of the rotated operand.

In single-bit rotates, OF is set if the operation changes the high-order
(sign) bit of the destination operand. If the sign bit retains its original
value, OF is cleared. On multibit rotates, the value of OF is always
undefined.

ROL (Rotate Left) rotates the byte or word destination operand left by one
or by the number of bits specified in the count operand (an immediate value
or the value contained in CL). For each rotation specified, the high-order
bit that exists from the left of the operand returns at the right to become
the new low-order bit of the operand. See figure 3-9.

Example:
  ROL AL, 8. Rotates the contents of AL left by 8 bits. This rotate
  instruction returns AL to its original state but isolates the low-order
  bit in CF for testing by a JC or JNC instruction.

ROR (Rotate Right) rotates the byte or word destination operand right by
one or by the number of bits specified in the count operand (an immediate
value or the value contained in CL). For each rotation specified, the
low-order bit that exits from the right of the operand returns at the left
to become the new high-order bit of the operand. See figure 3-10.

Example:
  ROR WORDOPRND, CL. Rotates the contents of the memory word labeled
  WORDOPRND by the number of bits specified by the value contained in CL.
  CF reflects the value of the last bit rotated from the right to the left
  side of the operand.

RCL (Rotate Through Carry Left) rotates bits in the byte or word
destination operand left by one or by the number of bits specified in the
count operand (an immediate value or the value contained in CL).

This instruction differs from ROL in that it treats CF as a high-order
1-bit extension of the destination operand. Each high-order bit that exits
from the left side of the operand moves to CF before it returns to the
operand as the low-order bit on the next rotation cycle. See figure 3-11.

Example:
  RCL BX,1. Rotates the contents of BX left by one bit. The high-order bit
  of the operand moves to CF, the remaining 15 bits move left one position,
  and the original value of CF becomes the new low-order bit.

RCR (Rotate Through Carry Right) rotates bits in the byte or word
destination operand right by one or by the number of bits specified in the
count operand (an immediate value or the value contained in CL).

This instruction differs from ROR in that it treats CF as a low-order 1-bit
extension of the destination operand. Each low-order bit that exits from the
right side of the operand moves to CF before it returns to the operand as
the high-order bit on the next rotation cycle. See figure 3-12.

Example:
  RCR BYTEOPRND,3. Rotates the contents of the memory byte labeled BYTEOPRND
  to the right by 3 bits. Following the execution of this instruction, CF
  reflects the original value of bit number 5 of BYTEOPRND, and the original
  value of CF becomes bit 2.

RCL rotates the bits in the memory or register operand to the left in the
same way as ROL except that RCL treats CF as a 1-bit extension of the
operand. Note that a 16-bit RCL produces the same result as a 1-bit RCR
(though it takes much longer to execute). This instruction also operates on
byte operands.

RCR rotates the bits in the memory or register operand to the right in the
same way as ROR except that RCR treats CF as a 1-bit extension of the
operand. This instruction also operates on byte operands.


Figure 3-9.  ROL

                               BEFORE ROL
 ‚ƒ‚ƒ  ‚ˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆƒ
 €X€€X€  € 1 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 0 €
 „…„…  „‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰…

                           AFTER ROL BY 1 BIT
 ‚ƒ‚ƒ  ‚ˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆƒ
 €1€€1€˜Ā 0 € 0 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 1 “
 „…„… „‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰…
        ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•

                          AFTER ROL BY 12 BITS
 ‚ƒ‚ƒ  ‚ˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆƒ
 €X€€1€˜Ā 1 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 1 “
 „…„… „‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰…
 OF CF                          OPERAND                                  
        ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•

 ROL shifts the bits in the memory or register operand to the left by the
 specified number of bit positions. It copies the bit shifted out of the
 left of the operand into the right of the operand. The last bit shifted
 into the least significant bit of the operand also appears in CF. This
 instruction also operates on byte operands.


Figure 3-10.  ROR

                                 BEFORE ROR
  ‚ˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆƒ  ‚ƒ
  € 1 € 1 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 1 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 0 €  € X €
  „‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰…  „…

                             AFTER ROR BY 1 BIT
  ‚ˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆƒ  ‚ƒ
 ’ 0 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 1 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 Ƙ€ 0 €
 „‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰… „…
 ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•

                            AFTER ROR BY 8 BITS
  ‚ˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆƒ  ‚ƒ
 ’ 1 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 Ƙ€ 1 €
 „‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰… „…
                              OPERAND                               CF
 ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•

 ROR shifts the bits in the memory or register operand to the right by the
 specified number of bit positions. It copies each bit shifted out of the
 right of the operand into the left of the operand. The last bit shifted
 into the most significant bit of the operand also appears in CF. This
 instruction also operates on byte operands.


Figure 3-11.  RCL

                                BEFORE RCL
   ‚ƒ  ‚ˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆƒ
   € 1 €  € 1 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 €
   „…  „‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰…

                            AFTER RCL BY 1 BIT
   ‚ƒ  ‚ˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆƒ
 ’‘Ā 1 €‘Ā 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 1 “
  „…  „‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰…
 ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•

                           AFTER RCL BY 16 BITS
   ‚ƒ  ‚ˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆƒ
 ’‘Ā 0 €‘Ā 1 € 1 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 1 € 1 € 0 € 0 € 0 “
  „…  „‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰…
   CF                            OPERAND                                  
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 RCL rotates the bits in the memory or register operand to the left in the
 same way as ROL except that RCL treats CF as a 1-bit extension of the
 operand. Note that a 16-bit RCL produces the same result as a 1-bit RCR
 (though it takes much longer to execute). This instruction also operates
 on byte operands.


Figure 3-12.  RCR

                                 BEFORE RCR
  ‚ˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆƒ  ‚ƒ
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                             AFTER RCR BY 1 BIT
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 ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•

                            AFTER RCR BY 8 BITS
  ‚ˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆƒ  ‚ƒ
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                                 OPERAND                             CF   
 ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•

 RCR rotates the bits in the memory or register operand to the right in the
 same way as ROR except that RCR treats CF as a 1-bit extension of the
 operand. This instruction also operates on byte operands.


3.4.3  Type Conversion and No-Operation Instructions

The type conversion instructions prepare operands for division. The NOP
instruction is a 1-byte filler instruction with no effect on registers or
flags.

CWD (Convert Word to Double-Word) extends the sign of the word in register
AX throughout register DX. CWD does not affect any flags. CWD can be used to
produce a double-length (double-word) dividend from a word before a word
division.

CBW (Convert Byte to Word) extends the sign of the byte in register AL
throughout AX. CBW does not affect any flags.

Example:
  CWD. Sign-extends the 16-bit value in AX to a 32-bit value in DX and AX
  with the high-order 16-bits occupying DX.

NOP (No Operation) occupies a byte of storage but affects nothing but the
instruction pointer, IP. The amount of time that a NOP instruction requires
for execution varies in proportion to the CPU clocking rate. This variation
makes it inadvisable to use NOP instructions in the construction of timing
loops because the operation of such a program will not be independent of the
system hardware configuration.

Example:
  NOP. The processor performs no operation for 2 clock cycles.


3.5  Test and Compare Instructions

The test and compare instructions are similar in that they do not alter
their operands. Instead, these instructions perform operations that only set
the appropriate flags to indicate the relationship between the two operands.

TEST (Test) performs the logical "and" of the two operands, clears OF and
DF, leaves AF undefined, and updates SF, ZF, and PF. The difference between
TEST and AND is that TEST does not alter the destination operand.

Example:
  TEST BL,32. Performs a logical "and" and sets SF, ZF, and PF according to
  the results of this operation. The contents of BL remain unchanged.

CMP (Compare) subtracts the source operand from the destination operand. It
updates OF, SF, ZF, AF, PF, and CF but does not alter the source and
destination operands. A subsequent signed or unsigned conditional transfer
instruction can test the result using the appropriate flag result.

CMP can compare two register operands, a register operand and a memory
operand, a register operand and an immediate operand, or an immediate
operand and a memory operand. The operands may be words or bytes, but CMP
cannot compare a byte with a word.

Example:
  CMP BX,32. Subtracts the immediate operand, 32, from the contents of BX
  and  sets OF, SF, ZF, AF, PF, and CF to reflect the result. The contents
  of BX remain unchanged.


3.6  Control Transfer Instructions

The 80286 provides both conditional and unconditional program transfer
instructions to direct the flow of execution. Conditional program transfers
depend on the results of operations that affect the flag register.
Unconditional program transfers are always executed.


3.6.1  Unconditional Transfer Instructions

JMP, CALL, RET, INT and IRET instructions transfer control from one code
segment location to another. These locations can be within the same code
segment or in different code segments.


3.6.1.1  Jump Instruction

JMP (Jump) unconditionally transfers control to the target location. JMP is
a one-way transfer of execution; it does not save a return address on the
stack.

The JMP instruction always performs the same basic function of transferring
control from the current location to a new location. Its implementation
varies depending on the following factors:

  Ž  Is the address specified directly within the instruction or indirectly
     through a register or memory?

  Ž  Is the target location inside or outside the current code segment
     selected in CS?

A direct JMP instruction includes the destination address as part of the
instruction. An indirect JMP instruction obtains the destination address
indirectly through a register or a pointer variable.

Control transfers through a gate or to a task state segment are available
only in Protected Mode operation of the 80286. The formats of the
instructions that transfer control through a call gate, a task gate, or to a
task state segment are the same. The label included in the instruction
selects one of these three paths to a new code segment.

Direct JMP within the current code segment. A direct JMP that transfers
control to a target location within the current code segment uses a relative
displacement value contained in the instruction. This can be either a 16-bit
value or an 8-bit value sign extended to 16 bits. The processor forms an
effective address by adding this relative displacement to the address
contained in IP. IP refers to the next instruction when the additions are
performed.

Example:
  JMP NEAR_NEWCODE. Transfers control to the target location labeled
  NEAR_NEWCODE, which is within the code segment currently selected in CS.

Indirect JMP within the current code segment. Indirect JMP instructions
that transfer control to a location within the current code segment specify
an absolute address in one of several ways. First, the program can JMP to a
location specified by a 16-bit register (any of AX, DX, CX, BX, BP, SI, or
DI). The processor moves this 16-bit value into IP and resumes execution.

Example:
  JMP SI. Transfers control to the target address formed by adding the
  16-bit value contained in SI to the base address contained in CS.

The processor can also obtain the destination address within a current
segment from a memory word operand specified in the instruction.

Example:
  JMP PTR_X. Transfers control to the target address formed by adding the
  16-bit value contained in the memory word labeled PTR X to the base
  address contained in CS.

A register can modify the address of the memory word pointer to select a
destination address.

Example:
  JMP CASE_TABLE [BX]. CASE_TABLE is the first word in an array of word
  pointers. The value of BX determines which pointer the program selects
  from the array. The JMP instruction then transfers control to the
  location specified by the selected pointer.

Direct JMP outside of the current code segment. Direct JMP instructions
that specify a target location outside the current code segment contain a
full 32-bit pointer. This pointer consists of a selector for the new code
segment and an offset within the new segment.

Example:
  JMP FAR_NEWCODE_FOO. Places the selector contained in the instruction into
  CS and the offset into IP. The program resumes execution at this location
  in the new code segment.

Indirect JMP outside of the current code segment. Indirect JMP instructions
that specify a target location outside the current code segment use a
double-word variable to specify the pointer.

Example:
  JMP NEWCODE. NEWCODE the first word of two consecutive words in memory
  which represent the new pointer. NEWCODE contains the new offset for IP
  and the word following NEWCODE contains the selector for CS. The program
  resumes execution at this location in the new code segment. (Protected
  mode programs treat this differently. See Chapters 6 and 7).

Direct JMP outside of the current code segment to a call gate. If the
selector included with the instruction refers to a call gate, then the
processor ignores the offset in the instruction and takes the pointer of the
routine being entered from the call gate.

JMP outside of current code segment may only go to the same level.

Example:
  JMP CALL_GATE_FOO. The selector in the instruction refers to the call gate
  CALL_GATE_FOO, and the call gate actually provides the new contents of CS
  and IP to specify the address of the next instructions.

Indirect JMP outside the current code segment to a call gate. If the
selector specified by the instruction refers to a call gate, the processor
ignores the offset in the double-word and takes the address of the routine
being entered from the call gate. The JMP instruction uses the same format
to indirectly specify a task gate or a task state segment.

Example:
  JMP CASE_TABLE [BX]. The instruction refers to the double-word in the
  array of pointers called CASE_TABLE. The specific double-word chosen
  depends on the value in BX when the instruction executes. The selector
  portion of this double-word selects a call gate, and the processor takes
  the address of the routine being entered from the call gate.

ROL shifts the bits in the memory or register operand to the left by the
specified number of bit positions. It copies the bit shifted out of the left
of the operand into the right of the operand. The last bit shifted into the
least significant bit of the operand also appears in CF. This instruction
also operates on byte operands.

ROR shifts the bits in the memory or register operand to the right by the
specified number of bit positions. It copies each bit shifted out of the
right of the operand into the left of the operand. The last bit shifted into
the most significant bit of the operand also appears in CF. This instruction
also operates on byte operands.


3.6.1.2  Call Instruction

CALL (Call Procedure) activates an out-of-line procedure, saving on the
stack the address of the instruction following the CALL for later use by a
RET (Return) instruction. An intrasegment CALL places the current value of
IP on the stack. An intersegment CALL places both the value of IP and CS on
the stack. The RET instruction in the called procedure uses this address to
transfer control back to the calling program.

A long CALL instruction that invokes a task-switch stores the outgoing
task's task state segment selector in the incoming task state segment's link
field and sets the nested task flag in the new task. In this case, the IRET
instruction takes the place of the RET instruction to return control to the
nested task.

Examples:
  CALL NEAR_NEWCODE
  CALL SI
  CALL PTR_X
  CALL CASE_TABLE [BP]
  CALL FAR_NEWCODE_FOO
  CALL NEWCODE
  CALL CALL_GATE_FOO
  CALL CASE_TABLE [BX]

See the previous treatment of JMP for a discussion of the operations of
these instructions.


3.6.1.3  Return And Return From Interrupt Instruction

RET (Return From Procedure) terminates the execution of a procedure and
transfers control through a back-link on the stack to the program that
originally invoked the procedure.

An intrasegment RET restores the value of IP that was saved on the stack by
the previous intrasegment CALL instruction. An intersegment RET restores the
values of both CS and IP which were saved on the stack by the previous
intersegment CALL instruction.

RET instructions may optionally specify a constant to the stack pointer.
This constant specifies the new top of stack to effectively remove any
arguments that the calling program pushed on the stack before the execution
of the CALL instruction.

Example:
  RET. If the previous CALL instruction did not transfer control to a new
  code segment, RET restores the value of IP pushed by the CALL instruction.
  If the previous CALL instruction transferred control to a new segment, RET
  restores the values of both IP and CS which were pushed on the stack by
  the CALL instruction.

Example:
  RET n. This form of the RET instruction performs identically to the above
  example except that it adds n (which must be an even value) to the value
  of SP to eliminate n bytes of parameter information previously pushed by
  the calling program.

IRET (Return From Interrupt or Nested Task) returns control to an
interrupted routine or, optionally, reverses the action of a CALL or INT
instruction that caused a task switch. See Chapter 8 for further
information on task switching.

Example:
  IRET. Returns from an interrupt with or without a task switch based on
  the value of the NT bit.


3.6.2  Conditional Transfer Instructions

The conditional transfer instructions are jumps that may or may not transfer
control, depending on the state of the CPU flags when the instruction
executes. Instruction encoding is most efficient when the target for the
conditional jumps is in the current code segment and within -128 to +127
bytes of the first byte of the next instruction. Alternatively, the opposite
sense of the conditional jump can skip around an unconditional jump to the
destination.


3.6.2.1  Conditional Jump Instructions

Table 3-3 shows the conditional transfer mnemonics and their
interpretations. The conditional jumps that are listed as pairs are actually
the same instruction. The assembler provides the alternate mnemonics for
greater clarity within a program listing.


Table 3-3. Interpretation of Conditional Transfers

                      Unsigned Conditional Transfers
Mnemonic      Condition Tested           "Jump If. . ."

JA/JNBE       (CF or ZF) = 0             above/not below nor equal
JAE/JNB       CF = 0                     above or equal/not below
JB/JNAE       CF = 1                     below/not above nor equal
JBE/JNA       (CF or ZF) = 1             below or equal/not above
JC            CF = 1                     carry
JE/JZ         ZF = 1                     equal/zero
JNC           CF = 0                     not carry
JNE/JNZ       ZF = 0                     not equal/not zero
JNP/JPO       PF = 0                     not parity/parity odd
JP/JPE        PF = 1                     parity/parity even

                      Signed Conditional Transfers
Mnemonic     Condition Tested            "Jump If. . ."

JG/JNLE     ((SF xor OF) or ZF) = 0      greater/not less nor equal
JGE/JNL      (SF xor OF) = 0             greater or equal/not less
JL/JNGE      (SF xor OF) = 0             less/not greater nor equal
JLE/JNG      ((SF xor OF) or ZF) = 1     less or equal/not greater
JNO          OF = 0                      not overflow
JNS          SF = 0                      not sign (positive, including 0)
JO           OF = 1                      overflow
JS           SF = 1                      sign (negative)


3.6.2.2  Loop Instructions

The loop instructions are conditional jumps that use a value placed in CX
to specify the number of repetitions of a software loop. All loop
instructions automatically decrement CX and terminate the loop when CX=0.
Four of the five loop instructions specify a condition of ZF that
terminates the loop before CX decrements to zero.

LOOP (Loop While CX Not Zero) is a conditional transfer that
auto-decrements the CX register before testing CX for the branch condition.
If CX is non-zero, the program branches to the target label specified in the
instruction. The LOOP instruction causes the repetition of a code section
until the operation of the LOOP instruction decrements CX to a value of
zero. If LOOP finds CX=0, control transfers to the instruction immediately
following the LOOP instruction. If the value of CX is initially zero, then
the LOOP executes 65,536 times.

Example:
  LOOP START_LOOP. Each time the program encounters this instruction, it
  decrements CX and then tests it. If the value of CX is non-zero, then the
  program branches to the instruction labeled START_LOOP. If the value in CX
  is zero, then the program continues with the instruction that follows the
  LOOP instruction.

LOOPE (Loop While Equal) and LOOPZ (Loop While Zero) are physically the
same instruction. These instructions auto-decrement the CX register before
testing CX and ZF for the branch conditions. If CX is non-zero and ZF=1, the
program branches to the target label specified in the instruction. If LOOPE
or LOOPZ finds that CX=0 or ZF=0, control transfers to the instruction
immediately succeeding the LOOPE or LOOPZ instruction.

Example:
  LOOPE START_LOOP (or LOOPZ START_LOOP). Each time the program encounters
  this instruction, it decrements CX and tests CX and ZF. If the value in
  CX is non-zero and the value of ZF is 1, the program branches to the
  instruction labeled START_LOOP. If CX=0 or ZF=0, the program continues
  with the instruction that follows the LOOPE (or LOOPZ) instruction.

LOOPNE (Loop While Not Equal) and LOOPNZ (Loop While Not Zero) are
physically the same instruction. These instructions auto-decrement the CX
register before testing CX and ZF for the branch conditions. If CX is
non-zero and ZF=0, the program branches to the target label specified in
the instruction. If LOOPNE or LOOPNZ finds that CX=0 or ZF=1, control
transfers to the instruction immediately succeeding the LOOPNE or LOOPNZ
instruction.

Example:
  LOOPNE START_LOOP (or LOOPNZ START_LOOP). Each time the program encounters
  this instruction, it decrements CX and tests CX and ZF. If the value of CX
  is non-zero and the value of ZF is 0, the program branches to the
  instruction labeled START_LOOP. If CX=0 or ZF=1, the program continues
  with the instruction that follows the LOOPNE (or LOOPNZ) instruction.


3.6.2.3  Executing a Loop or Repeat Zero Times

JCXZ (Jump if CX Zero) branches to the label specified in the instruction
if it finds a value of zero in CX. Sometimes, it is desirable to design a
loop that executes zero times if the count variable in CX is initialized to
zero. Because the LOOP instructions (and repeat prefixes) decrement CX
before they test it, a loop will execute 65,536 times if the program enters
the loop with a zero value in CX. A programmer may conveniently overcome
this problem with JCXZ, which enables the program to branch around the code
within the loop if CX is zero when JCXZ executes.

Example:
  JCXZ TARGETLABEL. Causes the program to branch to the instruction labeled
  TARGETLABEL if CX=0 when the instruction executes.


3.6.3  Software-Generated Interrupts

The INT n and INTO instructions allow the programmer to specify a transfer
to an interrupt service routine from within a program. Interrupts 0-31 are
reserved by Intel.


3.6.3.1  Software Interrupt Instruction

INT n (Software Interrupt) activates the interrupt service routine that
corresponds to the number coded within the instruction. Interrupt type 3 is
reserved for internal software-generated interrupts. However, the INT
instruction may specify any interrupt type to allow multiple types of
internal interrupts or to test the operation of a service routine. The
interrupt service routine terminates with an IRET instruction that returns
control to the instruction that follows INT.

Example:
  INT 3. Transfers control to the interrupt service routine specified by a
  type 3 interrupt.

Example:
  INT 0. Transfers control to the interrupt service routine specified by a
  type 0 interrupt, which is reserved for a divide error.

INTO (Interrupt on Overflow) invokes a type 4 interrupt if OF is set when
the INTO instruction executes. The type 4 interrupt is reserved for this
purpose.

Example:
  INTO. If the result of a previous operation has set OF and no intervening
  operation has reset OF, then INTO invokes a type 4 interrupt. The
  interrupt service routine terminates with an IRET instruction, which
  returns control to the instruction following INTO.


3.7  Character Translation and String Instructions

The instructions in this category operate on characters or string elements
rather than on logical or numeric values.


3.7.1  Translate Instruction

XLAT (Translate) replaces a byte in the AL register with a byte from a
user-coded translation table. When XLAT is executed, AL should have the
unsigned index to the table addressed by BX. XLAT changes the contents of AL
from table index to table entry. BX is unchanged. The XLAT instruction is
useful for translating from one coding system to another, such as from
ASCII to EBCDIC. The translate table may be up to 256 bytes long. The value
placed in the AL register serves as an index to the location of the
corresponding translation value. Used with a LOOP instruction, the XLAT
instruction can translate a block of codes up to 64K bytes long.

Example:
  XLAT. Replaces the byte in AL with the byte from the translate table that
  is selected by the value in AL.


3.7.2  String Manipulation Instructions and Repeat Prefixes

The string instructions (also called primitives) operate on string elements
to move, compare, and scan byte or word strings. One-byte repeat prefixes
can cause the operation of a string primitive to be repeated to process
strings as long as 64K bytes.

The repeated string primitives use the direction flag, DF, to specify
left-to-right or right-to-left string processing, and use a count in CX to
limit the processing operation. These instructions use the register pair
DS:SI to point to the source string element and the register pair ES:DI to
point to the destination.

One of two possible opcodes represent each string primitive, depending on
whether it is operating on byte strings or word strings. The string
primitives are generic and require one or more operands along with the
primitive to determine the size of the string elements being processed.
These operands do not determine the addresses of the strings; the addresses
must already be present in the appropriate registers.

Each repetition of a string operation using the Repeat prefixes includes
the following steps:

  1.  Acknowledge pending interrupts.

  2.  Check CX for zero and stop repeating if CX is zero.

  3.  Perform the string operation once.

  4.  Adjust the memory pointers in DS:SI and ES:DI by incrementing SI
      and DI if DF is 0 or by decrementing SI and DI if DF is 1.

  5.  Decrement CX (this step does not affect the flags).

  6.  For SCAS (Scan String) and CMPS (Compare String), check ZF for a
      match with the repeat condition and stop repeating if the ZF fails to
      match.

The Load String and Store String instructions allow a program to perform
arithmetic or logical operations on string characters (using AX for word
strings and AL for byte strings). Repeated operations that include
instructions other than string primitives must use the loop instructions
rather than a repeat prefix.


3.7.2.1  String Movement Instructions

REP (Repeat While CX Not Zero) specifies a repeated operation of a string
primitive. The REP prefix causes the hardware to automatically repeat the
associated string primitive until CX=0. This form of iteration allows the
CPU to process strings much faster than would be possible with a regular
software loop.

When the REP prefix accompanies a MOVS instruction, it operates as a
memory-to-memory block transfer. To set up for this operation, the program
must initialize CX and the register pairs DS:SI and ES:DI. CX specifies the
number of bytes or words in the block.

If DF=0, the program must point DS:SI to the first element of the source
string and point ES:DI to the destination address for the first element. If
DF=1, the program must point these two register pairs to the last element of
the source string and to the destination address for the last element,
respectively.

Example:
  REP MOVSW. The processor checks the value in CX for zero. If this value is
  not zero, the processor moves a word from the location pointed to by DS:SI
  to the location pointed to by ES:DI and increments SI and DI by two (if
  DF=0). Next, the processor decrements CX by one and returns to the
  beginning of the repeat cycle to check CX again. After CX decrements to
  zero, the processor executes the instruction that follows.

MOVS (Move String) moves the string character pointed to by the combination
of DS and SI to the location pointed to by the combination of ES and DI.
This is the only memory-to-memory transfer supported by the instruction set
of the base architecture. MOVSB operates on byte elements. The destination
segment register cannot be overridden by a segment override prefix while
the source segment register can be overridden.

Example:
  MOVSW. Moves the contents of the memory byte pointed to by DS:SI to the
  location pointed to by ES:DI.


3.7.2.2  Other String Operations

CMPS (Compare Strings) subtracts the destination string element (ES:DI)
from the source string element (DS:SI) and updates the flags AF, SF, PF, CF
and OF. If the string elements are equal, ZF=1; otherwise, ZF=0. If DF=0,
the processor increments the memory pointers (SI and DI) for the two
strings. The segment register used for the source address can be changed
with a segment override prefix, while the destination segment register
cannot be overridden.

Example:
  CMPSB. Compares the source and destination string elements with each other
  and returns the result of the comparison to ZF.

SCAS (Scan String) subtracts the destination string element at ES:DI from
AX or AL and updates the flags AF, SF, ZF, PF, CF and OF. If the values are
equal, ZF=1; otherwise, ZF=0. If DF=0, the processor increments the memory
pointer (DI) for the string. The segment register used for the source
address can be changed with a segment override prefix while the destination
segment register cannot be overridden.

Example:
  SCASW. Compares the value in AX with the destination string element.

REPE/REPZ (Repeat While CX Equal/Zero) and REPNE/REPNZ (Repeat While CX Not
Equal/Not Zero) are the prefixes that are used exclusively with the SCAS
(ScanString) and CMPS (Compare String) primitives.

The difference between these two types of prefix bytes is that REPE/REPZ
terminates when ZF=0 and REPNE/REPNZ terminates when ZF=1. ZF does not
require initialization before execution of a repeated string instruction.

When these prefixes modify either the SCAS or CMPS primitives, the
processor compares the value of the current string element with the value in
AX for word elements or with the value in AL for byte elements. The
resulting state of ZF can then limit the operation of the repeated
operation as well as a zero value in CX.

Example:
  REPE SCASB. Causes the processor to scan the string pointed to by ES:DI
  until it encounters a match with the byte value in AL or until CX
  decrements to zero.

LODS (Load String) places the source string element at DS:SI into AX for
word strings or into AL for byte strings.

Example:
  LODSW. Loads AX with the value pointed to by DS:SI.


3.8  Address Manipulation Instructions

The set of address manipulation instructions provide a way to perform
address calculations or to move to a new data segment or extra segment.

LEA (Load Effective Address) transfers the offset of the source operand
(rather than its value) to the destination operand. The source operand must
be a memory operand, and the destination operand must be a 16-bit general
register (AX, DX, BX, CX, BP, SP, SI, or DI).

LEA does not affect any flags. This instruction is useful for initializing
the registers before the execution of the string primitives or the XLAT
instruction.

Example:
  LEA BX EBCDIC_TABLE. Causes the processor to place the address of the
  starting location of the table labeled EBCDIC_TABLE into BX.

LDS (Load Pointer Using DS) transfers a 32-bit pointer variable from the
source operand to DS and the destination register. The source operand must
be a memory operand, and the destination operand must be a 16-bit general
register (AX, DX, BX, CX, BP, SP, SI or DI). DS receives the high-order
segment word of the pointer. The destination register receives the
low-order word, which points to a specific location within the segment.

Example:
  LDS SI, STRING_X. Loads DS with the word identifying the segment pointed
  to by STRING_X, and loads the offset of STRING_X into SI. Specifying SI as
  the destination operand is a convenient way to prepare for a string
  operation on a source string that is not in the current data segment.

LES (Load Pointer Using ES) operates identically to LDS except that ES
receives the offset word rather than DS.

Example:
  LES DI, DESTINATION_X. Loads ES with the word identifying the segment
  pointed to by DESTINATION_X, and loads the offset of DESTINATION_X into
  DI. This instruction provides a convenient way to select a destination for
  a string operation if the desired location is not in the current extra
  segment.


3.9  Flag Control Instructions

The flag control instructions provide a method of changing the state of
bits in the flag register.


3.9.1  Carry Flag Control Instructions

The carry flag instructions are useful in conjunction with
rotate-with-carry instructions RCL and RCR. They can initialize the carry
flag, CF, to a known state before execution of a rotate that moves the carry
bit into one end of the rotated operand.

STC (Set Carry Flag) sets the carry flag (CF) to 1.

Example:
  STC

CLC (Clear Carry Flag) zeros the carry flag (CF).

Example:
  CLC

CMC (Complement Carry Flag) reverses the current status of the carry flag
(CF).

Example:
  CMC


3.9.2  Direction Flag Control Instructions

The direction flag control instructions are specifically included to set or
clear the direction flag, DF, which controls the left-to-right or
right-to-left direction of string processing. IF DF=0, the processor
automatically increments the string memory pointers, SI and DI, after each
execution of a string primitive. If DF=1, the processor decrements these
pointer values. The initial state of DF is 0.

CLD (Clear Direction Flag) zeros DF, causing the string instructions to
auto-increment SI and/or DI. CLD does not affect any other flags.

Example:
  CLD

STD (Set Direction Flag) sets DF to 1, causing the string instructions to
auto-decrement SI and/or DI. STD does not affect any other flags.

Example:
  STD


3.9.3  Flag Transfer Instructions

Though specific instructions exist to alter CF and DF, there is no direct
method of altering the other flags. The flag transfer instructions allow a
program to alter the other flag bits with the bit manipulation instructions
after transferring these flags to the stack or the AH register.

The PUSHF and POPF instructions are also useful for preserving the state of
the flag register before executing a procedure.

LAHF (Load AH from Flags) copies SF, ZF, AF, PF, and CF to AH bits 7, 6, 4,
2, and 0, respectively (see figure 3-13). The contents of the remaining
bits (5, 3, and 1) are undefined. The flags remain unaffected. This
instruction can assist in converting 8080/8085 assembly language programs to
run on the base architecture of the 8086, 8088, 80186, 80188, and 80286.

Example:
  LAHF

SAHF (Store AH into Flags) transfers bits 7, 6, 4, 2, and 0 from AH into
SF, ZF, AF, PF, and CF, respectively (see figure 3-13). This instruction
also provides 8080/8085 compatibility with the 8086, 8088, 80186, 80188, and
80286.

Example:
  SAHF

PUSHF (Push Flags) decrements SP by two and then transfers all flags to the
word at the top of stack pointed to by SP (see figure 3-14). The flags
remain unaffected. This instruction enables a procedure to save the state of
the flag register for later use.

Example:
  PUSHF

POPF (Pop Flags) transfers specific bits from the word at the top of stack
into the low-order byte of the flag register (see figure 3-14). The
processor then increments SP by two.

Note that an application program in the protected virtual address mode may
not alter IOPL (the I/O privilege level flag) unless the program is
executing at privilege level 0. A program may alter IF (the interrupt flag)
only when executing at a level that is at least as privileged as IOPL.

Procedures may use this instruction to restore the flag status from a
previous value.

Example:
  POPF


Figure 3-13.  LAHF and SAHF

                        7    6    5    4    3    2    1    0
                   ‚ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠƒ
                   € SF  ZF œœœœ AF œœœœ PF œœœœ CF €
                   „¤¤¤¤¤¤¤…
                                  REGISTER AH

 LAHF loads five flags from the flag register into register AH. SAHF stores
 these same five flgs from AH into the flag register. The bit position of
 each flag is the same in AH as it is in the flag register. The remaining
 bits are indeterminate.


Figure 3-14.  PUSHF and POPF

        15  14  13  12  11  10   9   8   7   6   5   4   3   2   1   0
     ‚ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠƒ
     €œœœNT   IOPL OF DF IF TF SF ZF œœœAF œœœPF œœœCF €
     „¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤…
                               STACK WORD

 PUSHF decrements SP by 2 bytes (1 word) and copies the contents of the flag
 register to the top of the stack. POPF loads the flag register with the
 contents of the last word pushed onto the stack. The bit position of each
 flag is the same in the stack word as it is in the flag register. Only
 programs executing at the highest privilege level (level 0) may alter the
 2-bit IOPL flag. Only programs executing at a level at least as privileged
 as that indicated by IOPL may alter IF.


3.10  Binary-Coded Decimal Arithmetic Instructions

These instructions adjust the results of a previous arithmetic operation to
produce a valid packed or unpacked decimal result. These instructions
operate only on AL or AH registers.


3.10.1  Packed BCD Adjustment Instructions

DAA (Decimal Adjust) corrects the result of adding two valid packed decimal
operands in AL. DAA must always follow the addition of two pairs of packed
decimal numbers (one digit in each nibble) to obtain a pair of valid packed
decimal digits as results. The carry flag will be set if carry was needed.

Example:
  DAA

DAS (Decimal Adjust for Subtraction) corrects the result of subtracting two
valid packed decimal operands in AL. DAS must always follow the subtraction
of one pair of packed decimal numbers (one digit in each nibble) from
another to obtain a pair of valid packed decimal digits as results. The
carry flag will be set if a borrow was needed.

Example:
  DAS


3.10.2  Unpacked BCD Adjustment Instructions

AAA (ASCII Adjust for Addition) changes the contents of register AL to a
valid unpacked decimal number, and zeros the top 4 bits. AAA must always
follow the addition of two unpacked decimal operands in AL. The carry flag
will be set and AH will be incremented if a carry was necessary.

Example:
  AAA

AAS (ASCII Adjust for Subtraction) changes the contents of register AL to a
valid unpacked decimal number, and zeros the top 4 bits. AAS must always
follow the subtraction of one unpacked decimal operand from another in AL.
The carry flag will be set and AH decremented if a borrow was necessary.

Example:
  AAS

AAM (ASCII Adjust for Multiplication) corrects the result of a
multiplication of two valid unpacked decimal numbers. AAM must always follow
the multiplication of two decimal numbers to produce a valid decimal result.
The high order digit will be left in AH, the low order digit in AL.

Example:
  AAM

AAD (ASCII Adjust for Division) modifies the numerator in AH and AL to
prepare for the division of two valid unpacked decimal operands so that the
quotient produced by the division will be a valid unpacked decimal number.
AH should contain the high-order digit and AL the low-order digit. This
instruction will adjust the value and leave it in AL. AH will contain 0.

Example:
  AAD


3.11  Trusted Instructions

When operating in Protected Mode (Chapter 6 and following), the 80286
processor restricts the execution of trusted instructions according to the
Current Privilege Level (CPL) and the current value of IOPL, the 2-bit I/O
privilege flag. Only a program operating at the highest privilege level
(level 0) may alter the value of IOPL. A program may execute trusted
instructions only when executing at a level that is at least as privileged
as that specified by IOPL.

Trusted instructions control I/O operations, interprocessor communications
in a multiprocessor system, interrupt enabling, and the HLT instruction.

These protection considerations do not apply in the real address mode.


3.11.1  Trusted and Privileged Restrictions on POPF and IRET

POPF (POP Flags) and IRET (Interrupt Return) are not affected by IOPL
unless they attempt to alter IF (flag register bit 9). To change IF, POPF
must be part of a program that is executing at a privilege level greater
than or equal to that specified by IOPL. Any attempt to change IF when
CPL  0 will be ignored (i.e., the IF flag will be ignored). To change the
IOPL field, CPL must be zero.


3.11.2  Machine State Instructions

These trusted instructions affect the machine state control interrupt
response, the processor halt state, and the bus LOCK signal that regulates
memory access in multiprocessor systems.

CLI (Clear Interrupt-Enable Flag) and STI (Set Interrupt-Enable Flag) alter
bit 9 in the flag register. When IF=0, the processor responds only to
internal interrupts and to non-maskable external interrupts. When IF=1, the
processor responds to all interrupts. An interrupt service routine might
use these instructions to avoid further interruption while it processes a
previous interrupt request. As with the other flag bits, the processor
clears IF during initialization. These instructions may be executed only if
CPL ¾ IOPL. A protection exception will occur if they are executed when
CPL > IOPL.

Example:
  STI. Sets IF=1, which enables the processing of maskable external
  interrupts.

Example:
  CLI. Sets IF=0 to disable maskable interrupt processing.

HLT (Halt) causes the processor to suspend processing operations pending an
interrupt or a system reset. This trusted instruction provides an
alternative to an endless software loop in situations where a program must
wait for an interrupt. The return address saved after the interrupt will
point to the instruction immediately following HLT. This instruction may be
executed only when CPL = 0.

Example:
  HLT

LOCK (Assert Bus Lock) is a 1-byte prefix code that causes the processor to
assert the bus LOCK signal during execution of the instruction that follows.
LOCK does not affect any flags. LOCK may be used only when CPL ¾ IOPL. A
protection exception will occur if LOCK is used when CPL > IOPL.


3.11.3  Input and Output Instructions

These trusted instructions provide access to the processor's I/O ports to
transfer data to and from peripheral devices. In Protected Mode, these
instructions may be executed only when CPL ¾ IOPL.

IN (Input from Port) transfers a byte or a word from an input port to AL or
AX. If a program specifies AL with the IN instruction, the processor
transfers 8 bits from the selected port to AL. Alternately, if a program
specifies AX with the IN instruction, the processor transfers 16 bits from
the port to AX.

The program can specify the number of the port in two ways. Using an
immediate byte constant, the program can specify 256 8-bit ports numbered 0
through 255 or 128 16-bit ports numbered 0,2,4,...,252,254. Using the
current value contained in DX, the program can specify 8-bit ports numbered
0 through 65,535, or 16-bit ports using even-numbered ports in the same
range.

Example:
  IN AL,
  BYTE_PORT_NUMBER. Transfers 8 bits to AL from the port identified by the
  immediate constant BYTE_PORT_NUMBER.

OUT (Output to Port) transfers a byte or a word to an output port from AL
or AX. The program can specify the number of the port using the same methods
of the IN instruction.

Example:
  OUT AX, DX. Transfers 16 bits from AX to the port identified by the 16-bit
  number contained in DX.

INS and OUTS (Input String and Output String) cause block input or output
operations using a Repeat prefix. See Chapter 4 for more information on INS
and OUTS.


3.12  Processor Extension Instructions

Processor Extension provides an extension to the instruction set of the
base architecture (e.g., 80287). The NPX extends the instruction set of the
CPU-based architecture to support high-precision integer and floating-point
calculations. This extended instruction set includes arithmetic,
comparison, transcendental, and data transfer instructions. The NPX also
contains a set of useful constants to enhance the speed of numeric
calculations.

A program contains instructions for the NPX in line with the instructions
for the CPU. The system executes these instructions in the same order as
they appear in the instruction stream. The NPX operates concurrently with
the CPU to provide maximum throughput for numeric calculations.

The software emulation of the NPX is transparent to application software
but requires more time for execution.


3.12.1  Processor Extension Synchronization Instructions

Escape and wait instructions allow a processor extension such as the 80287
NPX to obtain instructions and data from the system bus and to wait for the
NPX to return a result.

ESC (Escape) identifies floating point numeric instructions and allows the
80286 to send the opcode to the NPX or to transfer a memory operand to the
NPX. The 80287 NPX uses the Escape instructions to perform high-performance,
high-precision floating point arithmetic that conforms to the IEEE floating
point standard 754.

Example:
  ESC 6, ARRAY [SI]. The CPU sends the escape opcode 6 and the location of
  the array pointed to by SI to the NPX.

WAIT (Wait) suspends program execution until the 80286 CPU detects a signal
on the BUSY pin. In a configuration that includes a numeric processor
extension, the NPX activates the BUSY pin to signal that it has completed
its processing task and that the CPU may obtain the results.

Example:
  WAIT


3.12.2  Numeric Data Processor Instructions

This section describes the categories of instructions available with
Numeric Data Processor systems that include a Numeric Processor Extension or
a software emulation of this processor extension.


3.12.2.1  Arithmetic Instructions

The extended instruction set includes not only the four arithmetic
operations (add, subtract, multiply, and divide), but also subtract-reversed
and divide-reversed instructions. The arithmetic functions include square
root, modulus, absolute value, integer part, change sign, scale exponent,
and extract exponent instructions.


3.12.2.2  Comparison Instructions

The comparison operations are the compare, examine, and test instructions.
Special forms of the compare instruction can optimize algorithms by allowing
comparisons of binary integers with real numbers in memory.


3.12.2.3  Transcendental Instructions

The instructions in this group perform the otherwise time-consuming
calculations for all common trigonometric, inverse trigonometric,
hyperbolic, inverse hyperbolic, logarithmic, and exponential functions. The
transcendental instructions include tangent, arctangent, 2 x-1, Y. log{2} X,
and Y. log{2} (X+1).


3.12.2.4  Data Transfer Instructions

The data transfer instructions move operands among the registers and
between a register and memory. This group includes the load, store, and
exchange instructions.


3.12.2.5  Constant Instructions

Each of the constant instructions loads a commonly used constant into an
NPX register. The values have a real precision of 64 bits and are accurate
to approximately 19 decimal places. The constants loaded by these
instructions include 0, 1, Pi, log{e} 10, log{2} e, log{10} 2, and log 2{e}.


Chapter 4  Extended Instruction Set

‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘

The instructions described in this chapter extend the capabilities of the
base architecture instruction set described in Chapter 3. These extensions
consist of new instructions and variations of some instructions that are not
strictly part of the base architecture (in other words, not included on the
8086 and 8088). These instructions are also available on the 80186 and
80188. The instruction variations, described in Chapter 3, include the
immediate forms of the PUSH and MUL instructions, PUSHA, POPA, and the
privilege level restrictions on POPF.

New instructions described in this chapter include the string input and
output instructions (INS and OUTS), the ENTER procedure and LEAVE procedure
instructions, and the check index BOUND instruction.


4.1  Block I/O Instructions

REP, the Repeat prefix, modifies INS and OUTS (the string I/O instructions)
to provide a means of transferring blocks of data between an I/O port and
Memory. These block I/O instructions are string primitives. They simplify
programming and increase the speed of data transfer by eliminating the need
to use a separate LOOP instruction or an intermediate register to hold the
data.

INS and OUTS are trusted instructions. To use trusted instructions, a
program must execute at a privilege level at least as privileged as that
specified by the 2-bit IOPL flag (CPL ¾ IOPL). Any attempt by a
less-privileged program to use a trusted instruction results in a
protection exception. See Chapter 7 for information on protection concepts.

One of two possible opcodes represents each string primitive depending on
whether it operates on byte strings or word strings. After each transfer,
the memory address in SI or DI is updated by 1 for byte values and by 2 for
word values. The value in the DF field determines if SI or DI is to be auto
incremented (DF=0) or auto decremented (DF=1).

INS and OUTS use DX to specify I/O ports numbered 0 through 65,535 or
16-bit ports using only even port addresses in the same range.

INS (Input String from Port) transfers a byte or a word string element from
an input port to memory. If a program specifies INSB, the processor
transfers 8 bits from the selected port to the memory location indicated by
ES:DI. Alternately, if a program specifies INSW, the processor transfers 16
bits from the port to the memory location indicated by ES:DI. The
destination segment register choice (ES) cannot be changed for the INS
instruction.

Combined with the REP prefix, INS moves a block of information from an
input port to a series of consecutive memory locations.

Example:
  REP INSB. The processor repeatedly transfers 8 bits to the memory
  location indicated by ES:DI from the port selected by the 16-bit port
  number contained in DX. Following each byte transfer, the CPU
  decrements CX. The instruction terminates the block transfer when CX=0.
  After decrementing CX, the processor increments DI by one if DF=0. It
  decrements DI by one if DF=1.

OUTS (Output String to Port) transfers a byte or a word string element to
an output port from memory. Combined with the REP prefix, OUTS moves a block
of information from a series of consecutive memory locations indicated by
DS:SI to an output port.

Example:
  REP OUTS WSTRING. Assuming that the program declares WSTRING to be a
  word-length string element, the assembler uses the 16-bit form of the OUTS
  instruction to create the object code for the program. The processor
  repeatedly transfers words from the memory locations indicated by DI to
  the output port selected by the 16-bit port number in DX.

Following each word transfer, the CPU decrements CX. The instruction
terminates the block transfer when CX=0. After decrementing CX, the
processor increments SI by two to point to the next word in memory if DF=0;
it decrements SI by two if DF=1.


4.2  High-Level Instructions

The instructions in this section provide machine-language functions
normally found only in high-level languages. These instructions include
ENTER and LEAVE, which simplify the programming of procedures, and BOUND,
which provides a simple method of testing an index against its predefined
range.

ENTER (Enter Procedure) creates the stack frame required by most
block-structured high-level languages. A LEAVE instruction at the end of a
procedure complements an ENTER at the beginning of the procedure to simplify
stack management and to control access to variables for nested procedures.

Example:
  ENTER 2048,3. Allocates 2048 bytes of dynamic storage on the stack and
  sets up pointers to two previous stack frames in the stack frame that
  ENTER creates for this procedure.

The ENTER instruction includes two parameters. The first parameter
specifies the number of bytes of dynamic storage to be allocated on the
stack for the routine being entered. The second parameter corresponds to the
lexical nesting level (0-31) of the routine. (Note that the lexical level
has no relationship to either the protection privilege levels or to the I/O
privilege level.)

The specified lexical level determines how many sets of stack frame
pointers the CPU copies into the new stack frame from the preceding frame.
This list of stack frame pointers is sometimes called the "display." The
first word of the display is a pointer to the last stack frame. This
pointer enables a LEAVE instruction to reverse the action of the previous
ENTER instruction by effectively discarding the last stack frame.

After ENTER creates the new display for a procedure, it allocates the
dynamic storage space for that procedure by decrementing SP by the number of
bytes specified in the first parameter. This new value of SP serves as a
base for all PUSH and POP operations within that procedure.

To enable a procedure to address its display, ENTER leaves BP pointing to
the beginning of the new stack frame. Data manipulation instructions that
specify BP as a base register implicitly address locations within the stack
segment instead of the data segment. Two forms of the ENTER instruction
exist: nested and non-nested. If the lexical level is 0, the non-nested form
is used. Since the second operand is 0, ENTER pushes BP, copies SP to BP and
then subtracts the first operand from SP. The nested form of ENTER occurs
when the second parameter (lexical level) is not 0. Figure 4-1 gives the
formal definition of ENTER.

The main procedure (with other procedures nested within) operates at the
highest lexical level, level 1. The first procedure it calls operates at the
next deeper lexical level, level 2. A level 2 procedure can access the
variables of the main program which are at fixed locations specified by the
compiler. In the case of level 1, ENTER allocates only the requested dynamic
storage on the stack because there is no previous display to copy.

A program operating at a higher lexical level calling a program at a lower
lexical level requires that the called procedure should have access to the
variables of the calling program. ENTER provides this access through a
display that provides addressability to the calling program's stack frame.

A procedure calling another procedure at the same lexical level implies
that they are parallel procedures and that the called procedure should not
have access to the variables of the calling procedure. In this case, ENTER
copies only that portion of the display from the calling procedure which
refers to previously nested procedures operating at higher lexical levels.
The new stack frame does not include the pointer for addressing the calling
procedure's stack frame.

ENTER treats a reentrant procedure as a procedure calling another procedure
at the same lexical level. In this case, each succeeding iteration of the
reentrant procedure can address only its own variables and the variables of
the calling procedures at higher lexical levels. A reentrant procedure can
always address its own variables; it does not require pointers to the stack
frames of previous iterations.

By copying only the stack frame pointers of procedures at higher lexical
levels, ENTER makes sure that procedures access only those variables of
higher lexical levels, not those at parallel lexical levels (see figure
4-2). Figures 4-2a, 4-2b, 4-2c, and 4-2d demonstrate the actions of the
ENTER instruction if the modules shown in figure 4-1 were to call one
another in alphabetic order.

Block-structured high-level languages can use the lexical levels defined by
ENTER to control access to the variables of previously nested procedures.
For example, if PROCEDURE A calls PROCEDURE B which, in turn, calls
PROCEDURE C, then PROCEDURE C will have access to the variables of MAIN and
PROCEDURE A, but not PROCEDURE B because they operate at the same lexical
level. Following is the complete definition of the variable access for
figure 4-2.

  1.  MAIN PROGRAM has variables at fixed locations.

  2.  PROCEDURE A can access only the fixed variables of MAIN.

  3.  PROCEDURE B can access only the variables of PROCEDURE A and MAIN.
      PROCEDURE B cannot access the variables of PROCEDURE C or PROCEDURE D.

  4.  PROCEDURE C can access only the variables of PROCEDURE A and MAIN.
      PROCEDURE C cannot access the variables of PROCEDURE B or PROCEDURE D.

  5.  PROCEDURE D can access the variables of PROCEDURE C, PROCEDURE A, and
      MAIN. PROCEDURE D cannot access the variables of PROCEDURE B.

ENTER at the beginning of the MAIN PROGRAM creates dynamic storage space
for MAIN but copies no pointers. The first and only word in the display
points to itself because there is no previous value for LEAVE to return to
BP. See figure 4-2a.

After MAIN calls PROCEDURE A, ENTER creates a new display for PROCEDURE A
with the first word pointing to the previous value of BP (BPM for LEAVE to
return to the MAIN stack frame) and the second word pointing to the current
value of BP. Procedure A can access variables in MAIN since MAIN is at level
1. Therefore the base for the dynamic storage for MAIN is at [BP-2]. All
dynamic variables for MAIN will be at a fixed offset from this value. See
figure 4-2b.

After PROCEDURE A calls PROCEDURE B, ENTER creates a new display for
PROCEDURE B with the first word pointing to the previous value of BP, the
second word pointing to the value of BP for MAIN, and the third word
pointing to the value of BP for A and the last word pointing to the current
BP. B can access variables in A and MAIN by fetching from the display the
base addresses of the respective dynamic storage areas. See figure 4-2c.

After PROCEDURE B calls PROCEDURE C, ENTER creates a new display for
PROCEDURE C with the first word pointing to the previous value of BP, the
second word pointing to the value of BP for MAIN, and the third word
pointing to the BP value for A and the third word pointing to the current
value of BP. Because PROCEDURE B and PROCEDURE C have the same lexical
level, PROCEDURE C is not allowed access to variables in B and therefore
does not receive a pointer to the beginning of PROCEDURE B's stack frame.
See figure 4-2d.

LEAVE (Leave Procedure) reverses the action of the previous ENTER
instruction. The LEAVE instruction does not include any operands.

Example:
  LEAVE. First, LEAVE copies BP to SP to release all stack space allocated
  to the procedure by the most recent ENTER instruction. Next, LEAVE pops
  the old value of BP from the stack. A subsequent RET instruction can then
  remove any arguments that were pushed on the stack by the calling program
  for use by the called procedure.

BOUND (Detect Value Out of Range) verifies that the signed value contained
in the specified register lies within specified limits. An interrupt (INT 5)
occurs if the value contained in the register is less than the lower bound
or greater than the upper bound.

The BOUND instruction includes two operands. The first operand specifies
the register being tested. The second operand contains the effective
relative address of the two signed BOUND limit values. The BOUND instruction
assumes that it can obtain the upper limit from the memory word that
immediately follows the lower limit. These limit values cannot be register
operands; if they are, an invalid opcode exception occurs.

BOUND is useful for checking array bounds before using a new index value to
access an element within the array. BOUND provides a simple way to check the
value of an index register before the program overwrites information in a
location beyond the limit of the array.

The two-word block of memory that specifies the lower and upper limits of
an array might typically reside just before the array itself. This makes the
array bounds accessible at a constant offset of -4 from the beginning of the
array. Because the address of the array will already be present in a
register, this practice avoids extra calculations to obtain the effective
address of the array bounds.

Example:
  BOUND BX,ARRAY-4. Compares the value in BX with the lower limit at
  address ARRAY-4 and the upper limit at address ARRAY-2. If the signed
  value in BX is less than the lower bound or greater than the upper bound,
  the interrupt for this instruction (INT 5) occurs. Otherwise, this
  instruction has no effect.


Figure 4-1. Formal Definition of the ENTER Instruction

The Formal Definition Of The ENTER Instruction. For All Cases Is Given By
The Following Listing. LEVEL Denotes The Value Of The Second Operand.

Push BP
Set a temporary value FRAME_PTR:=SP
If LEVEL > 0 then
   Repeat (LEVEL - 1) times:
      BP:=BP - 2
      Push the word pointed to by BP
   End repeat
   Push FRAME_PTR
End if
BP:=FRAME_PTR
SP:=SP - first operand.


Figure 4-2.  Variable Access in Nested Procedures

                   ‚ƒ
                   €      MAIN PROGRAM (LEXICAL LEVEL 1)     €
                   € ‚ƒ €
                   € €    PROCEDURE A (LEXICAL LEVEL 2)    € €
                   € €   ‚ƒ   € €
                   € €   €PROCEDURE B (LEXICAL LEVEL 3)€   € €
                   € €   „…   € €
                   € €                                     € €
                   € € ‚ƒ € €
                   € € €  PROCEDURE C (LEXICAL LEVEL 3)  € € €
                   € € € ‚ƒ € € €
                   € € € €PROCEDURE D (LEXICAL LEVEL 4)€ € € €
                   € € € „… € € €
                   € € €                                 € € €
                   € € „… € €
                   € €                                     € €
                   € „… €
                   €                                         €
                   „…


Figure 4-2a. Stack Frame for MAIN at Level 1

                                           
                            € 15          0 €
                            †‡‘“
                            €    OLD BP     € 
              BP FOR MAIN‘‘†‡ –‘DISPLAY
                            €      BPM
BPM = BP value for MAIN     € 
                            †‡‘•
                            €               €
                            €               €
                            €               €ØDYNAMIC
                            €               € STORAGE
                            €               €
                       SP‘‘†‡
                            €               €


Figure 4-2b. Stack Frame for PROCEDURE A

                            €15            0€
                            †‡
                            €     OLD BP    €
                            †‡
                            €      BPM      €
                            †‡
                            €               €
                            €               €
                            €               €
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                            †‡‘“
                            €      BPM      € 
                 BP FOR A‘‘†‡ 
                            €      BPM      € 
                            †‡ –‘DISPLAY
                            €      BPA
BPA = BP value for PROCEDURE A     € 
                            †‡Į
                            €               € 
                            €               € –‘DYNAMIC
                            €               €  STORAGE
                            €               € 
                       SP‘‘†‡‘•
                            €               €
                            †‡
                            €               €


Figure 4-2c. Stack Frame for PROCEDURE B at Level 3 Called from A

                            €15            0€
                            †‡
                            €     OLD BP    €
                            †‡
                            €      BPM      €
                            †‡
                            €               €
                            €               €
                            €               €
                            €               €
                            †‡
                            €      BPM      €
                            †‡
                            €      BPM      €
                            †‡
                            €      BPA      €
                            †‡
                            €               €
                            €               €
                            €               €
                            €               €
                            †‡‘“
                            €      BPA      € 
                       BP‘‘†‡ 
                            €      BPM      € 
                            †‡ –‘DISPLAY
                            €      BPA      € 
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                            €      BPB      € 
                            †‡Į
                            €               € 
                            €               € –‘DYNAMIC
                            €               €  STORAGE
                            €               € 
                            †‡‘•
                            €               €
                       SP‘‘†‡
                            €               €


Figure 4-2d. Stack Frame for PROCEDURE C at Level 3 Called from B

                            €15            0€
                            †‡
                            €     OLD BP    €
                            †‡
                            €      BPM      €
                            †‡
                            €               €
                            €               €
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                            †‡
                            €      BPM      €
                            †‡
                            €      BPM      €
                            †‡
                            €      BPA      €
                            †‡
                            €               €
                            €               €
                            €               €
                            €               €
                            †‡
                            €      BPA      €
                       BP‘‘†‡‘“
                            €      BPM      € 
                            †‡ 
                            €      BPA      € –‘DISPLAY
                            †‡ 
                            €      BPB      € 
                            †‡Į
                            €               € 
                            €               € –‘DYNAMIC
                            €               €  STORAGE
                            €               € 
                       SP‘‘†‡‘•
                            €               €


Chapter 5  Real Address Mode

‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘

The 80286 can be operated in either of two modes according to the status of
the Protection Enabled bit of the MSW status register. In contrast to the
"modes" and "mode bits" of some processors, however, the 80286 modes do not
represent a radical transition between conflicting architectures. Instead,
the setting of the Protection Enabled bit simply determines whether certain
advanced features, in addition to the baseline architecture of the 80286,
are to be made available to system designers and programmers.

If the Protection Enabled (PE) bit is set by the programmer, the processor
changes into Protected Virtual Address Mode. In this mode of operation,
memory addressing is performed in terms of virtual addresses, with on-chip
mapping mechanisms performing the virtual-to-physical translation. Only in
this mode can the system designer make use of the advanced architectural
features of the 80286: virtual memory support, system-wide protection, and
built-in multitasking mechanisms are among the new features provided in this
mode of operation. Refer to Part II of this book (Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9,
10, and 11) for details on Protected Mode operation.

Initially, upon system reset, the processor starts up in Real Address Mode.
In this mode of operation, all memory addressing is performed in terms of
real physical addresses. In effect, the architecture of the 80286 in
this mode is identical to that of the 8086 and other processors in the 8086
family. The principal features of this baseline architecture have already
been discussed throughout Part I (Chapters 2, 3, and 4) of this book.
This chapter discusses certain additional topics‘‘addressing, interrupt
handling, and system initialization‘‘that complete the system programmer's
view of the 80286 in Real Address Mode.


5.1  Addressing and Segmentation

Like other processors in the 8086 family, the 80286 provides a one-megabyte
memory space (2^(20) bytes) when operated in Real Address Mode. Physical
addresses are the 20-bit values that uniquely identify each byte location in
this address space. Physical addresses, therefore, may range from 0 through
FFFFFH. Address bits A20-A23 may not always be zero in Real Address Mode.
A20-A23 should not be used by the system while the 80286 is operating in
Real Address Mode.

An address is specified by a 32-bit pointer containing two components: (1)
a 16-bit effective address offset that determines the displacement, in
bytes, of a particular location within a segment; and (2) a 16-bit segment
selector component that determines the starting address of the segment.
Both components of an address may be referenced explicitly by an instruction
(such as JMP, LES, LDS, or CALL); more often, however, the segment selector
is simply the contents of a segment register.

The interpretation of the first component, the effective address offset, is
straight-forward. Segments are at most 64K (2^(16)) bytes in length, so an
unsigned 16-bit quantity is sufficient to address any arbitrary byte
location with a segment. The lowest-addressed byte within a segment has an
offset of 0, and the highest-addressed byte has an offset of FFFFH. Data
operands must be completely contained within a segment and must be
contiguous. (These rules apply in both modes.)

A segment selector is the second component of a logical address. This
16-bit quantity specifies the starting address of a segment within a
physical address space of 2^(20) bytes.

Whenever the 80286 accesses memory in Real Address Mode, it generates a
20-bit physical address from a segment selector and offset value. The
segment selector value is left-shifted four bit positions to form the
segment base address. The offset is extended with 4 high order zeroes and
added to the base to form the physical address (see figure 5-1).

Therefore, every segment is required to start at a byte address that is
evenly divisible by 16; thus, each segment is positioned at a 20-bit
physical address whose least significant four bits are zeroes. This
arrangement allows the 80286 to interpret a segment selector as the
high-order 16 bits of a 20-bit segment base address.

No limit or access checks are performed by the 80286 in the Real Address
Mode. All segments are readable, writable, executable, and have a limit of
0FFFFH (65,535 bytes). To save physical memory, you can use unused portions
of a segment as another segment by overlapping the two (see figure 5-2).
The Intel 8086 software development tools support this feature via the
segment override and group operators. However, programs that access segment
B from segment A become incompatible in the protected virtual address mode.


Figure 5-1a.  Forming the Segment Base Address

                      16 BIT SEGMENT SELECTOR
         ’‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘™‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“
         15                                              0
         ‚ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ      ƒ
         €                                0 0 0 0
         „¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤      …
         19                                                          0


Figure 5-1b. Forming the 20-bit Physical Address in the Real Address Mode

               ‚ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ      ƒ
 SEGMENT BASE  €                                0 0 0 0
               „¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤      …
               19                                                          0
       +
               ‚      ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠƒ
    OFFSET      0 0 0 0                                 €
               „      ¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤…
               19          15                                              0
       =
               ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘
               ‚ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠƒ
   PHYSICAL    €                                        €
   ADDRESS     „¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤…
               19                                                          0


Figure 5-2.  Overlapping Segments to Save Physical Memory

                                           
                            €               €
                            Ƒ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘Ī ‘‘‘
                            €               €  
                            €               €  
                            €               € 64K SEGMENT B
                            €               €  
                        ‘‘‘ Ī‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘Ī  
                           €    OVERLAP    €  
                           †‡‘‘‘‘‘ BASE OF
              SEGMENT A 64K €               €     SEGMENT B
                           €               €
                           €               €
                           €               €
                        ‘‘‘ †‡‘‘‘‘‘ BASE OF
                            €               €     SEGMENT A
                                           


5.2  Interrupt Handling

Program interrupts may be generated in either of two distinct ways. An
internal interrupt is caused directly by the currently executing program.
The execution of a particular instruction results in the occurrence of an
interrupt, whether intentionally (e.g., an INT n instruction) or as an
unanticipated exception (e.g., invalid opcode). On the other hand, an
external interrupt occurs asynchronously as the result of an event
external to the processor, and bears no necessary relationship with the
currently executing program. The INTR and NMI pins of the 80286 provide the
means by which external hardware signals the occurrence of such events.


5.2.1  Interrupt Vector Table

Whatever its origin, whether internal or external, an interrupt demands
immediate attention from an associated service routine. Control must be
transferred, at least for the moment, from the currently executing program
to the appropriate interrupt service routine. By means of interrupt
vectors, the 80286 handles such control transfers uniformly for both kinds
of interrupts.

An interrupt vector is an unsigned integer in the range of 0-255; every
interrupt is assigned such a vector. In some cases, the assignment is
predetermined and fixed: for example, an external NMI interrupt is
invariably associated with vector 2, while an internal divide exception is
always associated with vector 0. In most cases, however, the association of
an interrupt and a vector is established dynamically. An external INTR
interrupt, for example, supplies a vector in response to an interrupt
acknowledge bus cycle, while the INT n instruction supplies a vector
incorporated within the instruction itself. The vector is shifted two places
left to form a byte address into the table (see figure 5-3).

In any case, the 80286 uses the interrupt vector as an index into a table
in order to determine the address of the corresponding interrupt service
routine. For Real Address Mode, this table is known as the Interrupt Vector
Table. Its format is illustrated in figure 5-3.

The Interrupt Vector Table consists of as many as 256 consecutive entries,
each four bytes long. Each entry defines the address of a service routine to
be associated with the correspondingly numbered interrupt vector code.
Within each entry, an address is specified by a full 32-bit pointer that
consists of a 16-bit offset and a 16-bit segment selector. Interrupts 0-31
are reserved by Intel.

In Real Address Mode, the interrupt table can be accessed directly at
physical memory location 0 through 1023. In the protected virtual address
mode, however, the interrupt vector table has no fixed physical address and
cannot be directly accessed. Therefore, Real Address mode programs that
directly manipulate the interrupt vector table will not work in the
protected virtual address mode.


Table 5-1. Interrupt Processing Order

Order     Interrupt
1.        Instruction exception
2.        Single step
3.        NMI
4.        Processor extension segment overrun
5.        INTR


Figure 5-3.  Interrupt Vector Table for Real Address Mode

     POWER TO
 INTERRUPT HANDLER                    PHYSICAL
       FOR:                           ADDRESS

                   ‚ƒ
  INTERRUPT 255    €    POINTER    €   1020
                   †‡
  INTERRUPT 254    €    POINTER    €   1018
                   †‡
  INTERRUPT 253    €    POINTER    €“ 1012
                   †‡ ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“
                   €               €   ‚Š¤ŠŠƒ
                   €               €   €0 Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø 0   VECTOR   00€
                   ø               ø   „¤¤¤…
                   €               €   19              10 9           2 1 0
                   €               €
                   †‡
  INTERRUPT 1      €    POINTER    €   4
                   †‡
  INTERRUPT 0      €    POINTER    €   0
                   „…


5.2.1.1  Interrupt Priorities

When simultaneous interrupt requests occur, they are processed in a fixed
order as shown in table 5-1. Interrupt processing involves saving the
flags, the return address, and setting CS:IP to point at the first
instruction of the interrupt handler. If other interrupts remain enabled,
they are processed before the first instruction of the current interrupt
handler is executed. The last interrupt processed is therefore the first one
serviced.


5.2.2  Interrupt Procedures

When an interrupt occurs in Real Address Mode, the 8086 performs the
following sequence of steps. First, the FLAGS register, as well as the old
values of CS and IP, are pushed onto the stack (see figure 5-4). The IF and
TF flag bits are cleared. The vector number is then used to read the
address of the interrupt service routine from the interrupt table. Execution
begins at this address.

Thus, when control is passed to an interrupt service routine, the return
linkage is placed on the stack, interrupts are disabled, and single-step
trace (if in effect) is turned off. The IRET instruction at the end of the
interrupt service routine will reverse these steps before transferring
control to the program that was interrupted.

An interrupt service routine may affect registers other than other IP, CS,
and FLAGS. It is the responsibility of an interrupt routine to save
additional context information before proceeding so that the state of the
machine can be restored upon completion of the interrupt service routine
(PUSHA and POPA instructions are intended for these operations). Finally,
execution of the IRET instruction pops the old IP, CS, and FLAGS from the
stack and resumes the execution of the interrupted program.


Figure 5-4. Stack Structure after Interrupt (Real Address Mode)
 
                               €               €
                               ø               ø
                              †‡
                              €   OLD FLAGS   €
                 INCREASING   †‡
                 ADDRESSES    €    OLD CS     €
                              †‡
                              €    OLD IP     €‘‘ 
                              †‡
                               €              €
                               ø              ø
                               €              €


5.2.3  Reserved and Dedicated Interrupt Vectors

In general, the system designer is free to use almost any interrupt vectors
for any given purpose. Some of the lowest-numbered vectors, however, are
reserved by Intel for dedicated functions; their use is specifically implied
by certain types of exceptions. None of the first 32 vectors should be
defined by the user; these vectors are either invoked by pre-defined
exceptions or reserved by Intel for future expansion. Table 5-2 shows the
dedicated and reserved vectors of the 80286 in Real Address Mode.

The purpose and function of the dedicated interrupt vectors may be
summarized as follows (the saved value of CS:IP will include all leading
prefixes):

  Ž  Divide error (Interrupt 0). This exception will occur if the quotient
     is too large or an attempt is made to divide by zero using either the
     DIV or IDIV instruction. The saved CS:IP points at the first byte of
     the failing instruction. DX and AX are unchanged.

  Ž  Single-Step (Interrupt 1). This interrupt will occur after
     each instruction if the Trap Flag (TF) bit of the FLAGS register is
     set. Of course, TF is cleared upon entry to this or any other interrupt
     to prevent infinite recursion. The saved value of CS:IP will point to
     the next instruction.

  Ž  Nonmaskable (Interrupt 2). This interrupt will occur upon receipt of
     an external signal on the NMI pin. Typically, the nonmaskable interrupt
     is used to implement power-fail/auto-restart procedures. The saved
     value of CS:IP will point to the first byte of the interrupted
     instruction.

  Ž  Breakpoint (Interrupt 3). Execution of the one-byte breakpoint
     instruction causes this interrupt to occur. This instruction is useful
     for the implementation of software debuggers since it requires only one
     code byte and can be substituted for any instruction opcode byte. The
     saved value of CS:IP will point to the next instruction.

  Ž  INTO Detected Overflow (Interrupt 4). Execution of the INTO
     conditional software interrupt instruction will cause this interrupt
     to occur if the overflow bit (OF) of the FLAGS register is set. The
     saved value of CS:IP will point to the next instruction.

  Ž  BOUND Range Exceeded (Interrupt 5). Execution of the BOUND instruction
     will cause this interrupt to occur if the specified array index is
     found to be invalid with respect to the given array bounds. The saved
     value of CS:IP will point to the first byte of the BOUND instruction.

  Ž  Invalid Opcode (Interrupt 6). This exception will occur if execution
     of an invalid opcode is attempted. (In Real Address Mode, most of the
     Protected Virtual Address Mode instructions are classified as invalid
     and should not be used). This interrupt can also occur if the
     effective address given by certain instructions, notably BOUND, LDS,
     LES, and LIDT, specifies a register rather than a memory location. The
     saved value of CS:IP will point to the first byte of the
     invalid instruction or opcode.

  Ž  Processor Extension Not Available (Interrupt 7). Execution of the ESC
     instruction will cause this interrupt to occur if the status bits of
     the MSW indicate that processor extension functions are to be emulated
     in software. Refer to section 10.2.1 for more details. The saved value
     of CS:IP will point to the first byte of the ESC or the WAIT
     instruction.

  Ž  Interrupt Table Limit Too Small (Interrupt 8). This interrupt will
     occur if the limit of the interrupt vector table was changed from 3FFH
     by the LIDT instruction and an interrupt whose vector is outside the
     limit occurs. The saved value of CS:IP will point to the first byte of
     the instruction that caused the interrupt or that was ready to execute
     before an external interrupt occurred. No error code is pushed.

  Ž  Processor Extension Segment Overrun Interrupt (Interrupt 9). The
     interrupt will occur if a processor extension memory operand does not
     fit in a segment. The saved CS:IP will point at the first byte of the
     instruction that caused the interrupt.

  Ž  Segment Overrun Exception (Interrupt 13). This interrupt will occur if
     a memory operand does not fit in a segment. In Real Mode this will
     occur only when a word operand begins at segment offset 0FFFFH. The
     saved CS:IP will point at the first byte of the instruction that
     caused the interrupt. No error code is pushed.

  Ž  Processor Extension Error (Interrupt 16). This interrupt occurs after
     the numeric instruction that caused the error. It can only occur while
     executing a subsequent WAIT or ESC. The saved value of CS:IP will point
     to the first byte of the ESC or the WAIT instruction. The address of
     the failed numeric instruction is saved in the NPX.


Table 5-2. Dedicated and Reserved Interrupt Vectors in Real Address Mode


Function                  Interrupt   Related Instructions    Return Address
                          Number                              Before Instruction
                                                              Causing Exception?
Divide error exception        0       DIV, IDIV               Yes
Single step interrupt         1       All                     N/A
NMI interrupt                 2       All                     N/A
Breakpoint interrupt          3       INT                     N/A
INTO detected overflow        4       INTO                    No
exception
BOUND range exceeded          5       BOUND                   Yes
exception
Invalid opcode exception      6       Any undefined opcode    Yes
Processor extension           7       ESC or WAIT             Yes
not available exception
Interrupt table               8       LIDT                    Yes
limit too small
Processor extension           9       ESC                     Yes
segment overrun interrupt
Segment overrun exception     13      Any memory reference    Yes
                                      instruction that
                                      attempts to reference
                                      16-bit word at
                                      offset 0FFFFH.
Reserved                      10-12,
                              14, 15
Processor extension           16      ESC or WAIT             N/A
error interrupt
Reserved                      17-31
User defined                  32-255

N/A = Not Applicable


5.3  System Initialization

The 80286 provides an orderly way to start or restart an executing system.
Upon receipt of the RESET signal, certain processor registers go into the
determinate state shown in table 5-3.

Since the CS register contains F000 (thus specifying a code segment
starting at physical address F0000) and the instruction pointer contains
FFF0, the processor will execute its first instruction at physical address
FFFF0H. The uppermost 16 bytes of physical memory are therefore reserved
for initial startup logic. Ordinarily, this location contains an
intersegment direct JMP instruction whose target is the actual beginning of
a system initialization or restart program.

Some of the steps normally performed by a system initialization routine are
as follows:

  Ž  Allocate a stack.

  Ž  Load programs and data from secondary storage into memory.

  Ž  Initialize external devices.

  Ž  Enable interrupts (i.e., set the IF bit of the FLAGS register). Set
     any other desired FLAGS bit as well.

  Ž  Set the appropriate MSW flags if a processor extension is present, or
     if processor extension functions are to be emulated by software.

  Ž  Set other registers, as appropriate, to the desired initial values.

  Ž  Execute. (Ordinarily, this last step is performed as an intersegment
     JMP to the main system program.)


Table 5-3. Processor State after RESET

Register     Contents
FLAGS        0002
MSW          FFF0
IP           FFF0
CS           F000
DS           0000
SS           0000
ES           0000


Chapter 6  Memory Management and Virtual Addressing

‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘

In Protected Virtual Address Mode, the 80286 provides an advanced
architecture that retains substantial compatibility with the 8086 and other
processors in the 8086 family. In many respects, the baseline architecture
of the processor remains constant regardless of the mode of operation.
Application programmers continue to use the same set of instructions,
addressing modes, and data types in Protected Mode as in Real Address Mode.

The major difference between the two modes of operation is that the
Protected Mode provides system programmers with additional architectural
features, supplementary to the baseline architecture, that can be used to
good advantage in the design and implementation of advanced systems.
Especially noteworthy are the mechanisms provided for memory management,
protection, and multitasking.

This chapter focuses on the memory management mechanisms of Protected Mode;
the concept of a virtual address and the process of virtual-to-physical
address translation are described in detail in this chapter. Subsequent
chapters deal with other key aspects of Protected Mode operation. Chapter 7
discusses the issue of protection and the integrated mechanisms that
support a system-wide protection policy. Chapter 8 discusses the notion of
a task and its central role in the 80286 architecture. Chapters 9, 10, and
11 discuss certain additional topics‘‘interrupt handling, special
instructions, system initialization, etc.‘‘that complete the system
programmer's view of 80286 Protected Mode.


6.1  Memory Management Overview

A memory management scheme interposes a mapping operation between logical
addresses (i.e., addresses as they are viewed by programs) and physical
addresses (i.e., actual addresses in real memory). Since the logical address
spaces are independent of physical memory (dynamically relocatable), the
mapping (the assignment of real address space to virtual address space) is
transparent to software. This allows the program development tools (for
static systems) or the system software (for reprogrammable systems) to
control the allocation of space in real memory without regard to the
specifics of individual programs.

Application programs may be translated and loaded independently since they
deal strictly with virtual addresses. Any program can be relocated to use
any available segments of physical memory.

The 80286, when operated in Protected Mode, provides an efficient on-chip
memory management architecture. Moreover, as described in Chapter 11, the
80286 also supports the implementation of virtual memory systems‘‘that is,
systems that dynamically swap chunks of code and data between real memory
and secondary storage devices (e.g., a disk) independent of and transparent
to the executing application programs. Thus, a program-visible address is
more aptly termed a virtual address rather than a logical address since it
may actually refer to a location not currently present in real memory.

Memory management, then, consists of a mechanism for mapping the virtual
addresses that are visible to the program onto the physical addresses of
real memory. With the 80286, segmentation is the key to virtual memory
addressing. Virtual memory is partitioned into a number of individual
segments, which are the units of memory that are mapped into physical memory
and swapped to and from secondary storage devices. Most of this chapter is
devoted to a detailed discussion of the mapping and virtual memory
mechanisms of the 80286.

The concept of a task also plays a significant role in memory management
since distinct memory mappings may be assigned to the different tasks in a
multitask or multi-user environment. A complete discussion of tasks is
deferred until Chapter 8, "Tasks and State Transition." For present
purposes, it is sufficient to think of a task as an ongoing process, or
execution path, that is dedicated to a particular function. In a multi-user
time-sharing environment, for example, the processing required to interact
with a particular user may be considered as a single task, functionally
independent of the other tasks (i.e., users) in the system.


6.2  Virtual Addresses

In Protected Mode, application programs deal exclusively with virtual
addresses; programs have no access whatsoever to the actual physical
addresses generated by the processor. As discussed in Chapter 2, an address
is specified by a program in terms of two components: (1) a 16-bit
effective address offset that determines the displacement, in bytes, of a
location within a segment; and (2) a 16-bit segment selector that uniquely
references a particular segment. Jointly, these two components constitute a
complete 32-bit address (pointer data type), as shown in figure 6-1.

These 32-bit virtual addresses are manipulated by programs in exactly the
same way as the two-component addresses of Real Address Mode. After a
program loads the segment selector component of an address into a segment
register, each subsequent reference to locations within the selected
segment requires only a 16-bit offset be specified. Locality of reference
will ordinarily insure that addresses can be specified very efficiently
using only 16-bit offsets.

An important difference between Real Address Mode and Protected Mode,
however, concerns the actual format and information content of segment
selectors. In Real Address Mode, as with the 8086 and other processors in
the 8086 family, a 16-bit selector is merely the upper bits of a segment's
physical base address. By contrast, segment selectors in Protected Mode
follow an entirely different format, as illustrated by figure 6-1.

Two of the selector bits, designated as the RPL field in figure 6-1, are
not actually involved in the selection and specification of segments; their
use is discussed in Chapter 7.

The remaining 14 bits of the selector component uniquely designate a
particular segment. The virtual address space of a program, therefore, may
encompass as many as 16,384 (2^(14)) distinct segments. Segments themselves
are of variable size, ranging from as small as a single byte to as large as
64K (2^(16)) bytes. Thus, a program's virtual address space may contain,
altogether, up to a full gigabyte (2^(30) = 2^(14) * 2^(16)) of individually
addressable byte locations.

The entirety of a program's virtual address space is further subdivided
into two separate halves, as distinguished by the TI ("table indicator") bit
in the virtual address. These two halves are the global address space and
the local address space.

The global address space is used for system-wide data and procedures
including operating system software, library routines, runtime language
support and other commonly shared system services. (To application programs,
the operating system appears to be a set of service routines that are
accessible to all tasks.) Global space is shared by all tasks to avoid
unnecessary replication of system service routines and to facilitate shared
data and interrupt handling. Global address space is defined by addresses
with a zero in the TI bit position; it is identically mapped for all tasks
in the system.

The other half of the virtual address space‘‘comprising those addresses
with the TI bit set‘‘is separately mapped for each task in the system.
Because such an address space is local to the task for which it is defined,
it is referred to as a local address space. In general, code and data
segments within a task's local address space are private to that particular
task or user. Figure 6-2 illustrates the task isolation made possible by
partitioning the virtual address spaces into local and global regions.

Within each of the two regions addressable by a program‘‘either the global
address space or a particular local address space‘‘as many as 8,192 (2^(13))
distinct segments may be defined. The INDEX field of the segment selector
allows for a unique specification of each of these segments. This 13-bit
quantity acts as an index into a memory-resident table, called a descriptor
table, that records the mapping between segment address and the physical
locations allocated to each distinct segment. (These descriptor tables, and
their role in virtual-to-physical address translation, are described in the
sections that follow.)

In summary, a Protected Mode virtual address is a 32-bit pointer to a
particular byte location within a one-gigabyte virtual address space. Each
such pointer consists of a 16-bit selector component and a 16-bit offset
component. The selector component, in turn, comprises a 13-bit table index,
a 1-bit table indicator (local versus global), and a 2-bit RPL field; all
but this last field serve to select a particular segment from among the 16K
segments in a task's virtual address space. The offset component of a full
pointer is an unsigned 16-bit integer that specifies the desired byte
location within the selected segment.


Figure 6-1.  Format of the Segment Selector Component

                             32-BIT POINTER
                ’‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘™‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“
                31                16 15                 0
               ‚Šƒ
               €  SEGMENT SELECTOR     SEGMENT OFFSET   €
               „¤…
                                   
                                   
                                   
            ’‘‘•                    ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“
            15                                    3  2  1  0
            ‚ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠŠƒ
            €                  INDEX               TI RPL €
            „¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤…
            ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘˜‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•
                                SELECTOR


Figure 6-2.  Address Spaces and Task Isolation

                            ’‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“
                             ‚ƒ 
                             €TASK 1    € 
                             €LOCAL     € 
 TASK 3                      €ADDRESS   € 
 VIRTUAL ADDRESS SPACE “     €SPACE     € ‘‘‘‘TASK 1
                            „…      VIRTUAL ADDRESS SPACE
              ’‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“
               ‚ƒ’‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“
               €TASK 3    € ‚ƒ   ‚ƒ 
               €LOCAL     € €GLOBAL  €   €TASK 2    € 
               €ADDRESS   € €ADDRESS €   €LOCAL     € 
               €SPACE     € €SPACE   €   €ADDRESS   € 
               „… „…   €SPACE     € 
              ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•• „… 
                             ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•
                                           
                                           ”TASK 2
                                            VIRTUAL ADDRESS SPACE


6.3  Descriptor Tables

A descriptor table is a memory-resident table either defined by program
development tools in a static system or controlled by operating system
software in systems that are reprogrammable. The descriptor table contents
govern the interpretation of virtual addresses. Whenever the 80286 decodes
a virtual address, translating a full 32-bit pointer into a corresponding
24-bit physical address, it implicitly references one of these tables.

Within a Protected Mode system, there are ordinarily several descriptor
tables resident in memory. One of these is the global descriptor table
(GDT); this table provides a complete description of the global address
space. In addition, there may be one or more local descriptor tables
(LDTs), each describing the local address space of one or more tasks.

For each task in the system, a pair of descriptor tables‘‘consisting of the
GDT (shared by all tasks) and a particular LDT (private to the task or to a
group of closely related tasks)‘‘provides a complete description of that
task's virtual address space. The protection mechanism described in Chapter
7, "Protection," ensures that a task is granted access only to its own
virtual address space. In the simplest of system configurations, tasks can
reside entirely within the GDT without the use of local descriptor tables.
This will simplify system software by only requiring maintenance of one
table (the GDT) at the expense of no isolation between tasks. The point is:
the 80286 memory management scheme is flexible enough to accommodate a
variety of implementations and does not require use of all possible
facilities when implementing a system.

The descriptor tables consist of a sequence of 8-byte entries called
descriptors. A descriptor table may contain from 1 to 8192 entries.

Within a descriptor table, two main classes of descriptors are recognized
by the 80286 architecture. The most important of these, from the standpoint
of memory management, are called segment descriptors; these determine the
set of segments that are included within a given address space. The other
class are special-purpose control descriptors‘‘such as call gates and task
descriptors‘‘to implement protection (described in succeeding chapters) and
special system data segments.

Figure 6-3 shows the format of a segment descriptor. Note that it provides
information about the physical-memory base address and size of a segment, as
well as certain access information. If a particular segment is to be
included within a virtual address space, then a segment descriptor that
describes that segment must be included within the appropriate descriptor
table. Thus, within the GDT, there are segment descriptors for all of the
segments that comprise a system's global address space. Similarly, within a
task's LDT, there must be a descriptor for each of the segments that are to
be included in that task's local address space.

Each local descriptor table is itself a special system segment,
recognizable as such by the 80286 architecture and described by a specific
type of segment descriptor (see figure 6-4). Because there is only a single
GDT segment, it is not defined by a segment descriptor. Its base and size
information is maintained in a dedicated register, GDTR, as described below
(section 6.6.2).

Similarly, there is another dedicated register within the 80286, LDTR, that
records the base and size of the current LDT segment (i.e., the LDT
associated with the currently executing task). The LDTR register state,
however, is volatile: its contents are automatically altered whenever a
task switch is made from one task to another. An alternate specification
independent of changeable register contents must therefore exist for each
LDT in the system. This independent specification is accomplished by means
of special system segment descriptors known as descriptor table descriptors
or LDT descriptors.

Figure 6-4 shows the format of a descriptor table descriptor. (Note that it
is distinguished from an ordinary segment descriptor by the contents of
certain bits in the access byte.) This special type of descriptor is used to
specify the physical base address and size of a local descriptor table that
defines the virtual address space and address mapping for an individual user
or task (figure 6-5).

Each LDT segment in a system must lie within that system's global address
space. Thus, all of the descriptor table descriptors must be included among
the entries in the global descriptor table (the GDT) of a system. In fact,
these special descriptors may appear only in the GDT. Reference to an LDT
descriptor within an LDT will cause a protection violation. Even though
they are in the global address space available to all tasks, the descriptor
table descriptors are protected from corruption within the GDT since they
are special system segments and can only be accessed for loading into the
LDTR register.


Figure 6-3.  Segment Descriptors (S=1)

         7                             0 7                              0
        ‚Šƒ
      +7€                   INTEL RESERVED
Must be set to 0 for compatibility with iAPX 386 MUST BE 0                    €+6
ACCESS  Ƒ‘‘˜‘‘‘‘‘‘‘˜‘‘‘˜‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘˜‘‘‘˜‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
      +5€ P   DPL  S=1   TYPE     A           BASE{23-16}           €+4
RIGHTS  Ƒ‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
      +3€                           BASE{15-0}                           €+2
BYTES   Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
      +1€                           LIMIT{15-0}                          € 0
        „¤…
         15                            8 7                              0

          ACCESS RIGHTS BYTES:
           P    = PRESENT
           DPL  = DESCRIPTOR PRIVILEGE LEVEL
           S    = SEGMENT DESCRIPTOR
           TYPE = SEGMENT TYPE AND ACCESS INFORMATION
                  (see Figure 6-7)
           A    = ACCESSED


Figure 6-4.  Special Purpose Descriptors or System Segment Descriptors (S=1)

      7                             0 7                              0
     ‚Šƒ
   +7€                    INTEL RESERVED
Must be set to 0 for compatibility with iAPX 386 MUST BE 0                   €+6
     Ƒ‘‘˜‘‘‘‘‘‘‘˜‘‘‘˜‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘˜‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
   +5€ P   DPL  S=1   TYPE                   BASE{23-16}          €+4
     Ƒ‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
   +3€                           BASE{15-0}                           €+2
     €‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘™‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘€
   +1€                           LIMIT{15-0}                          € 0
     „¤…
      15                            8 7                              0

       ACCESS RIGHTS BYTES:
        P    = PRESENT
        DPL  = DESCRIPTOR PRIVILEGE LEVEL
        S    = SEGMENT DESCRIPTOR
        TYPE = SEGMENT TYPE AND ACCESS INFORMATION
               (Includes control and system segments)

               0   = INVALID DESCRIPTOR
               1   = AVAILABLE TASK STATE SEGMENT
               2   = LDT DESCRIPTOR
               3   = BUSY TASK STATE SEGMENT
               4-7 = CONTROL DESCRIPTOR (see Chapter 7)
               8   = INVALID DESCRIPTOR (reserved by Intel)
               9-F = RESERVED BY INTEL

Figure 6-5.  LDT Descriptors

                                                                   
                                                  €               €
                       ’‘€                 €    ’‘†‡
                         ø                 ø      €               €
                       €                 €      €      ONE      €
€                 €      †‡      €    SEGMENT    €
†‡      €  RESERVED ZERO  €      €    OF THE     €SEGMENT
€  RESERVED ZERO  €      †Š‡“     €     TASKS     €LIMIT
†Š‡“     €        BASE{23-16}    €     LOCAL     €
€        BASE{23-16}    †¤‡–‘“   €   (private)   €
†¤‡–‘“   €    BASE{15-0}   €    €    ADDRESS    €
€    BASE{15-0}   €    †‡•    €     SPACE     €
†‡•    €    BASE{15-0}   Ƒ‘‘•  €               €
€   LIMIT{15-0}   Ƒ‘‘•  †‡  ”‘‘‘†‡SEGMENT
†‡      €                 €       €               €BASE
€       LDT       €      €                 €       €               €
 DESCRIPTION IN        €                 €       €               €
 THE GDT IN MEMORY       †‡       €               €
                         ø                 ø       €               €
                         €                 €       €               €
                     ”‘‘‘†‡       €               €
                          €   DESCRIPTOR    €       €    SEGMENT    €
                            TABLES IN RAM             IN RAM     


6.4  Virtual-to-Physical Address Translation

The translation of a full 32-bit virtual address pointer into a real 24-bit
physical address is shown by figure 6-6. When the segment's base address is
determined as a result of the mapping process, the offset value is added to
the result to obtain the physical address.

The actual mapping is performed on the selector component of the virtual
address. The 16-bit segment selector is mapped to a 24-bit segment base
address via a segment descriptor maintained in one of the descriptor tables.

The TI bit in the segment selector (see figure 6-1) determines which of two
descriptor tables, either the GDT or the current LDT, is to be chosen for
memory mapping. In either case, using the GDTR or LDTR register, the
processor can readily determine the physical base address of the
memory-resident table.

The INDEX field in the segment selector specifies a particular descriptor
entry within the chosen table. The processor simply multiplies this index
value by 8 (the length of a descriptor), and adds the result to the base
address of the descriptor table in order to access the appropriate segment
descriptor in the table.

Finally, the segment descriptor contains the physical base address of the
target segment, as well as size (limit) and access information. The
processor sums the 24-bit segment base and the specified 16-bit offset to
generate the resulting 24-bit physical address.


Figure 6-6.  Virtual-to-Physical Address Translation

    ‚ƒ
    €                   VIRTUAL ADDRESS                   €
    € ‚Šƒ €     TARGET  
    € €        SELECTOR                 OFFSET         € €    € SEGMENT €
    € „ŠŠ¤Š… €    €         €
    „…    €         €
                       TI                                   €         €
                                  ‚ƒ                        Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                  €+Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘€  DATUM  €
                  DESCRIPTOR       „…    PHYSICAL ADDRESS    Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                   TABLE                                   €         €
                †‡                               €         €
                ø            ø                               €         €
                Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā                               €         €
                €  SEGMENT   €                  SEGMENT BASE €         €
                € DESCRIPTOR Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘™‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘†‡
     ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ Ī‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā                                €         €
     INDEX      ø            ø                                         
     ‘ ‘ ‘ ™ ‘ ‘ Ī‡
                             


6.5  Segments and Segment Descriptors

Segments are the basic units of 80286 memory management. In contrast to
schemes based on fixed-size pages, segmentation allows for a very efficient
implementation of software: variable-length segments can be tailored to the
exact requirements of an application. Segmentation, moreover, is consistent
with the way a programmer naturally deals with his virtual address space:
programmers are encouraged to divide code and data into clearly defined
modules and structures which are manipulated as consistent entities. This
reduces (minimizes) the potential for virtual memory thrashing.
Segmentation also eliminates the restrictions on data structures that span a
page (e.g., a word that crosses page boundaries).

Each segment within an 80286 system is defined by an associated segment
descriptor, which may appear in one or more descriptor tables. Its inclusion
within a descriptor table represents the presence of its associated segment
within the virtual address space defined by that table. Conversely, its
ommission from a descriptor table means that the segment is absent from the
corresponding address space.

As shown previously in figure 6-3, an 8-byte segment descriptor encodes the
following information about a particular segment:

  Ž  Size. This 16-bit field, comprising bytes 0 and 1 of a segment
     descriptor, specifies an unsigned integer as the size, in bytes (from 1
     byte to 64K bytes), of the segment.

     Unlike segments in the 8086 (or the 80286 in Real Address Mode)‘‘which
     are never explicitly limited to less than a full 64K bytes‘‘Protected
     Mode segments are always assigned a specific size value. In conjunction
     with the protection features described in Chapter 7, this assigned
     size allows the enforcement of a very desirable and natural rule:
     inadvertent accesses to locations beyond a segment's actual boundaries
     are prohibited.

  Ž  Base. This 24-bit field, comprising bytes 2 through 4 of a segment
     descriptor, specifies the physical base address of the segment; it thus
     defines the actual location of the segment within the 16-megabyte real
     memory space. The base may be any byte address within the 16-megabyte
     real memory space.

  Ž  Access. This 8-bit field comprises byte 5 of a segment descriptor.
     This access byte specifies a variety of additional information about a
     segment, particularly in regard to the protection features of the
     80286. For example, code segments are distinguished from data
     segments; and certain special access restrictions (such as Execute-Only
     or Read-Only) may be defined for segments of each type. Access byte
     values of 00H or 80H will always denote "invalid."

Figure 6-7 shows the access byte format for both code and data segment
descriptors. Detailed discussion of the protection related fields within an
access byte (Conforming, Execute-Only, Descriptor Privilege Level, Expand
Down, and Write-Permitted), and their use in implementing protection
policies, is deferred to Chapter 7. The two fields Accessed and Present are
used for virtual memory implementations.


Figure 6-7.  Segment Descriptor Access Bytes

                                           CODE SEGMENT      TYPE
                                            MSB          ’‘‘‘‘‘™‘‘‘‘‘“LSB
                                           ‚ŠŠŠŠŠŠƒ
                                           € P  DPL  1  1  C  R  A €
                                           „¤¤¤¤¤¤…
                                              ”‘‘˜‘‘•             
    PRESENT (1 = yes)‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•                    
    DESCRIPTOR PRIVILEGE LEVEL‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•                
    (indicates segment descriptor)‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•            
    EXECUTABLE (1 = yes for code)‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•         
    CONFORMING (1 = yes)‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•      
    READABLE (1 = yes)‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•   
    ACCESSED (1 = yes)‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•

                                          DATA OR STACK SEGMENT
                                           MSB                        LSB
                                          ‚ŠŠŠŠŠŠƒ
                                          € P  DPL  1  0  ED  W  A €
                                          „¤¤¤¤¤¤…
                                                                 
    PRESENT (1 = yes)‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•                     
    DESCRIPTOR PRIVILEGE LEVEL‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•                 
    (indicates segment descriptor)‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•             
    EXECUTABLE (0 = no for data)  ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•          
    CONFORMING (1 = yes)‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•       
    WRITEABLE (1 = yes)‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•   
    ACCESSED (1 = yes)‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•


6.6  Memory Management Registers

The Protected Virtual Address Mode features of the 80286 operate at high
performance due to extensions to the basic 8086 register set. Figure 6-8
illustrates that portion of the extended register structure that pertains to
memory management. (For a complete summary of all Protected Mode registers,
refer to section 10.1).


6.6.1  Segment Address Translation Registers

Figure 6-8 shows the segment registers CS, DS, ES, and SS. In contrast to
their usual representation, however, these registers are now depicted as
64-bit registers, each with "visible" and "hidden" components.

The visible portions of these segment address translation registers are
manipulated by programs exactly as if they were simply the 16-bit segment
registers of Real Address Mode. By loading a segment selector into one of
these registers, the program makes the associated segment one of its four
currently addressable segments.

The operations that load these registers‘‘or, more exactly, those that load
the visible portion of these registers‘‘are normal program instructions.
These instructions may be divided into two categories:

  1.  Direct segment-register load instructions. These instructions (such
      as LDS, LES, MOV, POP, etc.) can explicitly reference the SS, DS, or
      ES segment registers as the destination operand.

  2.  Implied segment-register load instructions. These instructions (such
      as intersegment CALL and JMP) implicitly reference the CS code segment
      register; as a result of these operations, the contents of CS are
      altered.

Using these instructions, a program loads the visible part of the segment
register with a 16-bit selector (i.e., the high-order word of a virtual
address pointer). Whenever this is done, the processor automatically uses
the selector to reference the appropriate descriptor and loads the 48-bit
hidden descriptor cache for that segment register.

The correspondence between selectors and descriptors has already been
described. Remember that the selector's TI bit indicates one of the two
descriptor tables, either the LDT or the GDT. Within the indicated table, a
particular entry is chosen by the selector's 13-bit INDEX field. This
index, scaled by a factor of 8, represents the relative displacement of the
chosen table entry (a descriptor).

Thus, so long as a particular selector value is valid (i.e., it points to a
valid segment descriptor within the bounds of the descriptor table), it can
be readily associated with an 8-byte descriptor. When a selector value is
loaded into the visible part of a segment register, the 80286 automatically
loads 6 bytes of the associated descriptor into the hidden part of the
register. These 6 bytes, therefore, contain the size, base, and access type
of the selected segment. Figure 6-9 illustrates this transparent process of
descriptor loading.

In effect, the hidden descriptor fields of the segment registers function
as the memory management cache of the 80286. All the information required to
address the current working set of segments‘‘that is, the base address,
size, and access rights of the currently addressable segments‘‘is stored in
this memory cache. Unlike the probabilistic caches of other architectures,
however, the 80286 cache is completely deterministic: the caching of
descriptors is explicitly controlled by the program.

Most memory references do not require the translation of a full 32-bit
virtual address, or long pointer. Operands that are located within one of
the currently addressable segments, as determined by the four segment
registers, can be referenced very efficiently by means of a short pointer,
which is simply a 16-bit offset.

In fact, most 80286 instructions reference memory locations in precisely
this way, specifying only a 16-bit offset with respect to one of the
currently addressable segments. The choice of segments (CS, DS, ES, or SS)
is either implicit within the instruction itself, or explicitly specified
by means of a segment-override prefix (as described in Chapter 2).

Thus, in most cases, virtual-to-physical address translation is actually
performed in two separate steps. First, when a program loads a new value
into a segment register, the processor immediately performs a mapping
operation; the physical base address of the selected segment (as well as
certain additional information) is automatically loaded into the hidden
portion of the register. The internal cache registers (virtual address
translation hardware) are therefore dynamically shared among the 16K
different segments potentially addressable within the user's virtual address
space. No software overhead (either system or application) is required to
perform this operation.

Subsequently, as the program utilizes a short pointer to reference a
location within a segment, the processor generates a 24-bit physical address
simply by adding the specified offset value to the previously cached segment
base address. By encouraging the use of short pointers in this way, rather
than requiring a full 32-bit virtual address for every memory reference, the
80286 provides a very efficient on-chip mechanism for address translation,
with minimum overhead for references to memory-based tables or the need for
external address-translation devices.


Figure 6-8.  Memory Management Registers

 SEGMENT ADDRESS TRANSLATION REGISTERS

     16-BIT       48-BIT HIDDEN DESCRIPTOR CACHE
    SELECTOR    (PROGRAM INVISIBLE‘‘LOADED BY CPU)
  ‚ŠŠŠƒ
CS€                                               €CODE SEGMENT REGISTER
  Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
DS€                                               €DATA SEGMENT REGISTER
  Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
ES€                                               €EXTRA SEGMENT REGISTER
  Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
SS€                                               €STACK SEGMENT REGISTER
  „¤¤¤…
   63     48 47  40 39              16 15           0
             ACCESS     SEGMENT BASE       SEGMENT
             RIGHTS       ADDRESS           SIZE


 SYSTEM ADDRESS REGISTERS

         40-BIT EXPLICIT REGISTER
      ‚Šƒ
 GDTR €                            €GLOBAL DESCRIPTOR TABLE REGISTER
      Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
 IDTR €                            €INTERRUPT DESCRIPTOR TABLE REGISTER
      „¤…
       39             16 15       0
             BASE           LIMIT


       16-BIT
      VISIBLE          40-BIT HIDDEN
      SELECTOR        DESCRIPTOR CACHE
    ‚ŠŠƒ
LDTR€                                      €LOCAL DESCRIPTOR TABLE REGISTER
    „¤¤…
     55      40 39             16 15       0
                      BASE           LIMIT


Figure 6-9.  Descriptor Loading

     ’‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘  ‘“
      CPU                               
         APPLICATION       DESCRIPTOR                       
          VISIBLE           CACHE          €    SYSTEM     €
         ’‘‘‘‘™‘‘‘‘‘“     ’‘‘‘‘™‘‘‘‘‘“       €    MEMORY     €
          SEGMENT          SEGMENT         €               €
           REGISTER        DESCRIPTOR        €               €
        ‚ƒ     ‚ƒ      €               €
         € SELECTOR €     €   TYPE   €       €               €
        „Š…     Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā      €               €
                          €   BASE   €       €               €
                        Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā      ø               ø
                          €  LIMIT   €       €               €
                        „…      €               €
                                            €               €
                           TRANSPARENT   €               €
                             DESCRIPTOR     †‡‘“
                           LOADING       €               € 
                             ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ī‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
                                          €               € –‘DESCRIPTOR
                             ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā  TABLE
              ”‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘   INDEX    €               € 
               ’ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘™ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ †‡‘•
                                           €               €
         ‚¤ƒ                        €               €
        €DESCRIPTOR€                       €               €
         €TABLE BASE€                        €               €
        „…                                      
     ”‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘•


6.6.2  System Address Registers

The Global Descriptor Table Register (GDTR) is a dedicated 40-bit (5 byte)
register used to record the base and size of a system's global descriptor
table (GDT). Thus, two of these bytes define the size of the GDT, and three
bytes define its base address.

In figure 6-8, the contents of the GDTR are referred to as a "hidden
descriptor." The term "descriptor" here emphasizes the analogy with the
segment descriptors ordinarily found in descriptor tables. Just as these
descriptors specify the base and size (limit) of ordinary segments, the
GDTR register specifies these same parameters for that segment of memory
serving as the system GDT. The limit prevents accesses to descriptors in the
GDT from accessing beyond the end of the GDT and thus provides address space
isolation at the system level as well as at the task level.

The register contents are "hidden" only in the sense that they are not
accessible by means of ordinary instructions. Instead, the dedicated
protected instructions LGDT and SGDT are reserved for loading and storing,
respectively, the contents of the GDTR at Protected Mode initialization
(refer to section 10.2 for details). Subsequent alteration of the GDT base
and size values is not recommended but is a system option at the most
privileged level of software (see section 7.3 for a discussion of privilege
levels).

The Local Descriptor Table Register (LDTR) is a dedicated 40-bit register
that contains, at any given moment, the base and size of the local
descriptor table (LDT) associated with the currently executing task. Unlike
GDTR, the LDTR register contains both a "visible" and a "hidden" component.
Only the visible component is accessible, while the hidden component remains
truly inaccessible even to dedicated instructions.

The visible component of the LDTR is a 16-bit "selector" field. The format
of these 16 bits corresponds exactly to that of a segment selector in a
virtual address pointer. Thus, it contains a 13-bit INDEX field, a 1-bit TI
field, and a 2-bit RPL field. The TI "table indicator" bit must be zero,
indicating a reference to the GDT (i.e., to global address space). The INDEX
field consequently provides an index to a particular entry within the GDT.
This entry, in turn, must be an LDT descriptor (or descriptor table
descriptor), as defined in the previous section. In this way, the visible
"selector" field of the LDTR, by selecting an LDT descriptor, uniquely
designates a particular LDT in the system.

The dedicated, protected instructions LLDT and SLDT are reserved for
loading and storing, respectively, the visible selector component of the
LDTR register (refer to section 10.2 for details). Whenever a new value is
loaded into the visible "selector" portion of LDTR, an LDT descriptor will
have been uniquely chosen (assuming, of course, that the "selector" value is
valid). In this case, the 80286 automatically loads the hidden "descriptor"
portion of LDTR with five bytes from the chosen LDT descriptor. Thus, size
and base information about a particular LDT, as recorded in a
memory-resident global descriptor table entry, is cached in the LDTR
register.

New values may be loaded into the visible portion of the LDTR (and, thus,
into the hidden portion as well) in either of two ways. The LLDT
instruction, during system initialization, is used explicitly to set an
initial value for the LDTR register; in this way, a local address space is
provided for the first task in a multitasking environment. After system
startup, explicit changes are not required since operations that
automatically invoke a task switch (described in section 8.4) appropriately
manage the LDTR.

At all times, the LDTR register thus records the physical base address (and
size) of the current task's LDT; the descriptor table required for mapping
the current local address space, therefore, is immediately accessible to the
processor. Moreover, since GDTR always maintains the base address of the
GDT, the table that maps the global address space is similarly accessible.
The two system address registers, GDTR and LDTR, act as a special processor
cache, maintaining current information about the two descriptor tables
required, at any given time, for addressing the entire current virtual
address space.


Chapter 7  Protection

‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘

7.1  Introduction

In most microprocessor based products, the product's availability, quality,
and reliability are determined by the software it contains. Software is
often the key to a product's success. Protection is a tool used to shorten
software development time, and improve software quality and reliability.

Program testing is an important step in developing software. A system with
protection will detect software errors more quickly and accurately than a
system without protection. Eliminating errors via protection reduces the
development time for a product.

Testing software is difficult. Many errors occur only under complex
circumstances which are difficult to anticipate. The result is that products
are shipped with undetected errors. When such errors occur, products appear
unreliable. The impact of a software error is multiplied if it introduces
errors in other bug-free programs. Thus, the total system reliability
reduces to that of the least reliable program running at any given time.

Protection improves the reliability of an entire system by preventing
software errors in one program from affecting other programs. Protection can
keep the system running even when some user program attempts an invalid or
prohibited operation.

Hardware protection performs run-time checks in parallel with the execution
of the program. But, hardware protection has traditionally resulted in a
design that is more expensive and slower than a system without protection.
However, the 80286 provides hardware-enforced protection without the
performance or cost penalties normally associated with protection.

The protected mode 80286 implements extensive protection by integrating
these functions on-chip. The 80286 protection is more comprehensive and
flexible than comparable solutions. It can locate and isolate a large number
of program errors and prevent the propagation of such errors to other tasks
or programs. The protection of the total system detects and isolates bugs
both during development and installed usage. Chapter 9 discusses exceptions
in more detail.

The remaining sections of this chapter explain the protection model
implemented in the 80286.


7.1.1  Types of Protection

Protection in the 80286 has three basic aspects:

  1.  Isolation of system software from user applications.
  2.  Isolation of users from each other (Inter-task protection).
  3.  Data-type checking.

The 80286 provides a four-level, ringed-type, increasingly-privileged
protection mechanism to isolate applications software from various layers of
system software. This is a major improvement and extension over the simpler
two-level user/supervisor mechanism found in many systems. Software modules
in a supervisor level are protected from modules in the application level
and from software in less privileged supervisor levels.

Restricting the addressability of a software module enables an operating
system to control system resources and priorities. This is especially
important in an environment that supports multiple concurrent users.
Multi-user, multi-tasking, and distributed processing systems require this
complete control of system resources for efficient, reliable operation.

The second aspect of protection is isolating users from each other. Without
such isolation an error in one user program could affect the operation of
another error-free user program. Such subtle interactions are difficult to
diagnose and repair. The reliability of applications programs is greatly
enhanced by such isolation of users.

Within a system or application level program, the 80286 will ensure that
all code and data segments are properly used (e.g., data cannot be executed,
programs cannot be modified, and offset must be within defined limits,
etc.). Such checks are performed on every memory access to provide full
run-time error checking.


7.1.2  Protection Implementation

The protection hardware of the 80286 establishes constraints on memory and
instruction usage. The number of possible interactions between instructions,
memory, and I/O devices is practically unlimited. Out of this very large
field the protection mechanism limits interactions to a controlled,
understandable subset. Within this subset fall the list of "correct"
operations. Any operation that does not fall into this subset is not allowed
by the protection mechanism and is signalled as a protection violation.

To understand protection on the 80286, you must begin with its basic parts:
segments and tasks. 80286 segments are the smallest region of memory which
have unique protection attributes. Modular programming automatically
produces separate regions of memory (segments) whose contents are treated as
a whole. Segments reflect the natural construction of a program, e.g., code
for module A, data for module A, stack for the task, etc. All parts of the
segment are treated in the same way by the 80286. Logically separate regions
of memory should be in separate segments.

The memory segmentation model (see figure 7-1) of the 80286 was designed to
optimally execute code for software composed of independent modules. Modular
programs are easier to construct and maintain. Compared to monolithic
software systems, modular software systems have enhanced capabilities, and
are typically easier to develop and test for proper operation.

Each segment in the system is defined by a memory-resident descriptor. The
protection hardware prevents accesses outside the data areas and attempts to
modify instructions, etc., as defined by the descriptors. Segmentation on
the 80286 allows protection hardware to be integrated into the CPU for full
data access control without any performance impact.

The segmented memory architecture of the 80286 provides unique capabilities
for regulating the transfer of control between programs.

Programs are given direct but controlled access to other procedures and
modules. This capability is the heart of isolating application and system
programs. Since this access is provided and controlled directly by the 80286
hardware, there is no performance penalty. A system designer can take
advantage of the 80286 access control to design high-performance modular
systems with a high degree of confidence in the integrity of the system.

Access control between programs and the operating system is implemented via
address space separation and a privilege mechanism. The address space
control separates applications programs from each other while the privilege
mechanism isolates system software from applications software. The
privilege mechanism grants different capabilities to programs to access
code, data, and I/O resources based on the associated protection level.
Trusted software that controls the whole system is typically placed at the
most privileged level. Ordinary application software does not have to deal
with these control mechanisms. They come into play only when there is a
transfer of control between tasks, or if the Operating System routines have
to be invoked.

The protection features of multiple privilege levels extend to ensuring
reliable I/O control. However, for a system designer to enable only one
specific level to do I/O would excessively constrain subsequent extensions
or application development. Instead, the 80286 permits each task to be
assigned a separate minimum level where I/O is allowed. I/O privilege is
discussed in section 10.3.

An important distinction exists between tasks and programs. Programs (e.g.,
instructions in code segments) are static and consist of a fixed set of code
and data segments each with an associated privilege level. The privilege
assigned to a program determines what the program may do when executed by a
task. Privilege is assigned to a program when the system is built or when
the program is loaded.

Tasks are dynamic; they execute one or more programs. Task privilege
changes with time according to the privilege level of the program being
executed. Each task has a unique set of attributes that define it, e.g.,
address space, register values, stack, data, etc. A task may execute a
program if that program appears in the task's address space. The rules of
protection control determine when a program may be executed by a task, and
once executed, determine what the program may do.


Figure 7-1.  Addressing Segments of a Module within a Task

                                              ’‘ ‘‘ ‘“
                                              ‚ƒ
                                              € CODE €
                                              Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘Ā  MODULE A
                                              € DATA €
                                              „…
            CPU                                     
       ’‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“                          ‚ƒ
        ‚ƒ                           € CODE €
        € CODE  Ƒš‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘Ā  MODULE B
        Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā                           € DATA €
        € DATA  Ƒš‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘„…
        Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā                                 
        € STACK Ƒš‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“          ‚ƒ
        Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā                          €      €  TASK STACK
        € EXTRA Ƒš‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“   ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘„…
        „…                                
         SEGMENT                           ‚ƒ  TASK
        REGISTERS                          €      €  DATA
       ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•           ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘„…  BLOCK 1
                                                    
                                              ‚ƒ  TASK
                                              €      €  DATA
                                              „…  BLOCK 2
                                              ”‘ ‘‘ ‘•
                                               MEMORY


7.2  Memory Management and Protection

The protection hardware of the 80286 is related to the memory management
hardware. Since protection attributes are assigned to segments, they are
stored along with the memory management information in the segment
descriptor. The protection information is specified when the segment is
created. In addition to privilege levels, the descriptor defines the segment
type (e.g., Code segment, Data segment, etc.). Descriptors may be created
either by program development tools or by a loader in a dynamically loaded
reprogrammable environment.

The protection control information consists of a segment type, its
privilege level, and size. These are fields in the access byte of the
segment descriptor (see figure 7-2). This information is saved on-chip in
the programmer invisible section of the segment register for fast access
during execution. These entries are changed only when a segment register is
loaded. The protection data is used at two times: upon loading a segment
register and upon each reference to the selected segment.

The hardware performs several checks while loading a segment register.
These checks enforce the protection rules before any memory reference is
generated. The hardware verifies that the selected segment is valid (is
identified by a descriptor, is in memory, and is accessible from the
privilege level in which the program is executing) and that the type is
consistent with the target segment register. For example, you cannot load a
read-only segment descriptor into SS because the stack must always be
writable.

Each reference into the segment defined by a segment register is checked by
the hardware to verify that it is within the defined limits of the segment
and is of the proper type. For example, a code segment or read-only data
segment cannot be written. All these checks are made before the memory cycle
is started; any violation will prevent that cycle from starting and cause
an exception to occur. Since the checks are performed concurrently with
address formation, there is no performance penalty.

By controlling the access rights and privilege attributes of segments, the
system designer can assure a program will not change its code or overwrite
data belonging to another task. Such assurances are vital to maintaining
system integrity in the face of error-prone programs.


 Figure 7-2.  Descriptor Cache Registers

                         ’‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘“
       PROGRAM VISIBLE                  PROGRAM INVISIBLE                

                           ACCESS                                        
      SEGMENT SELECTORS     RIGHTS  SEGMENT BASE ADDRESS   SEGMENT SIZE
     ‚ƒ  ‚ŠŠƒ 
   CSƑ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā   Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
   DSƑ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā  Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
   SSƑ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā   Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
     „…  „¤¤… 
     15                0   47   40 39                 16 15            0
                                                                         
      SEGMENT REGISTERS          SEGMENT DESCRIPTOR CACHE REGISTERS
     (loaded by program)                 (loaded by CPU)                 
                         ”‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘•


7.2.1  Separation of Address Spaces

As described in Chapter 6, each task can address up to a gigabyte
(2^(14) - 2 segments of up to 65,536 bytes each) of virtual memory defined
by the task's LDT (Local Descriptor Table) and the system GDT. Up to
one-half gigabyte (2^(13) segments of up to 65,536 bytes each) of the task's
address space is defined by the LDT and represents the task's private
address space. The remaining virtual address space is defined by the GDT and
is common to all tasks in the system.

Each descriptor table is itself a special kind of segment recognized by the
80286 architecture. These tables are defined by descriptors in the GDT
(Global Descriptor Table). The CPU has a set of base and limit registers
that point to the GDT and the LDT of the currently running task. The local
descriptor table register is loaded by a task switch operation.

An active task can only load selectors that reference segments defined by
descriptors in either the GDT or its private LDT. Since a task cannot
reference descriptors in other LDTs, and no descriptors in its LDT refer to
data or code belonging to other tasks, it cannot gain access to another
tasks' private code and data (see figure 7-3).

Since the GDT contains information that is accessible by all users (e.g.,
library routines, common data, Operating System services, etc.), the 80286
uses privilege levels and special descriptor types to control access (see
section 7.2.2). Privilege levels protect more trusted data and code (in GDT
and LDT) from less trusted access (WITHIN a task), while the private virtual
address spaces defined by unique LDTs provide protection BETWEEN tasks (see
figure 7-4).


Figure 7-3.  80286 Virtual Address Space

                                     ‚ƒ
‚ƒ  € ‚ƒ €
€                   ‚ƒ65535 €  € €                   ‚ƒ65535 € €
€                   € SEG. €     €  € €                   € SEG. €     € €
€                   €      €OFFSET€  € €                   €      €OFFSET€ €
€  8191‚ƒ   ’‘„…0    €  € €  8191‚ƒ   ’‘„…0    € €
€     € LDT Ƒ‘‘•               €  € €     € LDT Ƒ‘‘•               € €
€     €  A  Ƒ‘‘“               €  € €     €  B  Ƒ‘‘“               € €
€     0„…                  €  € €     0„…                  € €
€                  ‚ƒ65535 €  € €                  ‚ƒ65535 € €
€                  € SEG. €     €  € €                  € SEG. €     € €
€                  €      €OFFSET€  € €                  €      €OFFSET€ €
€                ”‘„…0    €  € €                ”‘„…0    € €
„…  € „… €
   TASK A PRIVATE ADDRESS SPACE      €    TASK B PRIVATE ADDRESS SPACE     €
                                     €                                     €
‚ƒ  € ‚ƒ €
€                   ‚ƒ65535 €  € €                   ‚ƒ65535 € €
€                   € SEG. €     €  € €                   € SEG. €     € €
€                   €      €OFFSET€  € €                   €      €OFFSET€ €
€  8191‚ƒ   ’‘„…0    €  € €  8191‚ƒ   ’‘„…0    € €
€     € LDT Ƒ‘‘•               €  € €     € GDT Ƒ‘‘•               € €
€     €  C  Ƒ‘‘“               €  € €     €     Ƒ‘‘“               € €
€     0„…                  €  € €     0„…                  € €
€                  ‚ƒ65535 €  € €                  ‚ƒ65535 € €
€                  € SEG. €     €  € €                  € SEG. €     € €
€                  €      €OFFSET€  € €                  €      €OFFSET€ €
€                ”‘„…0    €  € €                ”‘„…0    € €
„…  € „… €
   TASK C PRIVATE ADDRESS SPACE      €        SHARED ADDRESS SPACE         €
                                     „…
                                              TASK B ADDRESS SPACE

Figure 7-4.  Local and Global Descriptor Table Definitions

                                              MEMORY
                                                       
                                 ’‘˜‘‘‘Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā‘“
                                       Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
                    CPU               Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
         ‚ƒ       €       Ø       € 
         €                     €      €       Ø       € –‘ GDT
         €       15        0   €       €       Ø       € 
         €       ‚ƒ   €      Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
         €   23  €LDT LIMITƑ‘‘Ī‘•      Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
         €   ‚š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā   €       Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
    GDTR €   €   GDT BASE  Ƒ‘‘Ī‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā‘•
         €   „…   €        €               €
         €                     €        €               €
         Ƒ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘Ā        €               €
         €                     €        €     LDT{1}    €
         €     15         0    € ’‘˜‘‘‘Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā‘“
         €     ‚ƒ    €       Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
         €     €   LDT    €    €      Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
         €     € SELECTOR €    €       €       Ø       € 
         €     „…    €      €       Ø       € –‘ CURRENT LDT
         €’‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘“€       €       Ø       € 
         €      15        0  €      Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
         €       ‚ƒ   €       Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
         €  23  €LDT LIMITƑ‘šĪ‘•     Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
         €   ‚š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā   €  ’‘‘‘‘Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā‘•
    LDTR €  €   LDT BASE  Ƒ‘šĆ‘‘•     €               €
         €   „…   €        €               €
         € PROGRAM INVISIBLE €        €               €
         €”‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘•€        €     LDT{n}    €
         „…        Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                        Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                        Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                        Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                        €       Ø       €
                                        €       Ø       €
                                        €       Ø       €
                                        Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                        Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                        Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                        Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                        Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                                       


7.2.2  LDT and GDT Access Checks

All descriptor tables have a limit used by the protection hardware to
ensure address space separation of tasks. Each task's LDT can be a different
size as defined by its descriptor in the GDT. The GDT may also contain less
than 8191 descriptors as defined by the GDT limit value. The descriptor
table limit identifies the last valid byte of the last descriptor in that
table. Since each descriptor is eight bytes long, the limit value is
N * 8 - 1 for N descriptors.

Any attempt by a program to load a segment register, local descriptor table
register (LDTR), or task register (TR) with a selector that refers to a
descriptor outside the corresponding limit causes an exception with an error
code identifying the invalid selector used (see figure 7-5).

Not all descriptor entries in the GDT or LDT need contain a valid
descriptor. There can be holes, or "empty" descriptors, in the LDT and GDT.
"Empty" descriptors allow dynamic allocation and deletion of segments or
other system objects without changing the size of the GDT or LDT. Any
descriptor with an access byte equal to zero is considered empty. Any
attempt to load a segment register with a selector that refers to an empty
descriptor will cause an exception with an error code identifying the
invalid selection.


Figure 7-5.  Error Code Format (on the stack)

   15                                                3   2   1   0
  ‚ŠŠŠƒ
  €                                                    T  I  E €
  €                       INDEX                        I  D  X €
  €                                                       T  T €
  „¤Š¤Š¤Š…
  ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘˜‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•       
      ’‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•                                 
               ’‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•      
                            ’‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•   
                                                             
’‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“’‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“’‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“’‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“
 Entry  1 means  1 means use    1 means that an event external to   
 in       use      IDT and        the program caused the exception  
 IDT,     LDT      ignore         (i.e., external interrupt, single 
 GDT,   0 means    bit 2.         step, processor extension error)  
 or       use    0 means bit 2  0 means that an exception occurred  
 LDT      GDT      indicates      while processing the instruction  
                   table usage    at CS:IP saved on the stack.      
”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•


7.2.3  Type Validation

After checking that a selector reference is within the bounds of a
descriptor table and refers to a non-empty descriptor, the type of segment
defined by the descriptor is checked against the destination register. Since
each segment register has predefined functions, each must refer to certain
types of segments (see section 7.4.1). An attempt to load a segment
register in violation of the protection rules causes an exception.

The "null" selector is a special type of segment selector. It has an index
field of all zeros and a table indicator of 0. The null selector appears to
refer to GDT descriptor entry #0 (see GDT in figure 7-3). This selector
value may be used as a place holder in the DS or ES segment registers; it
may be loaded into them without causing an exception. However, any attempt
to use the null segment registers to reference memory will cause an
exception and prevent any memory cycle from occurring.


7.3  Privilege Levels and Protection

As explained in section 6.2, each task has its own separate virtual address
space defined by its LDT. All tasks share a common address space defined by
the GDT. The system software then has direct access to task data and can
treat all pointers in the same way.

Protection is required to prevent programs from improperly using code or
data that belongs to the operating system. The four privilege levels of the
80286 provide the isolation needed between the various layers of the system.
The 80286 privilege levels are numbered from 0 to 3, where 0 is the most
trusted level, 3 the least.

Privilege level is a protection attribute assigned to all segments. It
determines which procedures can access the segment. Like access rights and
limit checks, privilege checks are automatically performed by the hardware,
and thus protect both data and code segments.

Privilege on the 80286 is hierarchical. Operating system code and data
segments placed at the most privileged level (0) cannot be accessed directly
by programs at other privilege levels. Programs at privilege level 0 may
access data at all other levels. Programs at privilege levels 1-3 may only
access data at the same or less trusted (numerically greater) privilege
levels. Figure 7-6 illustrates the privilege level protection of code or
data within tasks.

In figure 7-6, programs can access data at the same or outer level, but not
at inner levels. Code and data segments placed at level 1 cannot be accessed
by programs executing at levels 2 or 3. Programs at privilege level 0 can
access data at level 1 in the course of providing service to that level.
80286 provides mechanisms for inter-level transfer of control when needed
(see section 7.5).

The four privilege levels of the 80286 are an extension of the typical
two-level user/supervisor privilege mechanism. Like user mode, application
programs in the outer level are not permitted direct access to data
belonging to more privileged system services (supervisor mode). The 80286
adds two more privilege levels to provide protection for different layers of
system software (system services, I/O drivers, etc.).


Figure 7-6.  Code and Data Segments Assigned to a Privilege Level

                                     TASK C
              ’‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“
               ‚ƒ 
               €                 APPLICATIONS                  € 
               €     ‚ƒ     € 
               €     €        CUSTOM EXTENSIONS          €     € 
               €     €     ‚ƒ     €     € 
               €     €     €    SYSTEM SERVICES    €     €     € 
               €     €     €     ‚ƒ     €     €     € 
               €     €     €     €  KERNAL   €     €     €     € 
              ćĆ‘‘‘‘‘Ī‘‘‘‘‘Ī‘‘‘‘‘Ī‘‘‘‘‘˜‘‘‘‘‘Ī‘‘‘‘‘Ī‘‘‘‘‘Ī‘‘‘‘‘ĀĮ
               €     €     €     €     LEVEL€LEVEL€LEVEL€LEVEL€ 
               €     €     €     €       0  €  1  €  2  €  3  € 
               €     €     €     „Ļ…     €     €     € 
               €     €     €                      €     €     € 
               €     €     „Ļ…     €     € 
               €     €                                  €     € 
               €     „Ļ…     € 
               €                                              € 
        TASK B— „¤… –TASK A
              ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘• ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•


7.3.1  Example of Using Four Privilege Levels

Two extra privilege levels allow development of more reliable, and flexible
system software. This is achieved by dividing the system into small,
independent units. Figure 7-6 shows an example of the usage of different
protection levels. Here, the most privileged level is called the kernel.
This software would provide basic, application-independent, CPU-oriented
services to all tasks. Such services include memory management, task
isolation, multitasking, inter-task communication, and I/O resource
control. Since the kernel is only concerned with simple functions and cannot
be affected by software at other privilege levels, it can be kept small,
safe, and understandable.

Privilege level one is designated system services. This software provides
high-level functions like file access scheduling, character I/O, data
communcations, and resource allocation policy which are commonly expected in
all systems. Such software remains isolated from applications programs and
relies on the services of the kernel, yet cannot affect the integrity of
level 0.

Privilege level 2 is the custom operating system extensions level. It
allows standard system software to be customized. Such customizing can be
kept isolated from errors in applications programs, yet cannot affect the
basic integrity of the system software. Examples of customized software are
the data base manager, logical file access services, etc.

This is just one example of protection mechanism usage. Levels 1 and 2 may
be used in many different ways. The usage (or non-usage) is up to the system
designer.

Programs at each privilege level are isolated from programs at outer
layers, yet cannot affect programs in inner layers. Programs written for
each privilege level can be smaller, easier to develop, and easier to
maintain than a monolithic system where all system software can affect all
other system software.


7.3.2  Privilege Usage

Privilege applies to tasks and three types of descriptors:

  1.  Main memory segments

  2.  Gates (control descriptors for state or task transitions, discussed
      in sections 7.5.1, 8.3, 8.4 and 9.2)

  3.  Task state segments (discussed in Chapter 8).

Task privilege is a dynamic value. It is derived from the code segment
currently being executed. Task privilege can change only when a control
transfers to a different code segment.

Descriptor privilege, including code segment privilege, is assigned when
the descriptor (and any associated segment) is created. The system designer
assigns privilege directly when the system is constructed with the system
builder (see the 80286 Builder User's Guide) or indirectly via a loader.

Each task operates at only one privilege level at any given moment: namely
that of the code segment being executed. (The conforming segments discussed
in section 11.2 permit some flexibility in this regard.) However, as figure
7-6 indicates, the task may contain segments at one, two, three, or four
levels, all of which are to be used at appropriate times. The privilege
level of the task, then, changes under the carefully enforced rules for
transfer of control from one code segment to another.

The descriptor privilege attribute is stored in the access byte of a
descriptor and is called the Descriptor Privilege Level (DPL). Task
privilege is called the Current Privilege Level (CPL). The least significant
two bits of the CS register specify the CPL.

A few general rules of privilege can be stated before the detailed
discussions of later sections. Data access is restricted to those data
segments whose privilege level is the same as or less privileged
(numerically greater) than the current privilege level (CPL). Direct code
access, e.g., via call or jump, is restricted to code segments of equal
privilege. A gate (section 7.5.1) is required for access to code at more
privileged levels.


7.4  Segment Descriptor

Although the format of access control information, discussed below, is
similar for both data and code segment descriptors, the rules for accessing
data segments differ from those for transferring control to code segments.
Data segments are meant to be accessible from many privilege levels, e.g.,
from other programs at the same level or from deep within the operating
system. The main restriction is that they cannot be accessed by less
privileged code.

Code segments, on the other hand, are meant to be executed at a single
privilege level. Transfers of control that cross privilege boundaries are
tightly restricted, requiring the use of gates. Control transfers within a
privilege level can also use gates, but they are not required. Control
transfers are discussed in section 7.5.

Protection checks are automatically invoked at several points in selecting
and using new segments. The process of addressing memory begins when the
currently executing program attempts to load a selector into one of the
segment registers. As discussed in Chapter 6, the selector has the form
shown in figure 7-7.

When a new selector is loaded into a segment register, the processor
accesses the associated descriptor to perform the necessary loading and
privilege checks.

The protection mechanism verifies that the selector points to a valid
descriptor type for the segment register (see section 7.4.1). After
verifying the descriptor type, the CPU compares the privilege level of the
task (CPL) to the privilege level in the descriptor (DPL) before loading
the descriptor's information into the cache.

The general format of the eight bits in the segment descriptor's access
rights byte is shown in table 7-1.

For example, the access rights byte for a data and code segment present in
real memory but not yet accessed (at the same privilege level) is shown in
figure 7-8.

Whenever a segment descriptor is loaded into a segment register, the
accessed bit in the descriptor table is set to 1. This bit is useful for
determining the usage profile of the segment.


Table 7-1. Segment Access Rights Byte Format


Bit    Name          Description

7      Present       1 means Present and addressable in real memory;
                     0 means not present. See section 11.3.

6,5    DPL           2-bit Descriptor Privilege Level, 0 to 3.

4      Segment       1 means Segment descriptor; 0 means control
                     descriptor.

         For Segment=1, the remaining bits have the following meanings:

3      Executable    1 means code, 0 means data.

2      C or ED       If code, Conforming: 1 means yes, 0 no.
                     If data, Expand Down: 1 yes, 0 no‘‘normal case.

1      R or W        If code, Readable: 1 means readable, 0 not.
                     If data, Writable: 1 means writable, 0 not.

0      Accessed      1 if segment descriptor has been Accessed, 0 if not.


‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘
NOTE
  When the Segment bit (bit 4) is 0, the descriptor is for a gate, a
  task state segment, or a Local Descriptor Table, and the meanings of bits
  0 through 3 change. Control transfers and descriptors are discussed in
  section 7.5.
‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘

Table 7-2. Allowed Segment Types in Segment Registers

                                   Allowed Segment Types
                 ’‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘™‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“
Segment Register  Read Only     Read-Write     Execute Only   Execute-Read
                  Data Segment  Data Segment   Code Segment   Code Segment
      DS             Yes           Yes            No             Yes
      ES             Yes           Yes            No             Yes
      SS             No            Yes            No             No
      CS             No            No             Yes            Yes

‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘
NOTE
  The Intel reserved bytes in the segment descriptor must be set to 0 for
  compatibility with the 80386.
‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘

Figure 7-7.  Selector Fields

                                SELECTOR
    ‚ŠŠƒ
    €                       INDEX                        T        €
    €                                                    I   RPL  €
    „¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤…
      15                          8   7                   2   1   0

‚ŠŠƒ
€ BITS  NAME                  FUNCTION                                   €
Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
€ 1-0   REQUESTED PRIVELEGE   INDICATES SELECTOR PRIVILEGE LEVEL DESIRED €
€           LEVEL (RPL)                                                  €
Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
€ 2     TABLE INDICATOR (TI)  TI = 0 USE GLOBAL DESCRIPTOR TABLE (GDT)   €
€                             TI = 1 USE LOCAL DESCRIPTORTABLE (LDT)     €
Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
€ 15-3  INDEX                 SELECT DESCRIPTOR ENTRY IN TABLE           €
„¤¤…


Figure 7-8.  Access Byte Examples

      READABLE CODE SEGMENT                     WRITABLE CODE SEGMENT

    P   DPL  S   E   C   R   A               P   DPL  S   E   ED   W   A
 ‚ƒ         ‚ƒ
 €  1   01   1   1   0   1   0  €         €  1   01   1   0   0    1   0  €
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  7                            0           7                             0


7.4.1  Data Accesses

Data may be accessed in data segments or readable code segments. When DS or
ES is loaded with a new selector, e.g., by an LDS, LES, or MOV to ES, SS, or
DS instruction, the bits in the access byte are checked to verify legitimate
descriptor type and access (see table 7-2). If any test fails, an error
code is pushed onto the stack identifying the selector involved (see figure
7-5 for the error code format).

A privilege check is made when the segment register is loaded. In general,
a data segment's DPL must be numerically greater than or equal to the CPL.
The DPL of a descriptor loaded into the SS must equal the CPL. Conforming
code segments are an exception to privilege checking rules (see section
11.2).

Once the segment descriptor and selector are loaded, the offset of
subsequent accesses within the segment are checked against the limit given
in the segment descriptor. Violating the segment size limit causes a General
Protection exception with an error code of 0.

A normal data segment is addressed with offset values ranging from 0 to the
size of the segment. When the ED bit of the access rights byte in the
segment descriptor is 0, the allowed range of offsets is 0000H to the limit.
If limit is 0FFFFH, the data segment contains 65,536 bytes.

Since stacks normally occupy different offset ranges (lower limit to
0FFFFH) than data segments, the limit field of a segment descriptor can be
interpreted in two ways. The Expand Down (ED) bit in the access byte allows
offsets for stack segments to be greater than the limit field. When ED is
1, the allowed range of offsets within the segment is limit + 1 to 0FFFFH.
To allow a full stack segment, set ED to 1 and the limit to 0FFFFH. The ED
bit of a data segment descriptor does not have to be set for use in SS
(i.e., it will not cause an exception). Section 7.5.1.4 discusses stack
segment usage in greater detail. An expand down (ED=1) segment can also be
loaded into ES or DS.

Limit and access checks are performed before any memory reference is
started. For stack push instructions (PUSH, PUSHA, ENTER, CALL, INT), a
possible limit violation is identified before any internal registers are
updated. Therefore, these instructions are fully restartable after a stack
size violation.


7.4.2  Code Segment Access

Code segments are accessed via CS for execution. Segments that are
execute-only can ONLY be executed; they cannot be accessed via DS or ES, nor
read via CS with a CS override prefix. If a segment is executable (bit 3=1
in the access byte), access via DS or ES is possible only if it is also
readable. Thus, any code segment that also contains data must be readable.
(Refer to Chapter 2 for a discussion of segment override prefixes.)

An execute-only segment preserves the privacy of the code against any
attempt to read it; such an attempt causes a general protection fault with
an error code of 0. A code segment cannot be loaded into SS and is never
writable. Any attempted write will cause a general protection fault with an
error code of 0.

The limit field of a code segment descriptor identifies the last byte in
the segment. Any offset greater than the limit value will cause a general
protection fault. The prefetcher of the 80286 can never cause a code segment
limit violation with an error code of 0. The program must actually attempt
to execute an instruction beyond the end of the code segment to cause an
exception.

If a readable non-conforming code segment is to be loaded into DS or ES,
the privilege level requirements are the same as those stated for data
segments in 7.4.1.

Code segments are subject to different privilege checks when executed. The
normal privilege requirement for a jump or call to another code segment is
that the current privilege level equal the descriptor privilege level of the
new code segment. Jumps and calls within the current code segment
automatically obey this rule.

Return instructions may pass control to code segments at the same or less
(numerically greater) privileged level. Code segments at more privileged
levels may only be reached via a call through a call gate as described in
section 7.5.

An exception to this, previously stated, is the conforming code segment
that allows the DPL of the requested code segment to be numerically less
than (of greater privilege than) the CPL. Conforming code segments are
discussed in section 11.2.


7.4.3  Data Access Restriction by Privilege Level

This section describes privilege verification when accessing either data
segments (loading segment selectors into DS, ES, or SS) or readable code
segments. Privilege verification when loading CS for transfer of control
across privilege levels is described in the next section.

Three basic kinds of privilege level indicators are used when determining
accessibility to a segment for reading and writing. They are termed Current
Privilege Level (CPL), Descriptor Privilege Level (DPL), and Requested
Privilege Level (RPL). The CPL is simply the privilege level of the code
segment that is executing (except if the current code segment is
conforming). The CPL is stored as bits 0 and 1 of the CS and SS registers.
Bits 0 and 1 of DS and ES are not related to CPL.

DPL is the privilege level of the segment; it is stored in bits 5 and 6 of
the access byte of a descriptor. For data access to data segments and
non-conforming code segments, CPL must be numerically less than or equal to
DPL (the task must be of equal or greater privilege) for access to be
granted. Violation of this rule during segment load instruction causes a
general protection exception with an error code identifying the selector.

While the enforcement of DPL protection rules provides the mechanism for
the isolation of code and data at different privilege levels, it is
conceivable that an erroneous pointer passed onto a more trusted program
might result in the illegal modification of data with a higher privilege
level. This possibility is prevented by the enforcement of effective
privilege level protection rules and correct usage of the RPL value.

The RPL (requested privilege level) is used for pointer validation. It is
the least significant two bits in the selector value loaded into any segment
register. RPL is intended to indicate the privilege level of the originator
of that selector. A selector may be passed down through several procedures
at different levels. The RPL reflects the privilege level of the original
supplier of the selector, not the privilege level of the intermediate
supplier. The RPL must be numerically less than or equal to the DPL of the
descriptor selected, thereby indicating greater or equal privilege of the
supplier; otherwise, access is denied and a general protection violation
occurs.

Pointer validity testing is required in any system concerned with
preventing program errors from destroying system integrity. The 80286
provides hardware support for pointer validity testing. The RPL field
indicates the privilege level of the originator of the pointer to the
hardware. Access will be denied if the originator of the pointer did not
have access to the selected segment even if the CPL is numerically less than
or equal to the DPL. RPL can reduce the effective privilege of a task when
using a particular selector. RPL never allows access to more privileged
segments (CPL must always be numerically less than or equal to DPL).

A fourth term is sometimes used: the Effective Privilege Level (EPL). It is
defined as the numeric maximum of the CPL and the RPL‘‘meaning the one of
lesser privilege. Access to a protected entity is granted only when the EPL
is numerically less than or equal to the DPL of that entity. This is simply
another way of saying that both CPL and RPL must be numerically less than
or equal to DPL for access to be granted.


7.4.4  Pointer Privilege Stamping via ARPL

The ARPL instruction is provided in the 80286 to fill the RPL field of a
selector with the minimum privilege (maximum numeric value) of the
selector's current RPL and the caller's CPL (given in an
instruction-specified register). A straight insertion of the caller's CPL
would stamp the pointer with the privilege level of the caller, but not
necessarily the ultimate originator of the selector (e.g., Level 3 supplies
a selector to a level 2 routine that calls a level 0 routine with the same
selector).

Figure 7-9 shows a program with an example of such a situation. The program
at privilege level 3 calls a routine at level 2 via a gate. The routine at
level 2 uses the ARPL instruction to assure that the selector's RPL is 3.
When the level 2 routine calls a routine at level 0 and passes the
selector, the ARPL instruction at level 0 leaves the RPL field unchanged.

Stamping a pointer with the originator's privilege eliminates the complex
and time-consuming software typically associated with pointer validation in
less comprehensive architectures. The 80286 hardware performs the pointer
test automatically while loading the selector.

Privilege errors are trapped at the time the selector is loaded because
pointers are commonly passed to other routines, and it may not be possible
to identify a pointer's originator. To verify the access capabilities of a
pointer, it should be tested when the pointer is first received from an
untrusted source. The VERR (Verify Read), VERW (Verify Write), and LAR (Load
Access Rights) instructions are provided for this purpose.

Although pointer validation is fully supported in the 80286, its use is an
option of the system designer. To accommodate systems that do not require
it, RPL can be ignored by setting selector RPLs to zero (except stack
segment selectors) and not adjusting them with the ARPL instruction.


Figure 7-9. Pointer Privilege Stamping

Level 3      PUSH  SELECTOR          ; RPL value doesn't matter at level 3
             CALL  LEVEL_2

       Level_2:
             ENTER 4,0
             MOV   AX, [BP] + 4      ; GET CS of return address, RPL=3
             ARPL  [BP] + 6, AX      ; Put 3 in RPL field
Level 2       Ø
              Ø
              Ø
             PUSH  WORD PTR [BP] + 6 ; Pass selector
             CALL  LEVEL_0

       Level_0:
             ENTER 6,0
Level 0      MOV   AX, [BP] + 4      ; Get CS of return address, RPL=2
             ARPL  [BP] + 6, AX      ; Leaves RPL unchanged


7.5  Control Transfers

Three kinds of control transfers can occur within a task:

  1.  Within a segment, causing no change of privilege level (a short jump,
      call, or return).

  2.  Between segments at the same privilege level (a long jump, call, or
      return).

  3.  Between segments at different privilege levels (a long call, or
      return). (NOTE: A JUMP to a different privilege level is not allowed.)

The first two types of control transfers need no special controls (with
respect to privilege protection) beyond those discussed in section 7.4.

Inter-level transfers require special consideration to maintain system
integrity. The protection hardware must check that:

  Ž  The task is currently allowed to access the destination address.
  Ž  The correct entry address is used.

To achieve control transfers, a special descriptor type called a gate is
provided to mediate the change in privilege level. Control transfer
instructions call the gate rather than transfer directly to a code segment.
From the viewpoint of the program, a control transfer to a gate is the same
as to another code segment.

Gates allow programs to use other programs at more privileged levels in the
same manner as a program at the same privilege level. Programmers need never
distinguish between programs or subroutines that are more privileged than
the current program and those that are not. The system designer may,
however, elect to use gates only for control transfers that cross privilege
levels.


7.5.1  Gates

A gate is a four-word control descriptor used to redirect a control
transfer to a different code segment in the same or more privileged level or
to a different task. There are four types of gates: call, trap, interrupt,
and task gates. The access rights byte distinguishes a gate from a segment
descriptor, and determines which type of gate is involved. Figure 7-10
shows the format of a gate descriptor.

A key feature of a gate is the re-direction it provides. All four gate
types define a new address which transfers control when invoked. This
destination address normally cannot be accessed by a program. Loading the
selector to a call gate into SS, DS, or ES will cause a general protection
fault with an error code identifying the invalid selector.

Only the selector portion of an address is used to invoke a gate. The
offset is ignored. All that a program need know about the desired function
is the selector required to invoke the gate. The 80286 will automatically
start the execution at the correct address stored within the gate.

A further advantage of a gate is that it provides a fixed address for any
program to invoke another program. The calling program's address remains
unaltered even if the entry address of the destination program changes.
Thus, gates provide a fixed set of entry points that allow a task to access
Operating System functions such as simple subroutines, yet the task is
prohibited from simply jumping into the middle of the Operating System.

Call gates, as described in the next section, are used for control
transfers within a task which must either be transparently redirected or
which require an increase in privilege level. A call gate normally specifies
a subroutine at a greater privilege level, and the called routine returns
via a return instruction. Call gates also support delayed binding
(resolution of target routine addresses at run-time rather than
program-generation-time).

Trap and interrupt gates handle interrupt operations that are to be
serviced within the current task. Interrupt gates cause interrupts to be
disabled; trap gates do not. Trap and interrupt gates both require a return
via the interrupt return instruction.

Task gates are used to control transfers between tasks and to make use of
task state segments for task control and status information. Tasks are
discussed in Chapter 8, interrupts in Chapter 9.

In the 80286 protection model, each privilege level has its own stack.
Therefore, a control transfer (call or return) that changes the privilege
level causes a new stack to be invoked.


Figure 7-10.  Gate Descriptor Format

                                      0  7                            0
       ‚ƒ
    +7 €                        INTEL RESERVED
Must be set to 0 for compatibility with the 80386                        € +6
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    +5 € P   DPL   0  0   1   0   1             UNUSED             € +4
       Ƒ‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
    +3 €                         TSS SELECTOR                          € +2
       Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
    +1 €                            UNUSED                             € 0
       „…
         15                                                           0

                            Gate Descriptor Fields
 ‚ŠŠƒ
 € Name           Value     Description                                 €
 †ĻĻ‡
 €                   4      Call Gate.                                  €
 €     TYPE          5      Task Gate.                                  €
 €                   6      Interrupt Gate.                             €
 €                   7      Trap Gate.                                  €
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 €       P           0      Descriptor Contents are not valid.          €
 €                   1      Descriptor Contents are valid.              €
 Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
 €      DPL         0-3     Descriptor Privilege Level.                 €
 Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
 €                  0-31    Number of words to copy from caller's       €
 €  WORD COUNT              stack to called procedure's stack. Only     €
 €                          used with call gate.                        €
 Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
 €                 16-bit   Selector to the target code segment (Call,  €
 €  DESTINATION   selector  Interrupt or Trap Gate).                    €
 €   SELECTOR               Selector to the target task state segment   €
 €                          (Task Gate).                                €
 Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
 €  DESTINATION    16-bit   Entry point within the target code segment. €
 €    OFFSET       offset                                               €
 „¤¤…


7.5.1.1  Call Gates

Call gate descriptors are used by call and jump instructions in the same
manner as a code segment descriptor. The hardware automatically recognizes
that the destination selector refers to a gate descriptor. Then, the
operation of the instruction is expanded as determined by the contents of
the call gate. A jump instruction can access a call gate only if the target
code segment is at the same privilege level. A call instruction uses a call
gate for the same or more privileged access.

A call gate descriptor may reside in either the GDT or the LDT, but not in
the IDT. Figure 7-10 gives the complete layout of a call gate descriptor.

A call gate can be referred to by either the long JMP or CALL instructions.
From the viewpoint of the program executing a JMP or CALL instruction, the
fact that the destination was reached via a call gate and not directly from
the destination address of the instruction is not apparent.

The following is a description of the protection checks performed while
transferring control (with the CALL instruction) through a call gate:

  Ž  Verifying that access to the call gate is allowed. One of the
     protection features provided by call gates is the access checks made to
     determine if the call gate may be used (i.e., checking if the privilege
     level of the calling program is adequate).

  Ž  Determining the destination address and whether a privilege transition
     is required. This feature makes privilege transitions transparent to
     the caller.

  Ž  Performing the privilege transition, if required.

Verifying access to a call gate is the same for any call gate and is
independent of whether a JMP or CALL instruction was used. The rules of
privilege used to determine whether a data segment may be accessed are
employed to check if a call gate may be jumped-to or called. Thus,
privileged subroutines can be hidden from untrusted programs by the absence
of a call gate.

When an inter-segment CALL or JMP instruction selects a call gate, the
gate's privilege and presence will be checked. The gate's DPL (in the access
byte) is checked against the EPL (MAX (task CPL, selector RPL)). If EPL >
CPL, the program is less privileged than the gate and therefore it may not
make a transition. In this case, a general protection fault occurs with an
error code identifying the gate. Otherwise, the gate is accessible from the
program executing the call, and the control transfer is allowed to continue.
After the privilege checks, the descriptor presence is checked. If the
present bit of the gate access rights byte is 0 (i.e., the target code
segment is not present), not present fault occurs with an error code
identifying the gate.

The checks indicated in table 7-3 are applied to the contents of the call
gate. Violating any of them causes the exception shown. The low order two
bits of the error code are zero for these exceptions.


Table 7-3. Call Gate Checks

          Type of Check                     Fault
GP = General Protection, NP = Not-Present Exception      Error Code
Selector is not Null                           GP       0
Selector is within Descriptor Table Limit      GP       Selector id
Descriptor is a Code Segment                   GP       Code Segment id
Code Segment is Present                        NP       Code Segment id
Nonconforming Code Segment DPL > CPL           GP       Code Segment id

‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘
NOTE
  The offset portion of the JMP or CALL destination address which refers to
  a call gate is always ignored.
‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘


7.5.1.2  Intra-Level Transfers Via Call Gate

The transfer is Intra-level if the destination code segment is at the same
privilege level as CPL. Either the code segment is non-conforming with
DPL = CPL, or it is conforming, with DPL ¾ CPL (see section 11.2 for this
case). The 32-bit destination address in the gate is loaded into CS:IP.

If the IP value is not within the limit of the code segment, a general
protection fault occurs with an error code of 0. If a CALL instruction is
used, the return address is saved in the normal manner. The only effect of
the call gate is to place a different address into CS:IP than that
specified in the destination address of the JMP or CALL instruction. This
feature is useful for systems which require that a fixed address be provided
to programs, even though the entry address for the routine may change due to
different functions, software changes, or segment relocation.


7.5.1.3  Inter-Level Control Transfer Via Call Gates

If the destination code segment of the call gate is at a different
privilege level than the CPL, an inter-level transfer is being requested.
However, if the destination code segment DPL > CPL, then a general
protection fault occurs with an error code identifying the destination code
segment.

The gate guarantees that all transitions to a more privileged level will go
to a valid entry point rather than possibly into the middle of a procedure
(or worse, into the middle of an instruction). See figure 7-11.

Calls to more privileged levels may be performed only through call gates. A
JMP instruction can never cause a privilege change. Any attempt to use a
call gate in this manner will cause a general protection fault with an error
code identifying the gate. Returns to more privileged levels are also
prohibited. Inter-level transitions due to interrupts use a different gate,
as discussed in Chapter 9.

The RPL field of the CS selector saved as part of the return address will
always identify the caller's CPL. This information is necessary to correctly
return to the caller's privilege level during the return instruction. Since
the CALL instruction places the CS value on the more privileged stack, and
JMP instructions cannot change privilege levels, it is not possible for a
program to maliciously place an invalid return address on the caller's
stack.


Figure 7-11.  Call Gate

          ‚ŠŠƒ
          € CALL OPCODE    OFFSET      SELECTOR   €         INSTRUCTION
          „¤¤Š…
                                            
                                            
          ˆŠ Šˆ 
            €     CODE                           €          DESCRIPTOR
            €     SEG.               CALL GATE   €          TABLES
            €    DESCR.                          €
          ‰Š¤ ¤ŠŠ‰ 
                                          
                    ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•    OFFSET
                                            
         ˆˆ 
           €                                        €         TARGET
           €                 ENTER                  €         CODE
           €                                        €         SEGMENT
         ‰‰ 


7.5.1.4  Stack Changes Caused By Call Gates

To maintain system integrity, each privilege level has a separate stack.
Furthermore, each task normally uses separate stacks from other tasks for
each privilege level. These stacks assure sufficient stack space to process
calls from less privileged levels. Without them, trusted programs may not
work correctly, especially if the calling program does not provide
sufficient space on the caller's stack.

When a call gate is used to change privilege levels, a new stack is
selected as determined by the new CPL. The new stack pointer value is loaded
from the Task State Segment (TSS). The privilege level of the new stack data
segment must equal the new CPL; if it does not, a task stack fault occurs
with the saved machine state pointing at the CALL instruction and the error
code identifying the invalid stack selector.

The new stack should contain enough space to hold the old SS:SP, the return
address, and all parameters and local variables required to process the
call. The initial stack pointers for privilege levels 0-2 in the TSS are
strictly read only values. They are never changed during the course of
execution.

The normal technique for passing parameters to a subroutine is to place
them onto the stack. To make privilege transitions transparent to the called
program, a call gate specifies that parameters are to be copied from the old
stack to the new stack. The word count field in a call gate (see figure
7-10) specifies how many words (up to 31) are to be copied from the
caller's stack to the new stack. If the word count is zero, no parameters
are copied.

Before copying the parameters, the new stack is checked to assure that it
is large enough to hold the parameters; if it is not, a stack fault occurs
with an error code of 0. After the parameters are copied, the return link is
on the new stack (i.e., a pointer to the old stack is placed in the new
stack). In particular, the return address is pointed at by SS:SP. The call
and return example of figure 7-12 illustrate the stack contents after a
successful inter-level call.

The stack pointer of the caller is saved above the caller's return address
as the first two words pushed onto the new stack. The caller's stack can
only be saved for calls to procedures at privilege levels 2, 1, and 0. Since
level 3 cannot be called by any procedure at any other privilege level, the
level 3 stack will never contain links to other stacks.

Procedures requiring more than the 31 words for parameters that may be
called from another privilege level must use the saved SS:SP link to access
all parameters beyond the last word copied.

The call gate does not check the values of the words copied onto the new
stack. The called procedure should check each parameter for validity.
Section 11.3 discusses how the ARPL, VERR, VERW, LSL, and LAR instructions
can be used to check pointer values.


Figure 7-12.  Stack Contents after an Inter-Level Call

                     ‚ƒ               ‚ƒ
                     €          €               €  OLD SS  €    
                     €          €               Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā     DIRECTION
   HIGHER             €          €               €  OLD SP  €     OF STACK
  ADDRESSES           €          €               Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā     GROWTH
                      €          €               €  PARM 3  €    
                      €          €               Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā    
                      €          €               €  PARM 2  €    
                      Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā               Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā    
                      €  PARM 3  €               €  PARM 1  €    
                      Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā               Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                      €  PARM 2  €               €  OLD CS  €
                OLD   Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā        NEW    Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
               SS:SP  €  PARM 1  €      SS + SP  €  OLD IP  €
   LOWER         ”‘‘‘„…         ”‘‘‘‘„…
 ADDRESSES
                      OLD STACK                  NEW STACK
                      (AT "OUTER"                (AT "INNER"
                      PRIVILEGE                  PRIVILEGE
                       LEVEL)                     LEVEL)


7.5.2  Inter-Level Returns

An inter-segment return instruction can also change levels, but only toward
programs of equal or lesser privilege (when code segment DPL is numerically
greater or equal than the CPL). The RPL of the selector popped off the stack
by the return instruction identifies the privilege level to resume
execution of the calling program.

When the RET instruction encounters a saved CS value whose RPL > CPL, an
inter-level return occurs. Checks shown in table 7-4 are made during such a
return.

The old SS:SP value is then adjusted by the number of bytes indicated in
the RET instruction and loaded into SS:SP. The new SP value is not checked
for validity. If SP is invalid it is not recognized until the first stack
operation. The SS:SP value of the returning program is not saved. (Note:
this value normally is the same as that saved in the TSS.)

The last step in the return is checking the contents of the DS and ES
descriptor register. If DS or ES refer to segments whose DPL is greater than
the new CPL (excluding conforming code segments), the segment registers are
loaded with the null selector. Any subsequent memory reference that
attempts to use the segment register containing the null selector will cause
a general protection fault. This prevents less privileged code from
accessing more privileged data previously accessed by the more privileged
program.


Table 7-4. Inter-Level Return Checks

Type of Check                           Exception
SF = Stack Fault, GP = General Protection Exception, NP = Not-Present     Error Code
SP is not within Segment Limit              SF         0
SP + N + 7 is not in Segment Limit          SF         0
RPL of Return CS is Greater than CPL        GP         Return CS id
Return CS Selector is not null              GP         Return CS id
Return CS segment is within Descriptor      GP         Return CS id
 Table Limit
Return CS Descriptor is a Code Segment      GP         Return CS id
Return CS Segment is Present                NP         Return CS id
DPL of Return Non-Conforming Code           GP         Return CS id
 Segment = RPL of CS
SS Selector at SP + N + 6 is not Null       SF         Return SS id
SS Selector at SP + N + 6 is within         SF         Return SS id
 Descriptor Table Limit
SS Descriptor is Writable Data Segment      SF         Return SS id
SS Segment is Present                       SF         Return SS id
SS Segment DPL = RPL of CS                  SF         Return SS id


Chapter 8  Tasks and State Transitions

‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘

8.1  Introduction

An 80286 task is a single, sequential thread of execution. Each task can be
isolated from all other tasks. There may be many tasks associated with an
80286 CPU, but only one task executes at any time. Switching the CPU from
executing one task to executing another can occur as the result of either an
interrupt or an inter-task CALL, JMP or IRET. A hardware-recognized data
structure defines each task.

The 80286 provides a high performance task switch operation with complete
isolation between tasks. A full task-switch operation takes only 22
microseconds at 8 MHz (18 microseconds at 10 MHz). High-performance,
interrupt-driven, multi-application systems that need the benefits of
protection are feasible with the 80286.

A performance advantage and system design advantage arise from the 80286
task switch:

  Ž  Faster task switch: A task switch is a single instruction performed by
     microcode. Such a scheme is 2-3 times faster than an explicit task
     switch instruction. A fast task switch translates to a significant
     performance boost for heavily multi-tasked systems over conventional
     methods.

  Ž  More reliable, flexible systems: The isolation between tasks and the
     high speed task switch allows interrupts to be handled by separate
     tasks rather than within the currently interrupted task. This isolation
     of interrupt handling code from normal programs prevents undesirable
     interactions between them. The interrupt system can become more
     flexible since adding an interrupt handler is as safe and easy as
     adding a new task.

  Ž  Every task is protected from all others via the separation of address
     spaces described in Chapter 7, including allocation of unique stacks
     to each active privilege level in each task (unless explicit sharing is
     planned in advance). If the address spaces of two tasks include no
     shared data, one task cannot affect the data of another task. Code
     sharing is always safe since code segments may never be written into.


8.2  Task State Segments and Descriptors

Tasks are defined by a special control segment called a Task State Segment
(TSS). For each task, there must be an unique TSS. The definition of a task
includes its address space and execution state. A task is invoked (made
active) by inter-segment jump or call instructions whose destination
address refers to a task state segment or a task gate.

The Task State Segment (TSS) has a special descriptor. The Task Register
within the CPU contains a selector to that descriptor. Each TSS selector
value is unique, providing an unambiguous "identifier" for each task. Thus,
an operating system can use the value of the TSS selector to uniquely
identify the task.

A TSS contains 22 words that define the contents of all registers and
flags, the initial stacks for privilege levels 0-2, the LDT selector, and a
link to the TSS of the previously executing task. Figure 8-1 shows the
layout of the TSS. The TSS can not be written into like an ordinary data
segment.

Each TSS consists of two parts, a static portion and a dynamic portion. The
static entries are never changed by the 80286, while the dynamic entries are
changed by each task switch out of this task. The static portions of this
segment are the task LDT selector and the initial SS:SP stack pointer
addresses for levels 0-2.

The modifiable or dynamic portion of the task state segment consists of all
dynamically-variable and programmer-visible processor registers, including
flags, segment registers, and the instruction pointer. It also includes the
linkage word used to chain nested invocations of different tasks.

The link word provides a history of which tasks invoked others. The link
word is important for restarting an interrupted task when the interrupt has
been serviced. Placing the back link in the TSS protects the identity of the
interrupted task from changes by the interrupt task, since the TSS is not
writable by the interrupt task. (In most systems only the operating system
has sufficient privilege to create or use a writable data segment "alias"
descriptor for the TSS.)

The stack pointer entries in the TSS for privilege levels 0-2 are static
(i.e., never written during a privilege or task switch). They define the
stack to use upon entry to that privilege level. These stack entries are
initialized by the operating system when the task is created. If a
privilege level is never used, no stack need be allocated for it.

When entering a more privileged level, the caller's stack pointer is saved
on the stack of the new privilege level, not in the TSS. Leaving the
privilege level requires popping the caller's return address and stack
pointer off the current stack. The stack pointer at that time will be the
same as the initial value loaded from the TSS upon entry to the privilege
level.

There is only one stack active at any time, the one defined by the SS and
SP registers. The only other stacks that may be non-empty are those at outer
(less privileged) levels that called the current level. Stacks for inner
levels must be empty, since outward (to numerically larger privilege
levels) calls from inner levels are not allowed.

The location of the stack pointer for an outer privilege level will always
be found at the start of the stack of the inner privilege level called by
that level. That stack may be the initial stack for this privilege level or
an outer level. Look at the start of the stack for this privilege level.
The TSS contains the starting stack address for levels 0-2. If the RPL of
the saved SS selector is the privilege level required, then the stack
pointer has been found. Otherwise, go to the beginning of the stack defined
by that value and look at the saved SS:SP value there.


Figure 8-1.  Task State Segment and TSS Registers

                                                              
                             ’‘Ć‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                              €        INTEL RESERVED         €
                              Ƒ˜‘‘‘˜‘˜‘‘‘‘‘‘‘˜‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘€‘“
                 TSS          €P
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€ P  DESCRIPTION                       €
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€ 1  BASE AND LIMIT FIELDS ARE VALID   €
Ƒ‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
€ 0  SEGMENT IS NOT PRESENT IN MEMORY. €
€    BASE AND LIMIT ARE NOT DEFINED    €
„¤…
DPL0 TYPE
‚Šƒ
€TYPEDESCRIPTION                                   €
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€  1 AN AVAILABLE TASK STATE SEGMENT MAY BE USED   €
€    AS THE DESTINATION OF A TASK SWITCH OPERATION.€
Ƒ‘‘‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
€    A BUSY TASK STATE SEGMENT CANNOT BE USED AS   €
€    THE DESTINATION OF A TASK SWITCH.             €
„¤…
   BASE 23-16   € 
                 DESCRIPTOR ‘— Ƒ™‘™‘™‘™‘™‘™‘™‘™‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
                             €           BASE 15-0           € – “
                             Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
                              €          LIMIT 15-0           €  
                            ”‘Ć‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā‘•
           CPU            ’‘ ‘‘€‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘Ī ‘‘•
‚Ļƒ      ø                               ø
€     TASK REGISTER     €     €15                            0€ BYTE
€       ‚ƒ      €    ’‘Ć‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā OFFSET
€       €       Ƒ‘ ‘•  €    €  TASK LDT SELECTOR            € 42
Never altered (static) after initialization by O.S. The values as
initialized for this task are always valid SS:SP values to use upon entry
to that privilege level (0, 1, or 2) from a level of lesser privilege.
€       „…       €     Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā   ‘“
€        15    0        €    €  DS SELECTOR                  € 40 
€ ’‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘“ €     Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā    
€   PROGRAM INVISIBLE   €    €  SS SELECTOR                  € 38 
€       15    0       €     Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā    
€       ‚ƒ   “   €    €  CS SELECTOR                  € 36 
€      € LIMIT Ƒ“   €     Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā    
€   ‚‰‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā  ‘ Ī‘•   €  ES SELECTOR                  € 34 
€  €   BASE    €    €     Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā    
€   „Š…  •   €     €  DI                           € 32 
€            0      €     Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā    
€ ”‘‘‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ š‘ ‘• €     €  SI                           € 30 
„ĻĻ…     Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā    
                            €  BP                           € 28 CURRENT
                            Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā    –TASK
                            €  SP                           € 26 STATE
Changed during task switch.
                            Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā    
                            €  BX                           € 24 
                            Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā    
                      TASK  €  DX                           € 22 
                 ”   STATE — Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā    
                    SEGMENT  €  CX                           € 20 
                             Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā    
                             €  AX                           € 18 
                             Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā    
                             €  FLAG WORD                    € 16 
                             Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā    
                             €  IP (ENTRY POINT)             € 14 
                             Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā   Į
                             €  SS FOR CPL 2                 € 12 
                             Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā    
                             €  SP FOR CPL 2                 € 10 
                             Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā    INITIAL
                             €  SS FOR CPL 1                 € 8  STACKS
                             Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā    –FOR
                             €  SP FOR CPL 1                 € 6  CPL
                             Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā    0,1,2
Never altered (static) after initialization by O.S. The values as
initialized for this task are always valid SS:SP values to use upon entry
to that privilege level (0, 1, or 2) from a level of lesser privilege.
                             €  SS FOR CPL 0                 € 4  
                             Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā    
                             €  SP FOR CPL 0                 € 2  
                             Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā   ‘•
                             €  BACK LINK SELECTOR TO TSS    € 0 ‘‘‘‘‘
     ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘”‘Ć‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                               €                               €
                                                              


8.2.1 Task State Segment Descriptors

A special descriptor is used for task state segments. This descriptor must
be accessible at all times; therefore, it can appear only in the GDT. The
access byte distinguishes TSS descriptors from data or code segment
descriptors. When bits 0 through 4 of the access byte are 00001 or 00011,
the descriptor is for a TSS.

The complete layout of a task state segment descriptor is shown in figure
8-2.

Like a data segment, the descriptor contains a base address and limit
field. The limit must be at least 002BH (43) to contain the minimum amount
of information required for a TSS. An invalid task exception will occur if
an attempt is made to switch to a task whose TSS descriptor limit is less
than 43. The error code will identify the bad TSS.

The P-bit (Present) flag indicates whether this descriptor contains
currently valid information: 1 means yes, 0 no. A task switch that attempts
to reference a not-present TSS causes a not-present exception code
identifying the task state segment selector.

The descriptor privilege level (DPL) controls use of the TSS by JMP or CALL
instructions. By the same reasoning as that for call gates, DPL can prevent
a program from calling the TSS and thereby cause a task switch. Section 8.3
discusses privilege considerations during a task switch in greater detail.

Bit 4 is always 0 since TSS is a control segment descriptor. Control
segments cannot be accessed by SS, DS, or ES. Any attempt to load those
segment registers with a selector that refers to a control segment causes
general protection trap. This rule prevents the program from improperly
changing the contents of a control segment.

TSS descriptors can have two states: idle and busy. Bit 1 of the access
byte distinguishes them. The distinction is necessary since tasks are not
re-entrant; a busy TSS may not be invoked.


Figure 8-2.  TSS Descriptor

        7                             0 7                             0
       ‚Šƒ
     +7€                        INTEL RESERVED
Must be set to 0 for compatibility with 80836                        €+6
       Ƒ‘‘˜‘‘‘‘‘‘‘˜‘‘‘˜‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘˜‘‘‘˜‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
     +5€ P   DPL   0  0   0   B  1          TSB BASE 23-16        €+4
       Ƒ‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
     +3€                          TSS BASE 15-0                        €+2
       €‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘€
     +1€                            TSS LIMIT                          € 0
       „…
        15                                                            0

        B=1 MEANS TASK IS BUSY AND NOT AVAILABLE


8.3  Task Switching

A task switch may occur in one of four ways:

  1.  The destination selector of a long JMP or CALL instruction refers to
      a TSS descriptor. The offset portion of the destination address is
      ignored.

  2.  An IRET instruction is executed when the NT bit in the flag word = 1.
      The new task TSS selector is in the back link field of the current
      TSS.

  3.  The destination selector of a long JMP or CALL instruction refers to
      a task gate. The offset portion of the destination address is ignored.
      The new task TSS selector is in the gate. (See section 8.5 for more
      information on task gates.)

  4.  An interrupt occurs. This interrupt's vector refers to a task gate in
      the interrupt descriptor table. The new task TSS selector is in the
      gate. See section 9.4 for more information on interrupt tasks.

No new instructions are required for a task switch operation. The standard
8086 JMP, CALL, IRET, or interrupt operations perform this function. The
distinction between the standard instruction and a task switch is made
either by the type of descriptor referenced (for CALL, JMP, or INT) or by
the NT bit (for IRET) in flag word.

Using the CALL or INT instruction to switch tasks implies a return is
expected from the called task. The JMP and IRET instructions imply no return
is expected from the new task.

When NT=1, the IRET instruction causes a return to the task that called the
current one via CALL or INT instruction.

Access to TSS and task gate descriptors is restricted by the rules of
privilege level. The data access rules are used, thereby allowing task
switches to be restricted to programs of sufficient privilege. Address space
separation does not apply to TSS descriptors since they must be in the GDT.
The access rules for interrupts are discussed in section 9.4.

The task switch operation consists of the following eight steps:

  1.  Validate the requested task switch. For a task switch requested via a
      JMP, CALL, or an INT instruction, check that the current task is
      allowed to switch to the requested task.  The DPL of the gate or the
      TSS descriptor for the requested task must be greater than or equal
      to both the CPL and the RPL of the requesting task.  If it is not, the
      General Protection fault (#13) will occur with an error code
      identifying the descriptor (i.e., the gate selector if the task
      switch is requested via a task gate, or the selector for the TSS if
      the task switch is requested via a TSS descriptor).

      These checks are not performed if a task switch occurs due to an IRET
      instruction.

  2.  Check that the new TSS is present and that the new task is available
      (i.e. not Busy).  A Not Present exception (#11) is signaled if the new
      TSS descriptor is marked 'Not Present' (P = 0). The General Protection
      exception (#13) is raised if the new TSS is marked 'Busy'.

      The task switch operation actually begins now and a detailed
      verification of the new TSS is carried out.  Conditions which may
      disqualify the new TSS are listed in table 8-1 along with the
      exception raised and the error code pushed on the stack for each case.
      These tests are performed at different points during the course of the
      following remaining steps of the task switch operation.

  3.  Mark the new task to be BUSY by setting the 'BUSY' bit in the new TSS
      descriptor to 1.

  4.  Save the dynamic portion of the old TSS and load TR with the
      selector, base and limit for the new TSS.  Set all CPU registers to
      corresponding values from the new TSS except DS, ES, CS, SS, and LDT.

  5.  If nesting tasks, set the Nested Task (NT) flag in the new TSS to 1.
      Also set the Task Switched flag (TS) of the CPU flag register to 1.

  6.  Validate the LDT selector and the LDT descriptor of the new TSS. Load
      the LDT cache (LDTR) with the LDT descriptor.

  7.  Validate the SS, CS, DS, and ES fields of the new TSS and load these
      values in their respective caches (i.e., SS, CS, DS, and ES
      registers).

  8.  Validate the IP field of the new TSS and then start executing the new
      task from CS:IP.

A more detailed explanation of steps 3-5 is given in Appendix B (80286
Instruction Set) under a pseudo procedure 'SWITCH_TASKS'. Notice how the
exceptions described in table 8-1 may actually occur during a task switch.
Similarly the exceptions that may occur during steps 1-2, and step 8 are
explained in greater detail in the pseudo code description of the 286
instructions CALL, JMP, INT, and IRET in Appendix B. This information can
be very helpful when debugging any protected mode code.

Note that the state of the outgoing task is always saved. If execution of
that task is resumed, it will start after the instruction that caused the
task switch. The values of the registers will be the same as that when the
task stopped running.

Any task switch sets the Task Switched (TS) bit in the Machine Status Word
(MSW). This flag is used when processor extensions such as the 80287 Numeric
Processor Extension are present. The TS bit signals that the context of the
processor extension may not belong to the current 80286 task. Chapter 11
discusses the TS bit and processor extensions in more detail.

Validity tests on a selector ensure that the selector is in the proper
table (i.e., the LDT selector refers to GDT), lies within the bounds of the
table, and refers to the proper type of descriptor (i.e., the LDT selector
refers to the LDT descriptor).

Note that between steps 3 and 4 in table 8-1, all the registers of the new
task are loaded. Several protection rule violations may exist in the new
segment register contents. If an exception occurs in the context of the new
task due to checks performed on the newly loaded descriptors, the DS and ES
segments may not be accessible even though the segment registers contain
non-zero values. These selector values must be saved for later reuse. When
the exception handler reloads these segment registers, another protection
exception may occur unless the exception handler pre-examines them and
fixes any potential problems.

A task switch allows flexibility in the privilege level of the outgoing and
incoming tasks. The privilege level at which execution resumes in the
incoming task is not restricted by the privilege level of the outgoing task.
This is reasonable, since both tasks are isolated from each other with
separate address spaces and machine states. The privilege rules prevent
improper access to a TSS. The only interaction between the tasks is to the
extent that one started the other and the incoming task may restart the
outgoing task by executing an IRET instruction.


Table 8-1. Checks Made during a Task Switch


     Test                         Exception
NP = Not-Present Exception
GP = General Protection Fault
SF = Stack Fault       Error Code
1    Incoming TSS descriptor           NP          Incoming TSS selector
     is present
2    Incoming TSS is idle              G           Incoming TSS selector
3    Limit of incoming TSS        Invalid TSS      Incoming TSS selector
     greater than 43
4    LDT selector of incoming     Invalid TSS      LDT selector
     TSS is valid
5    LDT of incoming TSS          Invalid TSS      LDT selector
     is present
6    CS selector is valid         Invalid TSS      Code segment selector
7    Code segment is present           NP          Code segment selector
8    Code segment DPL matches     Invalid TSS      Code segment selector
     CS RPL
9    Stack segment is valid            SF          Stack segment selector
10   Stack segment is writable         GP          Stack segment selector
     data segment
11   Stack segment is present          SF          Stack segment selector
12   Stack segment DPL = CPL           SF          Stack segment selector
13   DS/ES selectors are valid         GP          Segment selector
14   DS/ES segments are readable       GP          Segment selector
15   DS/ES segments are present        NP          Segment selector
16   DS/ES segment DPL  CPL if        GP          Segment
     not conform


8.4  Task Linking

The TSS has a field called "back link" which contains the selector of the
TSS of a task that should be restarted when the current task completes. The
back link field of an interrupt-initiated task is automatically written with
the TSS selector of the interrupted task.

A task switch initiated by a CALL instruction also points the back link at
the outgoing task's TSS. Such task nesting is indicated to programs via the
Nested Task (NT) bit in the flag word of the incoming task.

Task nesting is necessary for interrupt functions to be processed as
separate tasks. The interrupt function is thereby isolated from all other
tasks in the system. To restart the interrupted task, the interrupt handler
executes an IRET instruction much in the same manner as an 8086 interrupt
handler. The IRET instruction will then cause a task switch to the
interrupted task.

Completion of a task occurs when the IRET instruction is executed with the
NT bit in the flag word set. The NT bit is automatically set/reset by task
switch operations as appropriate. Executing an IRET instruction with NT
cleared causes the normal 8086 interrupt return function to be performed,
and no task switch occurs.

Executing IRET with NT set causes a task switch to the task defined by the
back link field of the current TSS. The selector value is fetched and
verified as pointing to a valid, accessible TSS. The normal task switch
operation described in section 8.3 then occurs. After the task switch is
complete, the outgoing task is now idle and considered ready to process
another interrupt.

Table 8-2 shows how the busy bit, NT bit, and link word of the incoming and
outgoing task are affected by task switch operations caused by JMP, CALL, or
IRET instructions.

Violation of any of the busy bit requirements shown in table 8-2 causes a
general protection fault with the saved machine state appearing as if the
instruction had not executed. The error code identifies the selector of the
TSS with the busy bit.

A bus lock is applied during the testing and setting of the TSS descriptor
busy bit to ensure that two processors do not invoke the same task at the
same time. See also section 11.4 for other multi-processor considerations.

The linking order of tasks may need to be changed to restart an interrupted
task before the task that interrupted it completes. To remove a task from
the list, trusted operating system software must change the backlink field
in the TSS of the interrupting task first, then clear the busy bit in the
TSS descriptor of the task removed from the list.

When trusted software deletes the link from one task to another, it should
place a value in the backlink field, which will pass control to that trusted
software when the task attempts to resume execution of another task via
IRET.


Table 8-2. Effect of a Task Switch on BUSY and NT Bits and the Link Word


                            JMP            CALL/INT          IRET
Affected Field              Instruction    Instruction       Instruction
                            Effect         Effect            Effect

Busy bit of incoming        Set, must be   Set, must be 0    Unchanged,
 task TSS descriptor        0 before       before            must be set

Busy bit of outgoing        Cleared        Unchanged (will   Cleared
 tasl TSS descriptor                       already be 1)

NT bit in incoming task     Cleared        Set               Unchanged
 flag word

NT bit in outgoing task     Unchanged      Unchanged         Cleared
 flag word

Back link in incoming       Unchanged      Set to outgoing   Unchanged
 task TSS                                  task TSS selector

Back link of outgoing       Unchanged      Unchanged         Unchanged
 tasl TSS



8.5  Task Gates

A task may be invoked by several different events. Task gates are provided
to support this need. Task gates are used in the same way as call and
interrupt gates. The ultimate effect of jumping to or calling a task gate is
the same as jumping to or calling directly to the TSS in the task gate.

Figure 8-3 depicts the layout of a task gate.

A task gate is identified by the access byte field in bits 0 through 4
being 00101. The gate provides an extra level of indirection between the
destination address and the TSS selector value. The offset portion of the
JMP or CALL destination address is ignored.

Gate use provides flexibility in controlling access to tasks. Task gates
can appear in the GDT, IDT, or LDT. The TSS descriptors for all tasks must
be kept in the GDT. They are normally placed at level 0 to prevent any task
from improperly invoking another task. Task gates placed in the LDT allow
private access to selected tasks with full privilege control.

The data segment access rules apply to accessing a task gate via JMP, CALL,
or INT instructions. The effective privilege level (EPL) of the destination
selector must be numerically less than or equal to the DPL of the task gate
descriptor. Any violation of this requirement causes a general protection
fault with an error code identifying the task gate involved.

Once access to the task gate has been verified, the TSS selector from the
gate is read. The RPL of the TSS selector is ignored. From this point, all
the checks and actions performed for a JMP or CALL to a TSS after access has
been verified are performed (see section 8.4). Figure 8-4 illustrates an
example of a task switch through a task gate.


Figure 8-3.  Task Gate Descriptor

        7                             0 7                             0
       ‚ƒ
     +7€                        INTEL RESERVED
Must be set to 0 for compatibility with 80386                        €+6
       Ƒ‘‘˜‘‘‘‘‘‘‘˜‘‘‘˜‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘˜‘‘‘˜‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
     +5€ P   DPL   O  O   1   O  1             UNUSED             €+4
       Ƒ‘‘™‘‘‘‘‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
     +3€                         TSS SELECTOR                          €+2
       €‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘€
     +1€                            UNUSED                             € 0
       „…
        15                                                            0


Figure 8-4.  Task Switch Through a Task Gate

                        TASK A                                   TASK B
                   ‚ƒ     ‚ƒ    ‚ƒ
                   €              €     €              €    €              €
                   €              €     €              €    ø              ø
                   €              €     Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā    €              €
                   €              €TASK’€LDT DESCRIPTORƑ‘‘„…
                   €              €   B—Ć‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā‘“       LDT
‚Šƒ Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā    ”€TSS DESCRIPTORƑ“
€       SELECTOR€€  TASK GATE   €‘‘‘‘Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā  ‚ƒ
„¤… Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā     €              € ”‘Ā LDT SELECTOR €
                   ø              ø     €              €   Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                   €              €     €              €   €              €
                   „…‘“  €              €   €              €
                          LDT          €              €   €              €
                                     ”‘‘Ī‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā   €              €
                   ‚ƒ‘‘‘‘€LDT DESCRIPTOR€“  €              €
                   € LDT SELECTOR €     Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā”‘Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                   Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā     €TSS DESCRIPTOR€™“  €  BACK LINK   €
                   €              €  ’‘‘Ī‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā‘‘‘„…
                   €              €    €              €         TSS
                   €              €    €              € ”TASK
                   „…‘•  „…     A
                          TSS                 GDT


Chapter 9  Interrupts and Exceptions

‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘

Interrupts and exceptions are special cases of control transfer within a
program. An interrupt occurs as a result of an event that is independent of
the currently executing program, while exceptions are a direct result of the
program currently being executed. Interrupts may be external or internal.
External interrupts are generated by either the INTR or NMI input pins.
Internal interrupts are caused by the INT instruction. Exceptions occur when
an instruction cannot be completed normally. Although their causes differ,
interrupts and exceptions use the same control transfer techniques and
privilege rules; therefore, in the following discussions the term interrupt
will also apply to exceptions.

The program used to service an interrupt may execute in the context of the
task that caused the interrupt (i.e., used the same TSS, LDT, stacks, etc.)
or may be a separate task. The choice depends on the function to be
performed and the level of isolation required.


9.1  Interrupt Descriptor Table

Many different events may cause an interrupt. To allow the reason for an
interrupt to be easily identified, each interrupt source is given a number
called the interrupt vector. Up to 256 different interrupt vectors (numbers)
are possible. See figure 9-1.

A table is used to define the handler for each interrupt vector. The
Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT) defines the interrupt handlers for up to
256 different interrupts. The IDT is in physical memory, pointed to by the
contents of the on-chip IDT register that contains a 24-bit base and a
16-bit limit. The IDTR is normally loaded with the LIDT instruction by code
that executes at privilege level 0 during system initialization. The IDT may
be located anywhere in the physical address space of the 80286.

Each IDT entry is a 4-word gate descriptor that contains a pointer to the
handler. The three types of gates permitted in the IDT are interrupt gates,
trap gates (discussed in section 9.3), and task gates (discussed in section
9.5). Interrupt and task gates process interrupts in the same task, while
task gates cause a task switch. Any other descriptor type in the IDT will
cause an exception if it is referenced by an interrupt.

The IDT need not contain all 256 entries. A 16-bit limit register allows
less than the full number of entries. Unused entries may be signaled by
placing a zero in the access rights byte. If an attempt is made to access an
entry outside the table limit, or if the wrong descriptor type is found, a
general protection fault occurs with an error code pushed on the stack
identifying the invalid interrupt vector (see figure 9-2).

Exception error codes that refer to an IDT entry can be identified by bit 1
of the error code that will be set. Bit 0 of the error code is 1 if the
interrupt was caused by an event external to the program (i.e., an external
interrupt, a single step, a processor extension error, or a processor
extension not present).

Interrupts 0-31 are reserved for use by Intel. Some of the interrupts are
used for instruction exceptions. The IDT limit must be at least 255
(32 * 8 - 1) to accommodate the minimum number of interrupts. The remaining
224 interrupts are available to the user.


Figure 9-1.  Interrupt Descriptor Table Definition

                                          MEMORY
                                                    
                                     €               €         THE IDT MAY
                                   ’‘†‡‘“       CONTAIN
                                    €   GATE FOR    €        INTERRUPT
                                    € INTERRUPT #n  €        GATES, TRAPS
                                    †‡        OR TASK GATES
                                    €   GATE FOR    €        ONLY.
                                    €INTERRUPT #n-1 € 
                                    †‡ 
                                    €       Ø       €   INTERRUPT
                               ’‘‘— €       Ø       € –‘ DESCRIPTOR
                                   €       Ø       €   TABLE (IDT)
                  CPU              †‡ 
        ’‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“      €   GATE FOR    € 
              15        0        € INTERRUPT #1  € 
              ‚ƒ        †‡ 
              €IDT LIMITƑ‘š‘‘•    €   GATE FOR    € 
   IDTR   ‚š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā        ”‘€ INTERRUPT #0  € 
          €   IDT BASE  Ƒ‘š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘†‡‘•
          „…          €               €
          23            0                         
        ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•


Figure 9-2.  IDT Selector Error Code

        15  14  13  12  11  10  9   8   7   6   5   4   3   2   1   0
      ‚ŠŠŠŠƒ
      €                                                         E €
      € 0   0   0   0   0           IDT VECTOR            0  1  X €
      €                                                         T €
      „¤¤¤¤Š…
                                  ’‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•
                                  
                                  1 An even external to the program
                                    caused the exception (i.e. external
                                    interrupt, single step, processor
                                    extension error)

                                  0 An exception occurred while
                                    processing an instruction at CS:IP
                                    saved on stack


9.2  Hardware Initiated Interrupts

Hardware-initiated interrupts are caused by some external event that
activates either the INTR or NMI input pins of the processor. Events that
use the INTR input are classified as maskable interrupts. Events that use
the NMI input are classified as non-maskable interrupts.

All 224 user-defined interrupt sources share the INTR input, but each has
the ability to use a separate interrupt handler. An 8-bit vector supplied by
the interrupt controller identifies which interrupt is being signaled. To
read the interrupt id, the processor performs the interrupt acknowledge bus
sequence.

Maskable interrupts (from the INTR input) can be inhibited by software by
setting the interrupt flag bit (IF) to 0 in the flag word. The IF bit does
not inhibit exceptions or interrupts caused by the INT instruction. The IF
bit also does not inhibit processor extension interrupts.

The type of gate placed into the IDT for the interrupt vector will control
whether other maskable interrupts remain enabled or not during the servicing
of that interrupt. The flag word that was saved on the stack reflects the
maskable interrupt enable status of the processor prior to the interrupt.
The procedure servicing a maskable interrupt can also prevent further
maskable interrupts during its work by resetting the IF flag.

Non-maskable interrupts are caused by the NMI input. They have a higher
priority than the maskable interrupts (meaning that in case of simultaneous
requests, the non-maskable interrupt will be serviced first). A non-maskable
interrupt has a fixed vector (#2) and therefore does not require an
interrupt acknowledge sequence on the bus. A typical use of an NMI is to
invoke a procedure to handle a power failure or some other critical hardware
exception.

A procedure servicing an NMI will not be further interrupted by other
non-maskable interrupt requests until an IRET instruction is executed. A
further NMI request is remembered by the hardware and will be serviced after
the first IRET instruction. Only one NMI request can be remembered. To
prevent a maskable interrupt from interrupting the NMI interrupt handler,
the IF flag should be cleared either by using an interrupt gate in the IDT
or by setting IF = 0 in the flag word of the task involved.


9.3  Software Initiated Interrupts

Software initiated interrupts occur explicitly as interrupt instructions or
may arise as the result of an exceptional condition that prevents the
continuation of program execution. Software interrupts are not maskable. Two
interrupt instructions exist which explicitly cause an interrupt: INT n and
INT 3. The first allows specification of any interrupt vector; the second
implies interrupt vector 3 (Breakpoint).

Other instructions like INTO, BOUND, DIV, and IDIV may cause an interrupt,
depending on the overflow flag or values of the operands. These instructions
have predefined vectors associated with them in the first 32 interrupts
reserved by Intel.

A whole class of interrupts called exceptions are intended to detect faults
or programming errors (in the use of operands or privilege levels).
Exceptions cannot be masked. They also have fixed vectors within the first
32 interrupts. Many of these exceptions pass an error code on the stack,
which is not the case with the other interrupt types discussed in section
9.2. Section 9.5 discusses these error codes as well as the priority among
interrupts that can occur simultaneously.


9.4  Interrupt Gates and Trap Gates

Interrupt gates and trap gates are special types of descriptors that may
only appear in the interrupt descriptor table. The difference between a trap
and an interrupt gate is whether the interrupt enable flag is to be cleared
or not. An interrupt gate specifies a procedure that enters with interrupts
disabled (i.e., with the interrupt enable flag cleared); entry via a trap
gate leaves the interrupt enable status unchanged. The NT flag is always
cleared (after the old NT state is saved on the stack) when an interrupt
uses these gates. Interrupts that have either gate in the associated IDT
entry will be processed in the current task.

Interrupts and trap gates have the same structure as the call gates
discussed in section 7.5.1. The selector and entry point for a code segment
to handle the interrupt or exception is contained in the gate. See figure
9-3.

The access byte contains the Present bit, the descriptor privilege level,
and the type identifier. Bits 0-4 of the access byte have a value of 00110
for interrupt gates, 00111 for trap gates. Byte 5 of the descriptor is not
used by either of these gates; it is used only by the call gate, which uses
it as the parameter word-count.

Trap and interrupt gates allow a privilege level transition to occur when
passing control to a non-conforming code segment. Like a call gate, the DPL
of the target code segment selected determines the new CPL. The DPL of the
new non-conforming code segment must be numerically less than or equal to
CPL.

No privilege transition occurs if the new code segment is conforming. If
the DPL of the conforming code segment is greater than the CPL, a general
protection exception will occur.

As with all descriptors, these gates in the IDT carry a privilege level.
The DPL controls access to interrupts with the INT n and INT 3 instructions.
For access, the CPL of the program must be less than or equal to the gate
DPL. If the CPL is not, a general protection exception will result with an
error code identifying the selected IDT gate. For exceptions and external
interrupts, the CPL of the program is ignored while accessing the IDT.

Interrupts using a trap or an interrupt gate are handled in the same manner
as an 8086 interrupt. The flags and return address of the interrupted
program are saved on the stack of the interrupt handler. To return to the
interrupted program, the interrupt handler executes an IRET instruction.

If an increase in privilege is required for handling the interrupt, a new
stack will be loaded from the TSS. The stack pointer of the old privilege
level will also be saved on the new stack in the same manner as a call gate.
Figure 9-4 shows the stack contents after an exception with an error code
(with and without a privilege level change).

If an interrupt or trap gate is used to handle an exception that passes an
error code, the error code will be pushed onto the new stack after the
return address (as shown in figure 9-4). If a task gate is used, the error
code is pushed onto the stack of the new task. The return address is saved
in the old TSS.

If an interrupt gate is used to handle an interrupt, it is assumed that the
selected code segment has sufficient privilege to re-enable interrupts. The
IRET instruction will not re-enable interrupts if CPL is numerically greater
than IOPL.

Table 9-1 shows the checks performed during an interrupt operation that
uses an interrupt or trap gate. EXT equals 1 when an event external to the
program is involved; 0 otherwise. External events are maskable or
non-maskable interrupts, single step interrupt, processor extension segment
overrun interrupt, numeric processor not-present exception or numeric
processor error. The EXT bit signals that the interrupt or exception is not
related to the instruction at CS:IP. Each error code has bit 1 set to
indicate an IDT entry is involved.

When the interrupt has been serviced, the service routine returns control
via an IRET instruction to the routine that was interrupted. If an error
code was passed, the exception handler must remove the error code from the
stack before executing IRET.

The NT flag is cleared when an interrupt occurs which uses an interrupt or
trap gate. Executing IRET with NT=0 causes the normal interrupt return
function. Executing IRET with NT=1 causes a task switch (see section 8.4
for more details).

Like the RET instruction, IRET is restricted to return to a level of equal
or lesser privilege unless a task switch occurs. The IRET instruction works
like the inter-segment RET instruction except that the flag word is popped
and no stack pointer update for parameters is performed since no parameters
are on the stack. See section 7.5.2 for information on inter-level returns.

To distinguish an inter-level IRET, the new CPL (which is the RPL of the
return address CS selector) is compared with the current CPL. If they are
the same, the IP and flags are popped and execution continues.

An inter-level return via IRET has all the same checks as shown in table
7-4. The only difference is the extra word on the stack for the old flag
word.

Interrupt gates are typically associated with high-priority hardware
interrupts for automatically disabling interrupts upon their invocation.
Trap gates are typically software-invoked since they do not disable the
maskable hardware interrupts. However, low-priority interrupts (e.g., a
timer) are often invoked via a trap gate to allow other devices of higher
priority to interrupt the handler of that lower priority interrupt.

Table 9-2 illustrates how the interrupt enable flag and interrupt type
interact with the type of gate used.

Table 9-1. Trap and Interrupt Gate Checks


Check                             Exception
GP = General Protection Exception
NP = Not Present Exception
SF = Stack Fault     Error Code

Interrupt vector                      GP         IDT entry * 8 + 2 + EXT
is in IDT limit

Trap, Interrupt, or                   GP         IDT entry * 8 + 2 + EXT
Task Gate in IDT Entry

If INT instruction,                   GP         IDT entry * 8 + 2 + EXT
gate DPL  CPL

P bit of gate is set                  NP         IDT entry * 8 + 2 + EXT

Code segment selector                 GP         CS selector * 8 + EXT
is in descriptor table limit

CS selector refers                    GP         CS selector * 8 + EXT
to a code segment

If code segment is                    GP         CS selector * 8 + EXT
non-conforming, Code
Segment DPL ¾ CPL

If code segment is                    TS         SS selector * 8 + EXT
non-conforming, and
DPL < CPL and if
SS selector in TSS
is in descriptor
table limit

If code segment is                    TS         SS selector * 8 + EXT
non-conforming, and
DPL < CPL and if
SS is a writable
data segment

If code segment is                    TS         Stack segment selector + EXT
non-conforming, and
DPL < CPL and
code segment
DPL = stack segment DPL

If code segment is                    SF         Stack segment selector + EXT
non-conforming, and
DPL < CPL and if
SS is present

If code segment is                    SF         SS selector + EXT
non-conforming, and
DPL < CPL and if
there is enough space
for 5 words on the stack
(or 6 if error code
is required)

If code segment is                    GP         Code segment selector + EXT
conforming, then DPL ¾CPL

If code segment                       NP         Code segment selector + EXT
is not present

If IP is not within                   GP         0 + EXT
the limit of code segment


Table 9-2. Interrupt and Gate Interactions

Type of     Type of    Further   Further  Further      Further software
Interrupt   Gate       NMIs?     INTRs?   Exceptions?  Interrupts?
NMI         Trap         No        Yes      Yes           Yes
NMI         Interrupt    No        No       Yes           Yes
INTR        Trap         Yes       Yes      Yes           Yes
INTR        Interrupt    Yes       No       Yes           Yes
Software    Trap         Yes       Yes      Yes           Yes
Software    Interrupt    Yes       No       Yes           Yes
Exception   Trap         Yes       Yes      Yes           Yes
Exception   Interrupt    Yes       No       Yes           Yes

Figure 9-3.  Trap/Interrupt Gate Descriptors

       ‚Šƒ
     +7€                        INTEL RESERVED
Must be set to 0 for compatibility with IAPX 386                        €+6
       Ƒ‘‘˜‘‘‘‘‘‘‘˜‘‘‘˜‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘˜‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
     +5€ P   DP2   0  0   1   1   T             UNUSED             €+4
       Ƒ‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘™‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
     +3€                INTERRUPT CODE SEGMENT SELECTOR                €+2
       €‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘€
     +1€                     INTERRUPT CODE OFFSET                     € 0
       „…

       T = 1 FOR TRAP GATE

       T = 0 FOR INTERRUPT GATE


Figure 9-4.  Stack Layout after an Exception with an Error Code

                 OLD SP‘‘‘‘‘‚ƒ NO PRIVILEGE TRANSITION
                             €   OLD FLAGS    €
                             Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                             €     OLD CS     €
                             Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                             €     OLD IP     €
                             Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                             €   ERROR CODE   €
                     SP‘‘‘‘‘Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                             €                €
                             €                €
                             ø                ø
                             €                €
                     SS‘‘‘‘‘„…

            SP FROM TSS‘ ‘ ‘‚ƒ WITH PRIVILEGE TRANSITION
                             €     OLD SS     €
                             Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                             €     OLD SP     €
                             Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                             €   OLD FLAGS    €
                             Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                             €     OLD CS     €
                             Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                             €     OLD IP     €
                             Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                             €   ERROR CODE   €
                     SP‘‘‘‘‘Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                             €                €
                             €                €
                             ø                ø
                             €                €
            SP FROM TSS‘‘‘‘‘„…
                                STACK SEGMENT


9.5  Task Gates and Interrupt Tasks

The 80286 allows interrupts to directly cause a task switch. When an
interrupt vector selects an entry in the IDT which is a task gate, a task
switch occurs. The format of a task gate is described in section 8.5. If a
task gate is used to handle an exception that passes an error code, the
error code will be pushed onto the new task's stack.

A task gate offers two advantages over interrupt gates:

  1.  It automatically saves all of the processor registers as part of the
      task-switch operation, whereas an interrupt gate saves only the flag
      register and CS:IP.

  2.  The new task is completely isolated from the task that was
      interrupted. Address spaces are isolated and the interrupt-handling
      task is unaffected by the privilege level of the interrupted task.

An interrupt task switch works like any other task switch once the TSS
selector is fetched from the task gate. Like a trap or an interrupt gate,
privilege and presence rules are applied to accessing a task gate during an
interrupt.

Interrupts that cause a task switch set the NT bit in the flags of the new
task. The TSS selector of the interrupted task is saved in the back link
field of the new TSS. The interrupting task executes IRET to perform a task
switch to return to the interrupted task because NT was previously set. The
interrupt task state is saved in its TSS before returning control to the
task that was interrupted; NT is restored to its original value in the
interrupted task.

Since the interrupt handler state after executing IRET is saved, a re-entry
of the interrupt service task will result in the execution of the
instruction that follows IRET. Therefore, when the next interrupt occurs,
the machine state will be the same as that when the IRET instruction was
executed.

Note that an interrupt task resumes execution each time it is re-invoked,
whereas an interrupt procedure starts executing at the beginning of the
procedure each time. The interrupted task restarts execution at the point of
interruption because interrupts occur before the execution of an
instruction.

When an interrupt task is used, the task must be concerned with avoiding
further interrupts while it is operating. A general protection exception
will occur if a task gate referring to a busy TSS is used while processing
an interrupt. If subsequent interrupts can occur while the task is
executing, the IF bit in the flag word (saved in the TSS) must be zero.


9.5.1  Scheduling Considerations

A software-scheduled operating system must be designed to handle the fact
that interrupts can come along in the middle of scheduled tasks and cause a
task switch to other tasks. The interrupt-scheduled tasks may call the
operating system and eventually the scheduler, which needs to recognize
that the task that just called it is not the one the operating system last
scheduled.

If the Task Register (TR) does not contain the TSS selector of the last
scheduled task, an interrupt initiated task switch has occurred. More than
one task may have been interrupt-scheduled since the scheduler last ran. The
scheduler must find via the backlink fields in each TSS all tasks that have
been interrupted. The scheduler can clear those links and reset the busy bit
in the TSS descriptors, putting them back in the scheduling queue for a new
analysis of execution priorities. Unless the interrupted tasks are placed
back in the scheduling queue, they would have to await a later restart via
the task that interrupted them.

To locate tasks that have been interrupt-scheduled, the scheduler looks
into the current task's TSS backlink (word one of the TSS), which points at
the interrupted task. If that task was not the last task scheduled, then
it's backlink field in the TSS also points to an interrupted task.

The backlink field of each interrupt-scheduled task should be set by the
scheduler to point to a scheduling task that will reschedule the highest
priority task when the interrupt-scheduled task executes IRET.


9.5.2  Deciding Between Task, Trap, and Interrupt Gates

Interrupts and exceptions can be handled with either a trap/interrupt gate
or a task gate. The advantages of a task gate are all the registers are
saved and a new set is loaded with full isolation between the interrupted
task and the interrupt handler. The advantages of a trap/interrupt gate are
faster response to an interrupt for simple operations and easy access to
pointers in the context of the interrupted task. All interrupt handlers use
IRET to resume the interrupted program.

Trap/interrupt gates require that the interrupt handler be able to execute
at the same or greater privilege level than the interrupted program. If any
program executing at level 0 can be interrupted through a trap/task gate,
the interrupt handler must also execute at level 0 to avoid general
protection exception. All code, data, and stack segment descriptors must be
in the GDT to allow access from any task. But, placing all system interrupt
handlers at privilege level 0 may be in consistent with maintaining the
integrity of level 0 programs.

Some exceptions require the use of a task gate. The invalid task state
segment exception (#10) can arise from errors in the original TSS as well as
in the target TSS. Handling the exception within the same task could lead to
recursive interrupts or other undesirable effects that are difficult to
trace. The double fault exception (#8) should also use a task gate to
prevent shutdown from another protection violation occurring during the
servicing of the exception.


9.6  Protection Exceptions and Reserved Vectors

A protection violation will cause an exception, i.e., a non-maskable
interrupt. Such a fault can be handled by the task that caused it if an
interrupt or trap gate is used, or by a different task if a task gate is
used (in the IDT).

Protection exceptions can be classified into program errors or implicit
requests for service. The latter include stack overflow and not-present
faults. Examples of program errors include attempting to write into a
read-only segment, or violating segment limits.

Requests for service may use different interrupt vectors, but many diverse
types of protection violation use the same general protection fault vector.
Table 9-3 shows the reserved exceptions and interrupts. Interrupts 0-31 are
reserved by Intel.

When simultaneous external interrupt requests occur, they are processed in
the fixed order shown in table 9-4. For each interrupt serviced, the
machine state is saved. The new CS:IP is loaded from the gate or TSS. If
other interrupts remain enabled, they are processed before the first
instruction of the current interrupt handler, i.e., the last interrupt
processed is serviced first.

All but two exceptions are restartable after the exceptional condition is
removed. The two non-restartable exceptions are the processor extension
segment overrun and writing into read only segments with XCHG, ADC, SBB,
RCL, and RCR instructions. The return address normally points to the failing
instruction, including all leading prefixes.

The instruction and data addresses for the processor extension segment
overrun are contained in the processor extension status registers.

Interrupt handlers for most exceptions receive an error code that
identifies the selector involved, or a 0 in bits 15-3 of the error code
field if there is no selector involved. The error code is pushed last,
after the return address, on the stack that will be active when the trap
handler begins execution. This ensures that the handler will not have to
access another stack segment to find the error code.

The following sections describe the exceptions in greater detail.


Table 9-3. Reserved Exceptions and Interrupts

Vector  Description                         Restartable   Code on
Number                                        Error        Stack
0       Divide Error Exception                 Yes           No
1       Single Step Interrupt                  Yes           No
2       NMI Interrupt                          Yes           No
3       Breakpoint Interrupt                   Yes           No
4       INTO Detected Overflow Exception       Yes           No
5       BOUND Range Exceeded Exception         Yes           No
6       Invalid Opcode Exception               Yes           No
7       Processor Extension Not Available
        Exception                              Yes           No
8       Double Exception Detected              No            Yes (Always 0)
9       Processor Extension Segment Overrun
        Interrupt                              No            No
10      Invalid Task State Segment             Yes           Yes
11      Segment Not Present                    Yes           Yes
12      Stack Segment Overrun or Not Present   Yes           Yes
13      General Protection                     Yes
Except for writes into read-only segments (see section 9.6)          Yes


Table 9-4. Interrupt Processing Order

Order        Interrupt
 1           Instruction exception
 2           Single step
 3           NMI
 4           Processor extension segment overrun
 5           INTR


9.6.1  Invalid OP-Code (Interrupt 6)

When an invalid opcode is detected by the execution unit, interrupt 6 is
invoked. (It is not detected until an attempt is made to execute it, i.e.,
prefetching an invalid opcode does not cause this exception.) The saved
CS:IP will point to the invalid opcode or any leading prefixes; no error
code is pushed on the stack. The exception can be handled within the same
task, and is restartable.

This exception will occur for all cases of an invalid operand. Examples
include an inter-segment jump referencing a register operand, or an LES
instruction with a register source operand.


9.6.2  Double Fault (Interrupt 8)

If two separate faults occur during a single instruction, end if the first
fault is any of #0, #10, #11, #12, and #13, exception 8 (Double Fault)
occurs (e.g., a general protection fault in level 3 is followed by a
not-present fault due to a segment not-present). If another protection
violation occurs during the processing of exception 8, the 80286 enters
shutdown, during which time no further instructions or exceptions are
processed.

Either NMI or RESET can force the CPU out of shutdown. An NMI input can
bring the CPU out of shutdown if no errors occur while processing the NMI
interrupt; otherwise, shutdown can only be exited via the RESET input. NMI
causes the CPU to remain in protected mode, and RESET causes it to exit
protected mode. Shutdown is signaled externally via a HALT bus operation
with A1 LOW.

A task gate must be used for the double fault handler to assure a proper
task state to respond to the exception. The back link field in the current
TSS will identify the TSS of the task causing the exception. The saved
address will point at the instruction that was being executed (or was ready
to execute) when the error was detected. The error code will be null.

The "double fault" exception does not occur when detecting a new exception
while trying to invoke handlers for the following exceptions: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 9, and 16.


9.6.3  Processor Extension Segment Overrun (Interrupt 9)

Interrupt 9 signals that the processor extension (such as the 80287
numerics processor) has overrun the limit of a segment while attempting to
read/write the second or subsequent words of an operand. The interrupt is
generated by the processor extension data channel within the 80286 during
the limit test performed on each transfer of data between memory and the
processor extension. This interrupt can be handled in the same task but is
not restartable.

As with all external interrupts, Interrupt 9 is an asynchronous demand
caused by the processor extension referencing something outside a segment
boundary. Since Interrupt 9 can occur any time after the processor extension
is started, the 80286 does not save any information that identifies what
particular operation had been initiated in the processor extension. The
processor extension maintains special registers that identify the last
instruction it executed and the address of the desired operand.

After this interrupt occurs, no WAIT or escape instruction, except FNINIT,
can be executed until the interrupt condition is cleared or the processor
extension is reset. The interrupt signals that the processor extension is
requesting an invalid data transfer. The processor extension will always be
busy when waiting on data. Deadlock results if the CPU executes an
instruction that causes it to wait for the processor extension before
resetting the processor extension. Deadlock means the CPU is waiting for the
processor extension to become idle while the processor extension waits for
the CPU to service its data request.

The FNINIT instruction is guaranteed to reset the processor extension
without causing deadlock. After the interrupt is cleared, this restriction
is lifted. It is then possible to read the instruction and operand address
via FSTENV or FSAVE, causing the segment overrun in the processor
extension's special registers.

The task interrupted by interrupt 9 is not necessarily the task that
executed the ESC instruction that caused the interrupt. The operating system
should keep track of which task last used the NPX (see section 11.4). If
the interrupted task did not execute the ESC instruction, it can be
restarted. The task that executed the ESC instruction cannot.


9.6.4  Invalid Task State Segment (Interrupt 10)

Interrupt 10 is invoked if during a task switch the new TSS pointed to by
the task gate is invalid. The EXT bit indicates whether the exception was
caused by an event outside the control of the program.

A TSS is considered invalid in the cases shown in table 9-5.

Once the existence of the new TSS is verified, the task switch is
considered complete, with the backlink set to the old task if necessary. All
errors are handled in the context of the new task.

Exception 10 must be handled through a task gate to insure a proper TSS to
process it. The handler must reset the busy bit in the new TSS.


9.6.5  Not Present (Interrupt 11)

Exception 11 occurs when an attempt is made to load a not-present segment
or to use a control descriptor that is marked not-present. (If, however, the
missing segment is an LDT that is needed in a task switch, exception 10
occurs.) This exception is fully restartable.

Any segment load instruction can cause this exception. Interrupt 11 is
always processed in the context of the task in which it occurs.

The error code has the form shown in Table 9-5. The EXT bit will be set if
an event external to the program caused an interrupt that subsequently
referenced a not-present segment. Bit 1 will be set if the error code refers
to an IDT entry, e.g., an INT instruction referencing a not-present gate.
The upper 14 bits are the upper 14 bits of the segment selector involved.

During a task switch, when a not-present exception occurs, the ES and DS
segment registers may not be usable for referencing memory (the selector
values are loaded before the descriptors are checked). The not-present
handler should not rely on being able to use the values found in ES, SS,
and DS without causing another exception. This is because the task switch
itself may have changed the values in the registers. The exception occurs in
the new task and the return pointer points to the first instruction of the
new task. Caution: the loading of the DS or ES descriptors may not have
been completed. The exception II handler should ensure that the DS and ES
descriptors have been properly loaded before the execution of the first
instruction of the new task.


Table 9-5. Conditions That Invalidate the TSS

Reason                                                   Error Code
The limit in the TSS descriptor is less than 43          TSS id + EXT
Invalid LDT selector or LDT not present                  LDT id + EXT
Stack segment selector is null                           SS id + EXT
Stack segment selector is outside table limit            SS id + EXT
Stack segment is not a writable segment                  SS id + EXT
Stack segment DPL does not match new CPL                 SS id + EXT
Stack segment selector RPL <> ECPL                       SS id + EXT
Code segment selector is outside table limit             CS id + EXT
Code segment selector does not refer to code segment     CS id + EXT
Non-conforming code segment DPL <> ECPL                  CS id + EXT
Conforming code segment DPL > CPL                        CS id + EXT
DS or ES segment selector is outside table limits        ES/DS id + EXT
DS or ES are not readable segments                       ES/DS id + EXT


9.6.6  Stack Fault (Interrupt 12)

Stack underflow or overflow causes exception 12, as does a not-present
stack segment referenced during an inter-task or inter-level transition.
This exception is fully restartable. A limit violation of the current stack
results in an error code of 0. The EXT bit of the error code tells whether
an interrupt external to the program caused the exception.

Any instruction that loads a selector to SS (e.g., POP SS, task switch) can
cause this exception. This exception must use a task gate if there is a
possibility that any level 0 stack may not be present.

When a stack fault occurs, the ES and DS segment registers may not be
usable for referencing memory. During a task switch, the selector values are
loaded before the descriptors are checked. The stack fault handler should
check the saved values of SS, CS, DS, and ES to be sure that they refer to
present segments before restoring them.


9.6.7  General Protection Fault (Interrupt 13)

If a protection violation occurs which is not covered in the preceding
paragraphs, it is classed as Interrupt 13, a general protection fault. The
error code is zero for limit violations, write to read-only segment
violations, and accesses relative to DS or ES when they are zero or refer
to a segment at a greater privilege level than CPL. Other access violations
(e.g., a wrong descriptor type) push a non-zero error code that identifies
the selector used on the stack. Error codes with bit 0 cleared and bits
15-2 non-zero indicate a restartable condition.

Bit 1 of the error code identifies whether the selector is in the IDT or
LDT/GDT. If bit 1 = 0 then bit 2 separates LDT from GDT. Bit 0 (EXT)
indicates whether the exception was caused by the program or an event
external to it (i.e., single stepping, an external interrupt, a processor
extension not-present or a segment overrun). If bit 0 is set, the selector
typically has nothing to do with the instruction that was interrupted. The
selector refers instead to some step of servicing an interrupt that failed.

When bit 0 of the error code is set, the interrupted program can be
restarted, except for processor extension segment overrun exceptions (see
section 9.6.3). The exception with the bit 0 of the errorcode = 1 indicates
some interrupt has been lost due to a fault in the descriptor pointed to by
the error code.

A non-zero error code with bit 0 cleared may be an operand of the
interrupted instruction, an operand from a gate referenced by the
instruction, or a field from the invalid TSS.

During a task switch, when a general protection exception occurs, the ES
and DS segment registers may not be usable for referencing memory (the
selector vaues are loaded before the descriptors are checked). The general
protection handler should not rely on being able to use the values found in
ES, SS, and DS without causing another exception. This is because the task
switch itself may have changed the values in the registers. The exception
occurs in the new task and the return pointer points to the first
instruction of the new task. Caution: the loading of the DS or ES
descriptors may not have been completed. The exception 13 handler should
ensure that the DS and ES descriptors have been properly loaded before the
execution of the first instruction of the new task.

In Real Address Mode, Interrupt 13 will occur if software attempts to read
or write a 16-bit word at segment offset 0FFFFH.


9.7  Additional Exceptions and Interrupts

Interrupts 0, 5, and 1 have not yet been discussed. Interrupt 0 is the
divide-error exception, Interrupt 5 the bound-range exceeded exceptions, and
Interrupt 1 the single step interrupt. The divide-error or bound-range
exceptions make it appear as if that instruction had never executed: the
registers are restored and the instruction can be restarted. The
divide-error exception occurs during a DIV or an IDIV instruction when the
quotient will be too large to be representable, or when the divisor is
zero.

Interrupt 5 occurs when a value exceeds the limit set for it. A program can
use the BOUND instruction to check a signed array index against signed
limits defined in a two-word block of memory. The block can be located just
before the array to simplify addressing. The block's first word specifies
the array's lower limit, the second word specifies the array's upper limit,
and a register specifies the array index to be tested.


9.7.1  Single Step Interrupt (Interrupt 1)

Interrupt 1 allows programs to execute one instruction at a time. This
single-stepping is controlled by the TF bit in the flag word. Once this bit
is set, an internal single step interrupt will occur after the next
instruction has been executed. The interrupt saves the flags and return
address on the stack, clears the TF bit, and uses an internally supplied
vector of 1 to transfer control to the service routine via the IDT.

The IRET instruction or a task switch must be used to set the TF bit and to
transfer control to the next instruction to be single stepped. If TF=1 in a
TSS and that task is invoked, it will execute the first instruction and then
be interrupted.

The single-step flag is normally not cleared by privilege changes inside a
task. INT instructions, however, do clear TF. Therefore, software debuggers
that single-step code must recognize and emulate INT n or INT 0 rather than
executing them directly. System software should check the current execution
privilege level after any single step interrupt to see whether single
stepping should continue.

The interrupt priorities in hardware guarantee that if an external
interrupt occurs, single stepping stops. When both an external interrupt and
a single step interrupt occur together, the single step interrupt is
processed first. This clears the TF bit. After saving the return address or
switching tasks, the external interrupt input is examined before the first
instruction of the single step handler executes. If the external interrupt
is still pending, it is then serviced. The external interrupt handler is
not single-stepped. Therefore, to single step an interrupt handler, just
single step an interrupt instruction that refers to the interrupt handler.


Chapter 10  System Control and Initialization

‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘

Special flags, registers, and instructions provide contol of the critical
processes and interaction in 80286 operations. The flag register includes 3
bits that represent the current I/O privilege level (IOPL: 2 bits) and the
nested task bit (NT). Four additional registers support the virtual
addressing and memory protection features, one points to the current Task
State Segment and the other three point to the memory-based descriptor
tables: GDT, LDT, and IDT. These flags and registers are discussed in the
next section. The machine status word, (which indicates processor
configuration and status) and the instructions that load and store it are
discussed in section 10.2.1.

Similar instructions pertaining to the other registers are the subject of
sections 10.2 and 10.3. A detailed description of initialization states
and processes, which appears in section 10.4, is supplemented by the
extensive example in Appendix A. Instructions that validate descriptors
and pointers are covered in section 11.3.


10.1  System Flags and Registers

The IOPL flag (bits 12 and 13 of the flags word) controls access to I/O
operations and interrupt control instructions. These two bits represent the
maximum privilege level (highest numerical CPL) at which the task is
permitted to perform I/O instructions. Alteration of the IOPL flags is
restricted to programs at level 0 or to a task switch.

IRET uses the NT flag to select the proper return: if NT=0, the normal
return within a task is performed. As discussed in Chapter 8, the nested
task flag (bit 14 of flags) is set when a task initiates a task switch via a
CALL or INT instruction. The old and new task state segments are marked
busy and the backlink field of the new TSS is set to the old TSS selector.
An interrupt that does not cause a task switch will clear NT after the old
NT state is saved. To prevent a program from causing an illegal task switch
by setting NT and then executing IRET, a zero selector should be placed in
the backlink field of the TSS. An illegal task switch using IRET will then
cause exception 13. The instructions POPF and IRET can also set or clear NT
when flags are restored from the stack. POPF and IRET can also change the
interrupt enable flag. If CPL ¾ IOPL, then the Interrupt Flag (IF) can be
changed by POPF and IRET. Otherwise, the state of the IF bit in the new
flag word is ignored by these instructions. Note that the CLI and STI
instructions are valid only when CPL ¾ IOPL; otherwise exception 13 occurs.


10.1.1  Descriptor Table Registers

The three descriptor tables used for all memory accesses are based at
addresses supplied by (stored in) three registers: the global descriptor
table register (GDTR), the interrupt descriptor table register (IDTR), and
the local descriptor table register (LDTR). Each register contains a 24-bit
base field and a 16-bit limit field. The base field gives the real memory
address of the beginning of the table; the limit field tells the maximum
offset permitted in accessing table entries. See figures 10-1, 10-2, and
10-3.

The LDTR also contains a selector field that identifies the descriptor for
that table. LDT descriptors must reside in the GDT.

The task register (TR) points to the task state segment for the currently
active task. It is similar to a segment register, with selector, base, and
limit fields, of which only the selector field is readable under normal
circumstances. Each such selector serves as a unique identifier for its
task. The uses of the TR are described in Chapter 8.

The instructions controlling these special registers are described in the
next section.


Figure 10-1.  Local and Global Descriptor Table Definition 

                                                 MEMORY
                                                          
                                    ’‘˜‘‘‘Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā‘“
                                          Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
                       CPU               Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
            ‚ƒ       €       Ø       € 
            €                     €      €       Ø       € –‘ GDT
            €       15        0   €       €       Ø       € 
            €       ‚ƒ   €      Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
            €   23  €LDT LIMITƑ‘‘Ī‘•      Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
            €   ‚š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā   €       Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
       GDTR €   €   GDT BASE  Ƒ‘‘Ī‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā‘•
            €   „…   €        €               €
            €                     €        €               €
            Ƒ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘Ā        €               €
            €                     €        €     LDT{1}    €
            €     15         0    € ’‘˜‘‘‘Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā‘“
            €     ‚ƒ    €       Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
            €     €   LDT    €    €      Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
            €     € SELECTOR €    €       €       Ø       € 
            €     „…    €      €       Ø       € –‘ CURRENT LDT
            €’‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘“€       €       Ø       € 
            €      15        0  €      Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
            €       ‚ƒ   €       Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
            €  23  €LDT LIMITƑ‘šĪ‘•     Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā 
            €   ‚š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā   €  ’‘‘‘‘Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā‘•
       LDTR €  €   LDT BASE  Ƒ‘šĆ‘‘•     €               €
            €   „…   €        €               €
            € PROGRAM INVISIBLE €        €               €
            €”‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘‘•€        €     LDT{n}    €
            „…        Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                           Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                           Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                           Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                           €       Ø       €
                                           €       Ø       €
                                           €       Ø       €
                                           Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                           Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                           Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                           Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                           Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
                                                          


Figure 10-2.  Interrupt Descriptor Table Definition

                                          MEMORY
                                                    
                                     €               €
                              ’‘‘‘˜‘†‡‘“
                                    €   GATE FOR    € 
                                   € INTERRUPT #n  € 
                                    †‡ 
                                   €   GATE FOR    € 
                                    €INTERRUPT #n-1 € 
                                   †‡ 
                                    €       Ø       €   INTERRUPT
                                   €       Ø       € –‘ DESCRIPTOR
                                    €       Ø       €   TABLE (IDT)
                  CPU              †‡ 
        ’‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘“       €   GATE FOR    € 
              15        0        € INTERRUPT #1  € 
              ‚ƒ         †‡ 
              €IDT LIMITƑ‘š‘•     €   GATE FOR    € 
          ‚š‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā          € INTERRUPT #0  € 
   IDTR   €   IDT BASE  Ƒ‘š‘‘‘‘‘™‘†‡‘•
          „…          €               €
          23            0                         
        ”‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘•


Figure 10-3.  Data Type for Global Descriptor Table and
              Interrupt Descriptor Table

       7                             0 7                             0
      ‚Šƒ
    +5€         INTEL RESERVED
Must be set to 0 for compatibility with the 80386                  BASE{23-16}         €+4
      Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘™‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
    +3€                           BASE{15-0}                          €+2
      Ƒ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘™‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘Ā
    +1€                          LIMIT{15-0}                          € 0
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10.2  System Control Instructions

The instructions that load the GDTR and IDTR from memory can only be
executed in real address mode or at privilege level 0; otherwise exception
13 occurs. The store instructions for GDTR and IDTR may be executed at any
privilege level. The four instructions are LIDT, LGDT, SIDT, and SGDT. The
instructions move 3 words between the indicated descriptor table register
and the effective real memory address supplied (see figure 10-3). The
format of the 3 words is: a 2-byte limit, a 3-byte real base address,
followed by an unused byte. These instructions are normally used during
system initialization.

The LLDT instruction loads the LDT registers from a descriptor in the GDT.
LLDT uses a selector operand to that descriptor rather than referencing the
descriptor directly. LLDT is only executable at privilege level 0; otherwise
exception 13 occurs. LLDT is normally required only during system
initialization because the processor automatically exchanges the LDTR
contents as part of the task-switch operation.

Executing an LLDT instruction does not automatically update the TSS or the
register caches. To properly change the LDT of the currently running task so
that the change holds across task switches, you must perform, in order, the
following three steps:

  1.  Store the new LDT selector into the appropriate word of TSS.
  2.  Load the new LDT selector into LDTR.
  3.  Reload the DS and ES registers if they refer to LDT-based
      descriptors.

Note that the current code segment and stack segment descriptors should
reside in the GDT or be copied to the same location in the new LDT.

SLDT (store LDT) can be executed at any privilege level. SLDT stores the
local descriptor table selector from the program visible portion of the LDTR
register.

Task Register loading or storing is again similar to that of the LDT. The
LTR instruction, operating only at level 0, loads the LTR at initialization
time with a selector for the initial TSS. LTR does NOT cause a task switch;
it just changes the current TSS. Note that the busy bit of the old TSS
descriptor is not changed while the busy bit of the new TSS selector must be
zero and will be set by LTR. The LDT and any segment registers referring to
the old LDT should be reloaded. STR, which permits the storing of TR
contents into memory, can be executed at any privilege level. LTR is not
usually needed after initialization because the TR is managed by the
task-switch operation.


10.2.1  Machine Status Word

The Machine Status Word (MSW) indicates the 80286 configuration and status.
It is not part of a task's state. The MSW word is loaded by the LMSW
instruction executed in real address mode or at privilege level 0 only, or
is stored by the SMSW instruction executing at any privilege level. MSW is a
16-bit register, the lower four bits of which are used by the 80286. These
bits have the meanings shown in table 10-1. Bits 15-4 of the MSW will be
used by the 80386. 80286 software should not change these bits. If the bits
are changed by the 286 software, compatibility with the 80386 will be
destroyed.

The TS flag is set under hardware control and reset under software control.
Once the TS flag is set, the next instruction using a processor extension
causes a processor extension not-present exception (#7). This feature allows
software to test whether the current processor extension state belongs to
the current task as discussed in section 11.4. If the current processor
extension state belongs to a different task, the software can save the state
of any processor extension with the state of the task that uses it. Thus,
the TS bit protects a task from processor extension errors that result from
the actions of a previous task.

The CLTS instruction is used to reset the TS flag after the exception
handler has set up the proper processor extension state. The CLTS
instruction can be executed at privilege level 0 only.

The EM flag indicates a processor extension function is to be emulated by
software. If EM=1 and MP=0, all ESCAPE instructions will be trapped via the
processor extension not-present exception (#7).

MP flag tells whether a processor extension is present. If MP=1 and TS=1,
escape and wait instructions will cause exception 7.

If ESC instructions are to be used, either the MP or the EM bit must be
set, but not both.

The PE flag indicates that the 80286 is in the protected virtual address
mode. Once the PE flag is set, it can be cleared only by a reset, which then
puts the system in real address mode emulating the 8086.

Table 10-2 shows the recommended usage of the MSW. Other encodings of
these bits are not recommended.

Table 10-1. MSW Bit Functions

Bit
Position     Name  Function
0             PE    Protected mode enable places the 80286 into protected
                    mode and cannot be cleared except by RESET.

1             MP    Monitor processor extension allows WAIT instructions to
                    cause a processor extension not-present exception
                    (number 7) if TS is also set.

2             EM    Emulate processor extension causes a processor
                    extension not-present exception (number 7) on
                    ESC instructions to allow a processor extension to
                    be emulated.

3             TS    Task switched indicates the next instruction using a
                    processor extension will cause exception 7, allowing
                    software to test whether the current processor
                    extension context belongs to the current task.


Table 10-2. Recommended MSW Encodings for Processor Extension Control


TS  MP  EM   Recommended Use                                  Instructions
                                                              Causing
                                                              Exception
0   0   0    Initial encoding after RESET. 80286 operation
             is identical to 8086,   8088. Use this encoding
             only if no ESC instructions are to be executed.   None

0   0   1    No processor extension is available. Software
             will emulate its function. Wait instructions do
             not cause exception 7.                            ESC

1   0   1    No processor extension is available. Software
             will emulate its function. The current processor
             extension context may belong to   another task.   ESC

0   1   0    A processor extension exists.                     WAIT (if TS=1)

1   1   0    A processor extension exists. The current
             processor extension    context may belong to
             another task. The exception on WAIT allows
             software to test for an error pending from a
             previous processor extension operation.           ESC or
                                                               WAIT (if TS=1)


10.2.2  Other Instructions

Instructions that verify or adjust access rights, segment limits, or
privilege levels can be used to avoid exceptions or faults that are
correctable. Section 10.3 describes such instructions.


10.3  Privileged and Trusted Instructions

Instructions that execute only at CPL=0 are called "privileged." An attempt
to execute the privileged instructions at any other privilege level causes a
general protection exception (#13) with an error code of zero. The
privileged instructions manipulate descriptor tables or system registers.
Incorrect use of these instructions can produce unrecoverable conditions.
Some of these instructions (LGDT, LLDT, and LTR) are discussed in section
10.2.

Other privileged instructions are:

  Ž  LIDT‘‘Load interrupt descriptor table register
  Ž  LMSW‘‘Load machine status word
  Ž  CLTS‘‘Clear task switch flag
  Ž  HALT‘‘Halt processor execution
  Ž  POPF (POP flags) or IRET can change the IF value only if the user is
     operating at a trusted privilege level. POPF does not change IOPL
     except at Level 0.

"Trusted" instructions are restricted to execution at a privilege level of
CPL  IOPL. For each task, the operating system defines a privilege level
below which these instructions cannot be used. Most of these instructions
deal with input/output or interrupt management. The IOPL field in the flag
word that holds the privilege level limit can be changed only when CPL=0.
The trusted instructions are:

  Ž  Input/Output‘‘Block I/O, Input, and Output: IN, INW, OUT, OUTW, INSB,
     INSW, OUTSB, OUTSW

  Ž  Interrupts‘‘Enable Interrupts, Disable Interrupts: STI, CLI

  Ž  Other‘‘Lock Prefix


10.4  Initialization

Whenever the 80286 is initialized or reset, certain registers are set to
predefined values. All additional desired initialization must be performed
by user software. (See Appendix A for an example of a 286 initialization
routine.) RESET forces the 80286 to terminate all execution and local bus
activity; no instruction or bus action will occur as long as RESET is
active. Execution in real address mode begins after RESET becomes inactive
and an internal processing interval (3-4 clocks) occurs. The initial state
at reset is:

     FLAGS = 0002
     MSW = FFF0H
     IP = FFF0H
     CS Selector = F000H    CS.base = FF0000H   CS.limit = FFFFH
     CS Selector = 0000H    CS.base = 000000H   CS.limit = FFFFH
     ES Selector = 0000H    ES.base = 000000H   ES.limit = FFFFH
     IDT base = 000000H     IDT.limit = 03FFH

Two fixed areas of memory are reserved: the system initialization area and
the interrupt table area. The system initialization area begins at FFFFF0H
(through FFFFFFH) and the interrupt table area begins at 000000H (through
0003FFH). The interrupt table area is not reserved.

At this point, segment registers are valid and protection bits are set to
0. The 80286 begins operation in real address mode, with PE=0. Maskable
interrupts are disabled, and no processor extension is assumed or emulated
(EM=MP=0).

DS, ES, and SS are initialized at reset to allow access to the first 64K of
memory (exactly as in the 8086). The CS:IP combination specifies a starting
address of FFFF0H. For real address mode, the four most significant bits are
not used, providing the same FFF0H address as the 8086 reset location. Use
of (or upgrade to) the protected mode can be supported by a bootstrap
loader at the high end of the address space. As mentioned in Chapter 5,
location FFF0H ordinarily contains a JMP instruction whose target is the
actual beginning of a system initialization or restart program.

After RESET, CS points to the top 64K bytes in the 16-Mbyte physical
address space. Reloading CS register by a control transfer to a different
code segment in real address mode will put zeros in the upper 4 bits. Since
the initial IP is FFF0H, all of the upper 64K bytes of address space may be
used for initialization.

Sections 10.4.1 and 10.4.2 describe the steps needed to initialize the
80286 in the real address mode and the protected mode, respectively.


10.4.1  Real Address Mode

  1.  Allocate a stack.

  2.  Load programs and data into memory from secondary storage.

  3.  Initialize external devices and the Interrupt Vector Table.

  4.  Set registers and MSW bits to desired values.

  5.  Set FLAG bits to desired values‘‘including the IF bit to enable
      interrupts‘‘after insuring that a valid interrupt handler exists for
      each possible interrupt.

  6.  Execute (usually via an inter-segment JMP to the main system
      program).


10.4.2  Protected Mode

The full 80286 virtual address mode initialization procedure requires
additional steps to operate correctly:

  1.  Load programs and associated descriptor tables.

  2.  Load valid GDT and IDT descriptor tables, setting the GDTR and IDTR to
      their correct value.

  3.  Set the PE bit to enter protected mode.

  4.  Execute an intra-segment JMP to clear the processor queues.

  5.  Load or construct a valid task state segment for the initial task to
      be executed in protected mode.

  6.  Load the LDTR selector from the task's GDT or 0000H (null) if an LDT
      is not needed.

  7.  Set the stack pointer (SS, SP) to a valid location in a valid stack
      segment.

  8.  Mark all items not in memory as not-present.

  9.  Set FLAGS and MSW bits to correct values for the desired system
      configuation.

  10. Initialize external devices.

  11. Ensure that a valid interrupt handler exists for each possible
      interrupt.

  12. Enable interrupts.

  13. Execute.

The example in Appendix A shows the steps necessary to load all the
required tables and registers that permit execution of the first task of a
protected mode system. The program in Appendix A assumes that Intel
development tools have been used to construct a prototype GDT, IDT, LDT,
TSS, and all the data segments necessary to start up that first task.
Typically, these items are stored on EPROM; on most systems it is necessary
to copy them all into RAM to get going. Otherwise, the 80286 will attempt to
write into the EPROM to set the accessed or busy bits.

The example in Appendix A also illustrates the ability to allocate unused
entries in descriptor tables to grow the tables dynamically during
execution. Using suitable naming conventions, the builder can allocate alias
data segments that are larger than the prototype EPROM version. The code in
the example will zero out the extra entries to permit later dynamic usage.


Chapter 11  Advanced Topics

‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘

This chapter describes some of the advanced topics as virtual memory
management, restartable instructions, special segment attributes, and the
validation of descriptors and pointers.


11.1  Virtual Memory Management

When access to a segment is requested and the access byte in its descriptor
indicates the segment is not present in real memory, the not-present fault
occurs (exception 11, or 12 for stacks). The handler for this fault can be
set up to bring the absent segment into real memory (swapping or
overwriting another segment if necessary), or to terminate execution of the
requesting program if this is not possible.

The accessed bit (bit 0) of the access byte is provided in both executable
and data segment descriptors to support segment usage profiling. Whenever
the descriptor is accessed by the 80286 hardware, the A-bit will be set in
memory. This applies to selector test instructions (described below) as
well as to the loading of a segment register. The reading of the access byte
and the restoration of it with the A-bit set is an indivisible operation,
i.e., it is performed as a read-modify-write with bus lock. If an operating
system develops a profile of segment usage over time, it can recognize
segments of low or zero access and choose among these candidates for
replacement.

When a not-present segment is brought into real memory, the task that
requested access to it can continue its execution because all instructions
that load a segment register are restartable.

Not-present exceptions occur only on segment register load operations, gate
accesses, and task switches. The saved instruction pointer refers to the
first byte of the violating instruction. All other aspects of the saved
machine state are exactly as they were before execution of the violating
instruction began. After the fault handler clears up the fault condition and
performs an IRET, the program continues to execute. The only external
indication of a segment swap is the additional execution time.


11.2  Special Segment Attributes


11.2.1  Conforming Code Segments

Code segments intended for use at potentially different privilege levels
need an attribute that permits them to emulate the privilege level of the
calling task. Such segments are termed "conforming" segments. Conforming
segments are also useful for interrupt-driven error routines that need only
be as privileged as the routine that caused the error.

A conforming code segment has bit 2 of its access byte set to 1. This means
it can be referenced by a CALL or JMP instruction in a task of equal or
lesser privilege, i.e., CPL of the task is numerically greater than or equal
to DPL of this segment. CPL does not change when executing the conforming
code segment. A conforming segment continues to use the stack from the CPL.
This is the only case in which the DPL of a code segment can be numerically
less than the CPL. If bit 2 is a 0, the segment is not conforming and can be
referenced only by a task of CPL = DPL.

Inter-segment Returns that refer to conforming code segments use the RPL
field of the code selector of the return address to determine the new CPL.
The RPL becomes the new CPL if the conforming code segment DPL ¾ RPL.

If a conforming segment is readable, it can be read from any privilege
level without restriction. This is the only exception to the protection
rules. This allows constants to be stored with conforming code. For example,
a read-only look-up table can be embedded in a conforming code segment that
can be used to convert system-wide logical ID's into character strings that
represent those logical entities.


11.2.2  Expand-Down Data Segments

If bit 2 in the access byte of a data segment is 1, the segment is an
expand-down segment. All the offsets that reference such a segment must be
strictly greater than the segment limit, as opposed to normal data segments
(bit 2 = 0) where all offsets must be less than or equal to the segment
limit. Figure 11-1 shows an expand-down segment.

The size of the expand down segment can be changed by changing either the
base or the limit. An expand down segment with Limit = 0 will have a size of
2^(16)-1 bytes. With a limit value of FFFFH, the expand down segment
will have a size of 0 bytes. In an expand down segment, the base + offset
value should always be greater than the base + limit value. Therefore, a
full size segment (2^(16) bytes) can only be obtained by using an expand up
segment.

The operating system should check the Expand-Down bit when a protection
fault indicates that the limit of a data segment has been reached. If the
Expand-Down bit is not set, the operating system should increase the segment
limit; if it is set, the limit should be lowered. This supplies more room
in either case (assuming the segment is not write-protected, i.e., that bit
1 is not 0). In some cases, if the operating system can ascertain that there
is not enough room to expand the data segment to meet the need that caused
the fault, it can move the data segment to a region of memory where there
is enough room. See figure 11-2.


Figure 11-1.  Expand-Down Segment

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Figure 11-2.  Dynamic Segment Relocation and Expansion of Segment Limit


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11.3  Pointer Validation

Pointer validation is an important part of locating programming errors.
Pointer validation is necessary for maintaining isolation between the
privilege levels. Pointer validation consists of the following steps:

  1.  Check if the supplier of the pointer is entitled to access the
      segment.

  2.  Check if the segment type is appropriate to its intended use.

  3.  Check if the pointer violates the segment limit.

The 80286 hardware automatically performs checks 2 and 3 during instruction
execution, while software must assist in performing the first check. This
point is discussed in section 11.3.2. Software can explicitly perform steps
2 and 3 to check for potential violations (rather than causing an
exception). The unprivileged instructions LSL, LAR, VERR, and VERW are
provided for this purpose.

The load access rights (LAR) instruction obtains the access rights byte of
a descriptor pointed to by the selector used in the instruction. If that
selector is visible at the CPL, the instruction loads the access byte into
the specified destination register as the higher byte (the low byte is
zero) and the zero flag is set. Once loaded, the access bits can be tested.
System segments such as a task state segment or a descriptor table cannot be
read or modified. This instruction is used to verify that a pointer refers
to a segment of the proper privilege level and type. If the RPL or CPL is
greater than DPL, or the selector is outside the table limit, no access
value is returned and the zero flag is cleared. Conforming code segments may
be accessed from any RPL or CPL.

Additional parameter checking can be performed via the load segment limit
(LSL) instruction. If the descriptor denoted by the given selector (in
memory or a register) is visible at the CPL, LSL loads the specified
register with a word that consists of the limit field of that descriptor.
This can only be done for segments, task state segments, and local
descriptor tables (i.e., words from control descriptors are inaccessible).
Interpreting the limit is a function of the segment type. For example,
downward expandable data segments treat the limit differently than code
segments do.

For both LAR and LSL, the zero flag (ZF) is set if the loading was
performed; otherwise, the zero flag is cleared. Both instructions are
undefined in real address mode, causing an invalid opcode exception
(interrupt #6).


11.3.1  Descriptor Validation

The 80286 has two instructions, VERR and VERW, which determine whether a
selector points to a segment that can be read or written at the current
privilege level. Neither instruction causes a protection fault if the result
is negative.

VERR verifies a segment for reading and loads ZF with 1 if that segment is
readable from the current privilege level. The validation process checks
that: 1) the selector points to a descriptor within the bounds of the GDT or
LDT, 2) it denotes a segment descriptor (as opposed to a control
descriptor), and 3) the segment is readable and of appropriate privilege
level. The privilege check for data segments and non-conforming code
segments is that the DPL must be numerically greater than or equal to both
the CPL and the selector's RPL. Conforming segments are not checked for
privilege level.

VERW provides the same capability as VERR for verifying writability. Like
the VERR instruction, VERW loads ZF if the result of the writability check
is positive. The instruction checks that the descriptor is within bounds, is
a segment descriptor, is writable, and that its DPL is numerically greater
than or equal to both the CPL and the selector's RPL. Code segments are
never writable, conforming or not.


11.3.2  Pointer Integrity: RPL and the "Trojan Horse Problem"

The Requested Privilege Level (RPL) feature can prevent inappropriate use
of pointers that could corrupt the operation of more privileged code or data
from a less privileged level.

A common example is a file system procedure, FREAD (file_id, nybytes,
buffer-ptr). This hypothetical procedure reads data from a file into a
buffer, overwriting whatever is there. Normally, FREAD would be available at
the user level, supplying only pointers to the file system procedures and
data located and operating at a privileged level. Normally, such a procedure
prevents user-level procedures from directly changing the file tables.
However, in the absence of a standard protocol for checking pointer
validity, a user-level procedure could supply a pointer into the file
tables in place of its buffer pointer, causing the FREAD procedure to
corrupt them unwittingly.

By using the RPL, you can avoid such problems. The RPL field allows a
privilege attribute to be assigned to a selector. This privilege attribute
would normally indicate the privilege level of the code which generated the
selector. The 80286 hardware will automatically check the RPL of any
selector loaded into a segment register or a control register to see if the
RPL allows access.

To guard against invalid pointers, the called procedure need only ensure
that all selectors passed to it have an RPL at least as high (numerically)
as the original caller's CPL. This indicates that the selectors were not
more trusted than their supplier. If one of the selectors is used to access
a segment that the caller would not be able to access directly, i.e., the
RPL is numerically greater than the DPL, then a protection fault will result
when loaded into a segment or control register.

The caller's CPL is available in the CS selector that was pushed on the
stack as the return address. A special instruction, ARPL, can be used to
appropriately adjust the RPL field of the pointer. ARPL (Adjust RPL field of
selector instruction) adjusts the RPL field of a selector to become the
larger of its original value and the value of the RPL field in a specified
register. The latter is normally loaded from the caller's CS register which
can be found on the stack. If the adjustment changes the selector's RPL, ZF
is set; otherwise, the zero flag is cleared.


11.4  NPX Context Switching

The context of a processor extension (such as the 80287 numerics processor)
is not changed by the task switch operation. A processor extension context
need only be changed when a different task attempts to use the processor
extension (which still contains the context of a previous task). The 80286
detects the first use of a processor extension after a task switch by
causing the processor extension not-present exception (#7) if the TS bit is
set. The interrupt handler may then decide whether a context change is
necessary.

The 286 services numeric errors only when it executes wait or escape
instructions because the processor extension is running independently.
Therefore, the numerics error from one task may not be recorded until the
286 is running a different task. If the 286 task has changed, it makes
sense to defer handling that error until the original task is restored. For
example, interrupt handlers that use the NPX should not have their timing
upset by a numeric error interrupt that pertains to some earlier process.
It is of little value to service someone else's error.

If the task switch bit is set (bit 3 of MSW) when the CPU begins to execute
a wait or escape instruction, the processor-extension not-present exception
results (#7). The handler for this interrupt must know who currently "owns"
the NPX, i.e., the handler must know the last task to issue a command to the
NPX. If the owner is the same as the current task, then it was merely
interrupted and the interrupt handler has since returned; the handler for
interrupt 7 simply clears the TS bit, restores the working registers, and
returns (restoring interrupts if enabled).

If the recorded owner is different from the current task, the handler must
first save the existing NPX context in the save area of the old task. It can
then re-establish the correct NPX context from the current task's save area.

The code example in figure 11-3 relies on the convention that each TSS
entry in the GDT is followed by an alias entry for a data segment that
points to the same physical region of memory that contains the TSS. The
alias segment also contains an area for saving the NPX context, the kernel
stack, and certain kernel data. That is, the first 44 bytes in that segment
are the 286 context, followed by 94 bytes for the processor extension
context, followed in some cases by the kernel stack and kernel private data
areas.

The implied convention is that the stack segment selector points to this
data segment alias so that whenever there is an interrupt at level zero and
SS is automatically loaded, all of the above information is immediately
addressable.

It is assumed that the program example knows about only one data segment
that points to a global data area in which it can find the one word NPX
owner to begin the processing described. The specific operations needed, and
shown in the figure, are listed in table 11-1.


Table 11-1. NPX Context Switching

Step       Operation                                Lines
                                                    (Figure 11-3)

1.         Save the working registers                28, 29
2.         Set up address for kernel work area       30, 31
3.         Get current task ID from Task Register    32
4.         Clear Task Switch flag to allow NPX work  34
5.         Inhibit interrupts                        35
6.         Compare owner with current task ID        37

If same owner:
7a.        Restore working registers                 48, 49
7b.        and return                                50

If owner is not current task:
8a.        Use owner ID to save old context
           in its TSS                                42, 43, 44
8b.        Restore context of current task;          45
           restore working registers;                46
           and return                                52

Figure 11-3. Example of NPX Context Switching

ASSEMBLER INVOKED BY:   ASM286,86  :FS:SWNPX.A86

LOC  OBJ                  LINE       SOURCE
                             1  + 1  $title('Switch the NPX Context on First Use After a Task Switch')
                             2
                             3                                name    switch_npx_context
                             4
                             5                                public  switch_NPX_context
                             6                                extrn   last_npx_task:word
                             7       ;
                             8       ;          This interrupt handler will switch the NPX context if a new task
                             9       ;        is attempting to use the NPX context of another task after a task
                            10       ;        switch.  If the NPX context belongs to the current task, nothing happens.
                            11       ;
                            12       ;        A trap gate should be placed in IDT entry 7 referring to this routine.
                            13       ;        The DPL of the gate should be 0 to prevent spoofing.  The code segment
                            14       ;        must be at privilege level 0.
                            15       ;
                            16       ;        The kernel stack is assumed to overlay the TSS and the NPX save area
                            17       ;        is placed at the end of the TSS area.
                            18       ;
                            19       ;        A global word variable LAST_NPX_TASK identifies the TSS selector of
                            20       ;        the last task to use the NPX.
                            21       ;
  002C                      22       npx_save_area             equ     word ptr 44      ; Offset of NPX save area in TSS
                            23 + 1   $eject
ØØØØ                        24       kernal_code               segment er public
                            25
0000                        26       switch_npx_context        proc    far wc(0)
                            27
0000 50                     28                push    ax                     ; Save working registers
0001 1E                     29                push    ds
0002 B8ØØØØ         E       30                mov     ax,seg last_npx_task   ; Get address of id of last NPX task
0005 8ED8                   31                mov     ds,ax
0007 0F00C8                 32                str     ax                     ; Get id of this task
000A 24FC                   33                and     al,not 3               ; Remove RPL field
000C 0F06                   34                clts                           ; Clear task switched flag
000E FA                     35                cli                            ; No interrupts allowed!
                            36       ;
                            37       ;        Last_npx_word cannot change due to other interrupts after this point.
                            38       ;
000F 3B060000       E       39                cmp     ax,ds:last_npx_task    ; See if same task
0013 7412                   40                je      same_task
                            41
0015 87060000       E       42                xchg    ax,ds:last_npx_task    ; Set new task id and get old one
0019 050800                 43                add     ax,8                   ; Go to TSS alias
001C 8ED8                   44                mov     ds,ax                  ; Address TSS of previous NPX task
001E DD362C00               45                fsave   ds:npx_save_area       ; Save old NPX state
0022 36DD262C00             46                frstor  ss:npx_save_area       ; Get current NPX state
0027                        47       same_task:
0027 1F                     48                pop     ds                     ; Return to interrupted program
0028 58                     49                pop     ax
0029 CF                     50                iret
                            51
                            52       switch_npx_context        endp
                            53
- - - -                     54       kernel_code               ends
***  WARNING #160, LINE #54, SEGMENT CONTAINS PRIVILEGED INSTRUCTIONS
                            55                                 end


11.5  Multiprocessor Condiderations

As mentioned in Chapter 8, a bus lock is applied during the testing and
setting of the task busy bit to ensure that two processors do not invoke the
same task at the same time. However, protection traps and conflicting use of
dynamically varying segments or descriptors must be addressed by an
inter-processor synchronization protocol. The protocol can use the
indivisible semaphore operation of the base instruction set. Coordination of
interrupt and trap vectoring must also be addressed when multiple concurrent
processors are operating.

The interrupt bus cycles are locked so no interleaving occurs on those
cycles. Descriptor caching is locked so that a descriptor reference cannot
be altered while it is being fetched.

When a program changes a descriptor that is shared with other processors,
it should broadcast this fact to the other processors. This broadcasting can
be done with an inter-processor interrupt. The handler for this interrupt
must ensure that the segment registers, the LDTR and the TR, are re-loaded.
This happens automatically if the interrupt is serviced by a task switch.

Modification of descriptors of shared segments in multi-processor systems
may require that the on-chip descriptors also be updated. For example, one
processor may attempt to mark the descriptor of a shared segment as
not-present while another is using it. Software has to ensure that the
descriptors in the segment register caches are updated with the new
information. The segment register caches can be updated by a re-entrant
procedure that is invoked by an inter-processor interrupt. The handler must
ensure that the segment registers, the LDTR and the TR, are re-loaded. This
happens automatically if the interrupt is serviced by a task switch.


11.6  Shutdown

Shutdown occurs when a severe error condition prevents further processing.
Shutdown is very similar to HLT in that the 80286 stops executing
instructions. The 80286 externally signals shutdown as a Halt bus cycle with
A1=0. The NMI or RESET input will force the 80286 out of shutdown. The INTR
input is ignored during shutdown.


Appendix A  80286 System Initialization

‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘

$title('Switch the 80286 from Real Address Mode to Protected Mode')
                 name    switch 80286_modes
                public   idt_desc,gdt_desc
;
;     Switch the 80286 from real address mode into protected mode.
;   The initial EPROM GDT, IDT, TSS, and LDT (if any) constructed by BLD286
;   will be copied from EPROM into RAM.  The RAM areas are defined by data
;   segments allocated as fixed entries in the GDT. The CPU registers for
;   GDT, IDT, TSS, and LDT will be set to point at the RAM-based
;   segments. The base fields in the RAM-based GDT will also be updated to
;   point at the RAM-based segments.
;
;     This code is used by adding it to the list of object modules given
;   to BLD286.  BLD286 must then be told to place the setment
;   init_code at address FFFE10H. Execution of the mode switch code begins
;   after RESET. This happens because the mode switch code will start at
;   physical address FFFFF0H, which is the power up address. This code then
;   sets up RAM copies of the EPROM-based segments before jumping to the
;   initial tsk placed at a fixed GDT entry. After the jump, the CPU
;   executes in the state of the first task defined by BLD286.
;
;     This code will not use any of the EPROM-based tables directly.
;   Such use would result in the 80286 writing into EPROM to set
;   the A bit. Any use of a GDT or TSS will always be in the RAM copy.
;   The limit and size of the EPROM-based GDT and IDT must be stored at
;   the public symbols idt_desc and gdt_desc. The location commands of BLD286
;   provide this function.
;
;     Interrupts are disabled during this mode switching code. Full error
;   checking is made of the EPROM-based GDT, IDT, TSS, and LDT to assure
;   they are valid before copying them to RAM.  If any of the RAM-based
;   aslias segments are smaller than the EPROM segments they are to hold,
;   halt or shutdown will occur. In general, any exception or NMI will
;   cause shutdown to occur until the first task is invoked.
;
;     If the RAM segment is larger than the EPROM segment, the RAM segment
;   will be expanded with zeros. If the initial TSS specifies an LDT,
;   the LDT will also be copied into ldt_alias with zero fill if needed.
;   The IPROM-based or RAM-based GDT, IDT, TSS, and LDT segments may be located
;   anywhere in physical memory.
;
;
;            Define layout of a descriptor.
;
desc              struc
limit             dw      0               ; Offset of last byte in segment
base_low          dw      0               ; Low 16 bits of 24-bit address
base_high         db      0               ; High 8 bits of 24-bit address
access            db      0               ; Access rights byte
res               dw      0               ; Reserved word
 desc             ends
;
;          Define the fixed GDT selector values for the descriptors that
;        define the EPROM-based tables.  BLD286 must be instructed to place the
;        appropriate descriptors into the GDT.
;
gdt_alias         equ     1*size desc     ; GDT(1) is data segment in RAM for GDT
idt_alias         equ     2*size desc     ; GDT(2) is data segment in RAM for IDT
start_TSS_alias   equ     3*size desc     ; GDT(3) is data segment in RAM for TSS
start_task        equ     4*size desc     ; GDT(4) is TSS for starting task
start_LDT_alias   equ     5*size desc     ; GDT(5) is data segment in RAM for LDT
;
;          Define machine status word bit positions.
;
PE                equ     1               ; Protection enable
MP                equ     2               ; Monitor processor extension
EM                equ     4               ; Emulate processor extension
;
;          Define particular values of descriptor access rights byte.
;
DT_ACCESS         equ     82H             ; Access byte value for an LDT
DS_ACCESS         equ     92H             ; Access byte value for data segment
                                          ;  which is grow up, at level 0, writeable
TSS_ACCESS        equ     81H             ; Access byte value for an idle TSS
DPL               equ     60H             ; Privilege level field of access rights
ACCESSED          equ     1               ; Define accessed bit
TI                equ     4               ; Position of TI bit
TSS_SIZE          equ     44              ; Size of a TSS
LDT_OFFSET        equ     42              ; Position of LDT in TSS
TIRPL_MASK        equ     size desc-1     ; TI and RPL field mask
;
;          Pass control from the power-up address to the mode switch code.
;        The segment containing this code must be at physical address FFFE10H
;        to place the JMP instruction at physical address FFFFF0H.  The base
;        address is chosen according to the size of this segment.
;
init_code         segment er

cs_offset         equ     0FE10H          ; Low 16 bits of starting address
                  org     0FFF0H-cs_offset; Start at address FFFFF0H
                  jmp     reset_startup   ; Do not change CS!
;
;          Define the template for a temporary GDT used to locate the initial
;        GDT and stack.  This data will be copied to location 0.
;        This space is also used for a temporary stack and finally serves
;        as the TSS written into when entering the initial TSS.
;
                  org 0   ; Place remaining code below power_up

initial_gdt       desc    <>              ; Filler and null IDT descriptor
gdt_desc          desc    <>              ; Descriptor for EPROM GDT
idt_desc          desc    <>              ; Descriptor for EPROM IDT
temp_desc         desc    <>              ; Temporary descriptor
;
;          Define a descriptor that will point the GDT at location 0.
;        This descriptor will also be loaded into SS to define the initial
;        protected mode stack segment.
;
temp_stack        desc    
;
;          Define the TSS descriptor used to allow the task switch to the
;        first task to overwrite this region of memory.  The TSS will overlay
;        the initial GDT and stack at location 0.
;
save_tss          desc    
;
;          Define the initial stack space and filler for the end of the TSS.
;
                  dw       8 dup (0)
end_gdt           label    word

start_pointer     label    dword
                  dw       0,start_task   ; Pointer to initial task
;
;          Define template for the task definition list.
;
task_entry        struc                   ; Define layout of task description
TSS_sel           dw       ?              ; Selector for TSS
TSS_alias         dw       ?              ; Data segment alias for TSS
LDT_alias         dw       ?              ; Data segment alias for LDT if any
task_entry        ends

task_list         task_entry       
                  dw  0                   ; Terminate list

reset_startup:
         cli                              ; No interrupts allowed!
         cld                              ; Use autoincrement mode
         xor      di,di                   ; Point ES:DI at physical address 000000H
         mov      ds,di
         mov      es,di
         mov      ss,di                   ; Set stack at end of reserved area
         mov      sp,end_gdt-initial_gdt
;
;
;          Form an adjustment factor from the real CS base of FF0000H to the
;        segment base address assumed by ASM286.  Any data reference mode
;        into CS must add an indexing term [BP] to compensate for the difference
;        between the offset generated by ASM286 and the offset required from
;        the base of FF0000H.
;
start    proc                             ; The value of IP at run time will not be
                                          ;  the same as the one used by ASM286!
         call     start1                  ; Get true offset of start1
start1:
         pop      bp
         sub      bp, offset start1       ; Subtract ASM286 offset of start1
                                          ;  leaving adjustment factor in BP
         lidt     initial_gdt[bp]         ; Setup null IDT to force shutdown
                                          ;  on any protection error or interrupt
;
;          Copy the EPROM-based temporary GDT into RAM.
;
         lea      si,initial_gdt[bp]      ; Setup pointer to temporary GDT
                                          ;  template in EPROM
         mov      cs,(end_gdt-initial_gdt)/2  ; Set length
 rep     movs     es:word ptr [di],cs:[si]; Put into reserved RAM area
;
;          Look for 80287 processor extension.  Assume all ones will be read
;        if an 80287 is not present.
;
         fninit                           ; Initialize 80287 if present
         mov      bx,EM                   ; Assume no 80287
         fstsw    ax                      ; Look at status of 80287
         or       al,al                   ; No errors should be present
         jnz      set_mode                ; Jump if no 80287

         fsetpm                           ; Put 80287 into protected mode
         mov      bx,MP
;
;          Switch to protected mode and setup a stack, GDT, and LDT.
;
set_mode;
         smsw     ax                      ; Get current MSW
         or       ax,PE                   ; Set PE bit
         or       ax,bx                   ; Set NPX status flags
         lmsw     ax                      ; nter protected mode!
         jmp      $+2                     ; Clear queue of instructions decoded
                                          ;  while in Real Address Mode
                                          ; CPL is now 0, CS still points at
                                          ; FFFE10 in physical memory
        lgdt     temp_stack[bp]          ; Use initial GDT in RAM area
         mov      ax,temp_stack-initial_gdt   ; Setup SS with valid protected mode
         mov      ss,ax                   ; selector to the RAM GDT and stack
         xor      ax,ax                   ; Set the current LDT to null
         lidt     ax                      ; Any references to it will cause
                                          ;  an exception causing shutdown
         mov      ax,save_tss-initial_gdt ; Set initial TSS into the low RAM
                  ltr ax                  ; The task switch needs a valid TSS
;
;          Copy the EPROM-based GDT into the RAM data segment alias.
;        First the descriptor for the RAM data segment must be copied into
;        the temporary GDT.
;
         mov      ax,gdt_desc[bp].limit   ; Get size of GDT
         cmp      ax,6*size desc-1        ; Be sure the last entry expected by
                                          ; this code is inside the GDT
         jb       bad_gdt                 ; Jump if GDT is not big enough

         mov      bx,gdt_desc-initial_gdt ; Form selector to EPROM GDT
         mov      si,gdt_alias            ; Get selector of GDT alias
         call     copy_EPROM_dt           ; Copy into EPROM
         mov      si,idt_alias            ; Get selector of IDT alias
         mov      bx,ldt_desc-initial_gdt ; Indicate EPROM IDT
         call     copy_EPROM_dt
         mov      ax,gdt_desc-initial_gdt ; Setup addressing into EPROM GDT
         mov      ds,ax
         mov      bx,gdt_alias            ; Get GDT alias data segment selector
         lgdt     [bx]                    ; Set GDT to RAM GDT
                                          ; SS and TR remain in low RAM
;
;          Copy all task's TSS and LDT segments into RAM
;
         lea     bx,task_list[bp]         ; Define list of tasks to setup
copy_task_loop:
         call    copy_tasks               ; Copy them into RAM
         add     bx,size task_entry       ; Go to next entry
         mov     ax,cs:[bx].tss_sel       ; See if there is another entry
         or      ax,ax
         jnz     copy_task_loop
;
;          With TSS, GDT, and LDT set, startup the initial task!
;
         mov     bx,gdt_alias             ; Point DS at GDT
         mov     ds,bx
         mov     bx,idt_alias             ; Get IDT alias data segment selector
         lidt    [bx]                     ; Start the first task!
         jmp     start_pointer[bp]        ; The low RAM area is overwritten with
                                          ;  the current CPU context

bad_gdt:                                  ; Wait here if GDT is not big enough
         hlt
astart    endp
;
;          Copy the TSS and LDT for the task pointed at by CS:BX.
;        If the task has an LDT it will also be copied down.
;        BX and BP are transparent.
;
bad_tss:
         hlt                              ; Halt here if TSS is invalid
copy_tasks       proc

         mov     si,gdt_alias             ; Get addressability to GDT
         mov     ds,si
         mov     si,cs:[bx].tss_alias     ; Get selector for TSS alias
         mov     es,si                    ; Point ES at alias data segment
         lsl     ax,si                    ; Get length of TSS alias
         mov     si,cs:[bx].tss_sel       ; Get TSS selector
         lar     dx,si                    ; Get alias access rights
         jnz     bad_tss                  ; Jump if invalid reference

         mov     dl,dh                    ; Save TSS descriptor access byte
         and     dh,not DPL               ; Ignore privilege
         cmp     dh,TSS_ACCESS            ; See if TSS
         jnz     bad_tss                  ; Jump if not

         lsl     cs,si                    ; Get length of EPROM based TSS
         cmp     cs,TSS_SIZE-1            ; Verify it is of proper size
         jb      bad_tss                  ; Jump if it is not big enough
;
;          Setup for moving the EPROM-based TSS to RAM
;        DS points at GDT
;
         mov     [si].access,DS_ACCESS    ; Make TSS into data segment
         mov     ds,si                    ; Point DS at EPROM TSS
         call    copy_with_fill           ; Copy DS segment to ES with zero fill
                                          ;  CX has copy count, AX-CX fill count
;
;          Set the GDT TSS limit and base address to the RAM values
;
         mov     ax,gdt_alias             ; Restore GDT addressing
         mov     ds,ax
         mov     es,ax
         mov     di,cs:[bx].tss_sel       ; Get TSS selector
         mov     si,cs:[bx].tss_alias     ; Get RAM alias selector
         movsw                            ; Copy limit
         movsw                            ; Copy low 16 bits of adress
         lodsw                            ; Get high 8 bits of address
         mov     ah,dl                    ; Mark as TSS descriptor
         stosw                            ; Fill in high address and access bytes
         movsw                            ; Copy reserved word
;
;          See if a valid LDT is specified for the startup task
;        If so then copy the EPROM version into the RAM alias.
;
         mov     ds,cs:[bx].tss_alias     ; Address TSS to get LDT
         mov     si,ds:word ptr LDT_OFFSET
         and     si,not TIRPL_MASK        ; Ignore TI and RPL
         jz      no_ldt                   ; Skip this if no LDT used

         push    si                       ; Save LDT selector
         lar     dx,si                    ; Test descriptor
         jnz     bad_ldt                  ; Jump if invalid selector

         mov     dl,dh                    ; Save LDT descriptor access byte
         and     dh,not DPL               ; Ignore privilege
         cmp     dh, DT_ACCESS            ; Be sure it is an LDT descriptor
         jne     bad_ldt                  ; Jump if invalid

         mov     es:[si].access,DS_ACCESS ; Mark LDT as data segment
         mov     ds,si                    ; Point DS at EPROM LDT
         lsl     ax,si                    ; Get LDT limit
         call    test_dt_limit            ; Verify it is valid
         mov     cx,ax                    ; Save for later

;
;          Examine the LDT alias segment and, if good, copy to RAM
;
         mov si,cs:[bx].ldt_alias         ; Get ldt alias selector
         mov     es,si                    ; Point ES at alias segment
         lsl     ax,si                    ; Get length of alias segmewnt
         call    test_dt_limit            ; Verify it is valid
         call    copy_with_fill           ; Copy LDT into RAM alias segment
;
;          Set the LDT limit and base address to the RAM copy of the LDT.
;
         mov     si,cs:[bx].ldt_alias     ; Restore LDT alias selector
         pop     di                       ; Restore LDT selector
         mov     ax,gdt_alias             ; Restore GDT addressing
         mov     ds,ax
         mov     es,ax
         movsw                            ; Move the RAM LDT limit
         movsw                            ; Move the low 16 bits across
         lodsw                            ; Get the high 8 bits
         mov     ah,dl                    ; Set high address and access rights
         stosw                            ; Copy reserved word
         movsw
no_ldt:
         ret                              ; All done
bad_ldt:
         hit                              ; Halt here if LDT is invalid
copy_tasks       endp

;
;          Test the descriptor table size in AX to verify that it is an
;        even number of descriptors in length.
;
test_dt_limit    proc

         push    ax                       ; Save length
         end     al,7                     ; Look at low order bits
         cmp     al,7                     ; Must be all ones
         pop     ax                       ; Restore length
         jne     bad_dt_limit;

         ret                              ; All OK
bad_dt_limit:
         hit:                             ; Die!

test_dt_limit    endp

;
;          Copy the EPROM DT at selector BX in the temporary GDT to the alias
;        data segment at selector SI.  Any improper descriptors or limits
;        will cause shutdown!
;
copy_EPROM_dt    proc

         mov     ax,ss                    ; Point ES:DI at temporary descriptor
         mov     es,ax
         mov     es:[bx].access,DS_ACCESS ; Mark descriptor as a data segment
         mov     es:[bx].res,0            ; Clear reserved word
         lsl     ax,bx                    ; Get limit of EPROM DT
         mov     cx,ax                    ; Save for later
         call    test_dt_limit            ; Verify it is a proper limit
         mov     di,gdt_desc-initial_gdt  ; Address EPROM GDT in DS
         mov     ds,di
         mov     di,temp_desc-initial_gdt ; Get selector for temporary descriptor
         push    di                       ; Save offset for later use as selector
         lodsw                            ; Get alias segment size
         call    test_dt_limit            ; Verify it is an even multiple of
                                          ;  descriptors in length
         stosw                            ; Put length into temporary
         movsw                            ; Copy remaining entries into temporary
         movsw
         movsw
         pop     es                       ; ES now points at the GDT alias area
         mov     ds,bx                    ; DS now points at EPROM DT as data
                                          ; Copy segment ot alias with zero fill
                                          ; CX is copy count, AX-CX is fill count
                                          ; Fall into copy_with_fill

copy_EPROM_dt    endp

;
;          Copy the segment at DS to the segment at ES for length CX.
;        Fill th end with AX-CX zeros.s  Use word operations for speed but
;        allow odd byte operations.
;
copy_with_fill   proc

         xor     si,si                    ; Start at beginning of segments
         xor     di,di
         sub     ax,cx                    ; Form fill count
         add     cs,1                     ; Convert laimit to count
         rcr     cs,1                     ; Allow full 64K move
    rep movsw                             ; Copy DT into alias area
         xchg    ax,cx                    ; Get fill count and zero AX
         jnc     even_copy                ; Jump if even byte count on copy

         movsb                            ; Copy odd byte
         or      cx,cx
         jz      exit_copy                ; Exit if no fill

         stosb                            ; Even out the segment offset
         dec     cx                       ; Adjust remaining fill count
even_copy:
         shr     cx,1                     ; Form word count on fill
     rep stosw                            ; Clear unused words at end
         jnc     exit_copy                ; Exit if no odd byte remains

         stosb                            ; Clear last odd byte
exit_copy:
         ret

copy_with_fill   endp

init_code        ends
                 end


$B


Appendix B  The 80286 Instruction Set

‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘

This section presents the 80286 instruction set using Intel's ASM286
notation. All possible operand types are shown. Instructions are organized
alphabetically according to generic operations. Within each operation, many
different instructions are possible depending on the operand. The pages are
presented in a standardized format, the elements of which are described in
the following paragraphs.

Opcode

This column gives the complete object code produced for each form of the
instruction. Where possible, the codes are given as hexadecimal bytes,
presented in the order in which they will appear in memory. Several
shorthand conventions are used for the parts of instructions which specify
operands. These conventions are as follows:

/n: (n is a digit from 0 through 7) A ModRM byte, plus a possible immediate
and displacement field follow the opcode. See figure B-1 for the encoding
of the fields. The digit n is the value of the REG field of the ModRM byte.
To obtain the possible hexadecimal values for /n, refer to column n of table
B-1. Each row gives a possible value for the effective address operand
to the instruction. The entry at the end of the row indicates whether the
effective address operand is a register or memory; if memory, the entry
indicates what kind of indexing and/or displacement is used. Entries with
D8 or D16 signify that a one-byte or two-byte displacement quantity
immediately follows the ModRM and optional immediate field bytes. The
signed displacement is added to the effective address offset.

/r: A ModRM byte that contains both a register operand and an effective
address operand, followed by a possible immediate and displacement field.
See figure B-2 for the encoding of the fields. The ModRM byte could be any
value appearing in table B-1. The column determines which register
operand was selected; the row determines the form of effective address. If
the row entry mentions D8 or D16, then a one-byte or two-byte displacement
follows, as described in the previous paragraph.

cb: A one-byte signed displacement in the range of -128 to +127 follows the
opcode. The displacement is sign-extended to 16 bits, and added modulo 65536
to the offset of the instruction FOLLOWING this instruction to obtain the
new IP value.

cw: A two-byte displacement is added modulo 65536 to the offset of the
instruction FOLLOWING this instruction to obtain the new IP value.

cd: A two-word pointer which will be the new CS:IP value. The offset is
given first, followed by the selector.

db: An immediate byte operand to the instruction which follows the opcode
and ModRM bytes. The opcode determines if it is a signed value.

dw: An immediate word operand to the instruction which follows the opcode
and ModRM bytes. All words are given in the 80286 with the low-order byte
first.

+rb: A register code from 0 through 7 which is added to the hexadecimal byte
given at the left of the plus sign to form a single opcode byte. The codes
are: AL=0, CL=1, DL=2, BL=3, AH=4, CH=5, DH=6, and BH=7.

+rw: A register code from 0 through 7 which is added to the hexadecimal byte
given at the left of the plus sign to form a single opcode byte. The codes
are: AX=0, CX=1, DX=2, BX=3, SP=4, BP=5, SI=6, and DI=7.


Table B-1. ModRM Values


Rb  =      AL    CL    DL    BL    AH    CH    DH    BH
Rw  =      AX    CX    DX    BX    SP    BP    SI    DI
REG =       0     1     2     3     4     5     6     7

                        ModRM values                       Effective address

           00    08    10    18    20    28    30    38     [BX + SI]
           01    09    11    19    21    29    31    39     [BX + DI]
           02    0A    12    1A    22    2A    32    3A     [BP + SI]
           03    0B    13    1B    23    2B    33    3B     [BP + DI]
mod=00     04    0C    14    1C    24    2C    34    3C     [SI]
           05    0D    15    1D    25    2D    35    3D     [DI]
           06    0E    16    1E    26    2E    36    3E     D16 (simple var)
           07    0F    17    1F    27    2F    37    3F     [BX]

           40    48    50    58    60    68    70    78     [BX + SI] + D8
D8 denotes an 8-bit displacement following the ModRM byte that is
sign-extended and added to the index.



           41    49    51    59    61    69    71    79     [BX + DI] + D8
           42    4A    52    5A    62    6A    72    7A     [BP + SI] + D8
           43    4B    53    5B    63    6B    73    7B     [BP + DI] + D8
mod=01     44    4C    54    5C    64    6C    74    7C     [SI] + D8
           45    4D    55    5D    65    6D    75    7D     [DI] + D8
           46    4E    56    5E    66    6E    76    7E     [BP] + D8
Default segment register is SS for effective addresses containing a BP
index; DS is for other memory effective addresses.



           47    4F    57    5F    67    6F    77    7F     [BX] + D8

           80    88    90    98    A0    A8    B0    B8     [BX + SI] + D16
D16 denotes the 16-bit displacement following the ModRM byte that is
added to the index.



           81    89    91    99    A1    A9    B1    B9     [BX + DI] + D16
           82    8A    92    9A    A2    AA    B2    BA     [BP +SI] + D16
           83    8B    93    9B    A3    AB    B3    BB     [BP + DI] + D16
mod=10     84    8C    94    9C    A4    AC    B4    BC     [SI] + D16
           85    8D    95    9D    A5    AD    B5    BD     [DI] + D16
           86    8E    96    9E    A6    AE    B6    BE     [BP] + D16
Default segment register is SS for effective addresses containing a BP
index; DS is for other memory effective addresses.



           87    8F    97    9F    A7    AF    B7    BF     [BX] + D16

           C0    C8    D0    D8    E0    E8    F0    F8     Ew=AX  Eb=AL
           C1    C9    D1    D9    E1    E9    F1    F9     Ew=CX  Eb=CL
           C2    CA    D2    DA    E2    EA    F2    FA     Ew=DX  Eb=DL
           C3    CB    D3    DB    E3    EB    F3    FB     Ew=BX  Eb=BL
mod=11     C4    CC    D4    DC    E4    EC    F4    FC     Ew=SP  Eb=AH
           C5    CD    D5    DD    E5    ED    F5    FD     Ew=BP  Eb=CH
           C6    CE    D6    DE    E6    EE    F6    FE     Ew=SI  Eb=DH
           C7    CF    D7    DF    E7    EF    F7    FF     Ew=DI  Eb=BH



Figure B-1. /n Instruction Byte Format

                         pp/n Instruction Byte Format
 ‚ŠŠŠŠŠŠƒ
 € mod   n     r/m   imm. low
Opcode indicates presence and size of immediate field.   imm. high
Opcode indicates presence and size of immediate field.   disp-low   disp-high  €
 „¤¤¤¤¤¤…
 7   6 5  4  3 2  1  0 7          0 7          0 7          0 7           0

                         "mod" Field Bit Assignments
 ‚Šƒ
 €    mod                        Displacement                            €
 †Ļ‡
 €    00    DISP = 0
 Except if mod = 00 and r/m = 110 then EA = disp-high:disp-low., disp-low and disp-high are absent                 €
 €    01    DISP = disp-low sign-extended to 16-bit, disp-high is absent €
 €    10    DISP = disp-high: disp-low                                   €
 €    11    r/m is treated as a "reg" field                              €
 „¤…

                         "r/m" Field Bit Assignments
 ‚Šƒ
 €                r/m                         Operand Address            €
 †Ļ‡
 €                000                         (BX) + (SI) + DISP         €
 €                001                         (BX) + (DI) + DISP         €
 €                010                         (BP) + (SI) + DISP         €
 €                011                         (BP) + (DI) + DISP         €
 €                100                         (SI) + DISP                €
 €                101                         (DI) + DISP                €
 €                110                         (BP) + DISP
 Except if mod = 00 and r/m = 110 then EA = disp-high:disp-low.               €
 €                111                         (BX) + DISP                €
 „¤…
 DISP follows 2nd byte of instruction (before data if required).


Figure B-2. /r Instruction Byte Format

                           /r Instruction Byte Format
 ‚ŠŠŠŠŠŠƒ
 € mod   r     r/m   imm. low
Opcode indicates presence and size of immediate field.   imm. high
 Opcode indicates presence and size of immediate field.   disp-low   disp-high  €
 „¤¤¤¤¤¤…
 7   6 5  4  3 2  1  0 7          0 7          0 7          0 7           0

                         "mod" Field Bit Assignments
 ‚Šƒ
 €    mod                        Displacement                            €
 †Ļ‡
 €    00    DISP = 0
Except if mod = 00 and r/m = 110 then EA = disp-high:disp-low., disp-low and disp-high are absent                 €
 €    01    DISP = disp-low sign-extended to 16-bit, disp-high is absent €
 €    10    DISP = disp-high: disp-low                                   €
 €    11    r/m is treated as a "reg" field                              €
 „¤…

                         "r" Field Bit Assignments
 ‚ŠŠƒ
 €     16-Bit (w = 1)         6-Bit (w = 0)             Segment         €
 †ĻĻ‡
 €        000 AX                 000 AL                  00 ES          €
 €        001 CX                 001 CL                  01 CS          €
 €        010 DX                 010 DL                  10 SS          €
 €        011 BX                 011 BL                  11 DS          €
 €        100 SP                 100 AH                                 €
 €        101 BP                 101 CH                                 €
 €        110 SI                 110 DH                                 €
 €        111 DI                 111 BH                                 €
 „¤¤…

                         "r/m" Field Bit Assignments
 ‚Šƒ
 €                r/m                         Operand Address            €
 †Ļ‡
 €                000                         (BX) + (SI) + DISP         €
 €                001                         (BX) + (DI) + DISP         €
 €                010                         (BP) + (SI) + DISP         €
 €                011                         (BP) + (DI) + DISP         €
 €                100                         (SI) + DISP                €
 €                101                         (DI) + DISP                €
 €                110                         (BP) + DISP
Except if mod = 00 and r/m = 110 then EA = disp-high:disp-low.               €
 €                111                         (BX) + DISP                €
 „¤…
 DISP follows 2nd byte of instruction (before data if required).


Instruction

This column gives the instruction mnemonic and possible operands. The type
of operand used will determine the opcode and operand encodings. The
following entries list the type of operand which can be encoded in the
format shown in the instruction column. The Intel convention is to place
the destination operand as the left hand operand. Source-only operands
follow the destination operand.

In many cases, the same instruction can be encoded several ways. It is
recommended that you use the shortest encoding. The short encodings are
provided to save memory space.

cb: a destination instruction offset in the range of 128 bytes before the
end of this instruction to 127 bytes after the end of this instruction.

cw: a destination offset within the same code segment as this instruction.
Some instructions allow a short form of destination offset. See cb type for
more information.

cd: a destination address, typically in a different code segment from this
instruction. Using the cd: address form with call instructions saves the
code segment selector.

db: a signed value between -128 and +127 inclusive which is an operand of
the instruction. For instructions in which the db is to be combined in some
way with a word operand, the immediate value is sign-extended to form a
word. The upper byte of the word is filled with the topmost bit of the
immediate value.

dw: an immediate word value which is an operand of the instruction.

eb: a byte-sized operand. This is either a byte register or a (possibly
indexed) byte memory variable. Either operand location may be encoded in the
ModRM field. Any memory addressing mode may be used.

ed: a memory-based pointer operand. Any memory addressing mode may be used.
Use of a register addressing mode will cause exception 6.

ew: a word-sized operand. This is either a word register or a (possibly
indexed) word memory variable. Either operand location may be encoded in the
ModRM field. Any memory addressing mode may be used.

m: a memory location. Operands in registers do not have a memory address.
Any memory addressing mode may be used. Use of a register addressing mode
will cause exception 6.

mb: a memory-based byte-sized operand. Any memory addressing mode may be
used.

mw: a memory-based word operand. Any memory addressing mode may be used.

rb: one of the byte registers AL, CL, DL, BL, AH, CH, DH, or BH; rb has the
value 0,1,2,3,4,5,6, and 7, respectively.

rw: one of the word registers AX, CX, DX, BX, SP, BP, SI, or DI; rw has the
value 0,1,2,3,4,5,6, and 7, respectively.

xb: a simple byte memory variable without a base or index register. MOV
instructions between AL and memory have this optimized form if no indexing
is required.

xw: a simple word memory variable without a base or index register. MOV
instructions between AX and memory have this optimized form if no indexing
is required.


Clocks

This column gives the number of clock cycles that this form of the
instruction takes to execute. The amount of time for each clock cycle is
computed by dividing one microsecond by the number of MHz at which the 80286
is running. For example, a 10-MHz 80286 (with the CLK pin connected to
a 20-MHz crystal) takes 100 nanoseconds for each clock cycle.

Add one clock to instructions that use the base plus index plus
displacement form of addressing. Add two clocks for each 16-bit memory based
operand reference located on an odd physical address. Add one clock for each
wait state added to each memory read. Wait states inserted in memory writes
or instruction fetches do not necessarily increase execution time.

The clock counts establish the maximum execution rate of the 80286. With no
delays in bus cycles, the actual clock count of an 80286 program will
average 5-10% more than the calculated clock count due to instruction
sequences that execute faster than they can be fetched from memory.

Some instruction forms give two clock counts, one unlabelled and one
labelled. These counts indicate that the instruction has two different clock
times for two different circumstances. Following are the circumstances for
each possible label:

mem: The instruction has an operand that can either be a register or a
memory variable. The unlabelled time is for the register; the mem time is
for the memory variable. Also, one additional clock cycle is taken for
indexed memory variables for which all three possible indices (base
register, index register, and displacement) must be added.

noj: The instruction involves a conditional jump or interrupt. The
unlabelled time holds when the jump is made; the noj time holds when the
jump is not made.

pm: If the instruction takes more time to execute when the 80286 is in
Protected Mode. The unlabelled time is for Real Address Mode; the pm time is
for Protected Mode.


Description

This is a concise description of the operation performed for this form of
the instruction. More details are given in the "Operation" section that
appears later in this chapter.


Flags Modified

This is a list of the flags that are set to a meaningful value by the
instruction. If a flag is always set to the same value by the instruction,
the value is given ("=0" or "=1") after the flag name.


Flags Undefined

This is a list of the flags that have an undefined (meaningless) setting
after the instruction is executed.

All flags not mentioned under "Flags Modified" or "Flags Undefined" are
unchanged by the instruction.


Operation

This section fully describes the operation performed by the instruction.
For some of the more complicated instructions, suggested usage is also
indicated.


Protected Mode Exceptions

The possible exceptions involved with this instruction when running under
the 80286 Protected Mode are listed below. These exceptions are abbreviated
with a pound sign (#) followed by two capital letters and an optional error
code in parenthesis. For example, #GP(0) denotes the general protection
exception with an error code of zero. The next section describes all of the
80286 exceptions and the machine state upon entry to the exception.

If you are an applications programmer, consult the documentation provided
with your operating system to determine what actions are taken by the system
when exceptions occur.


Real Address Mode Exceptions

Since less error checking is performed by the 80286 when it is in Real
Address Mode, there are fewer exceptions in this mode. One exception that is
possible in many instructions is #GP(0). Exception 13 is generated whenever
a word operand is accessed from effective address 0FFFFH in a segment. This
happens because the second byte of the word is considered located at
location 10000H, not at location 0, and thus exceeds the segment's
addressability limit.


Protection Exceptions

In parallel with the execution of instructions, the protected-mode 80286
checks all memory references for validity of addressing and type of access.
Violation of the memory protection rules built into the processor will cause
a transfer of program control to one of the interrupt procedures described
in this section. The interrupts have dedicated positions within the
Interrupt Descriptor Table, which is shown in table B-2. The interrupts are
referenced within the instruction set pages by a pound sign (#) followed by
a two-letter mnemonic and the optional error code in parenthesis.


Table B-2. Protection Exceptions of the 80286

Abbreviation        Interrupt Number      Description

 #UD                       6              Undefined Opcode
 #NM                       7              No Math Unit Available
 #DF                       8              Double Fault
 #MP                       9              Math Unit Protection Fault
 #TS                      10              Invalid Task State Segment
 #NP                      11              Not Present
 #SS                      12              Stack Fault
 #GP                      13              General Protection
 #MF                      16              Math Fault


Error Codes

Some exceptions cause the 80286 to pass a 16-bit error code to the
interrupt procedure. When this happens, the error code is the last item
pushed onto the stack before control is tranferred to the interrupt
procedure. If stacks were switched as a result of the interrupt (causing a
privilege change or task switch), the error code appears on the interrupt
procedure's stack, not on the stack of the task that was interrupted.

The error code generally contains the selector of the segment that caused
the protection violation. The RPL field (bottom two bits) of the error code
does not, however, contain the privilege level. Instead, it contains the
following information:

  Ž  Bit 0 contains the value 1 if the exception was detected during an
     interrupt caused by an event external to the program (i.e., an external
     interrupt, a single step, a processor extension not-present exception,
     or a processor extension segment overrun). Bit 0 is 0 if the exception
     was detected while processing the regular instruction stream, even if
     the instruction stream is part of an external interrupt handling
     procedure or task. If bit 0 is set, the instruction pointed to by the
     saved CS:IP address is not responsible for the error. The current task
     can be restarted unless this is exception 9.

  Ž  Bit 1 is 1 if the selector points to the Interrupt Descriptor Table.
     In this case, bit 2 can be ignored, and bits 3-10 contain the index
     into the IDT.

  Ž  Bit 1 is 0 if the selector points to the Global or Local Descriptor
     Tables. In this case, bits 2-15 have their usual selector
     interpretation: bit 2 selects the table (1=Local, 0=Global), and
     bits 3-15 are the index into the table.

In some cases the 80286 chooses to pass an error code with no information
in it. In these cases, all 16 bits of the error code are zero.

The existence and type of error codes are described under each of the
following individual exceptions.


#DF 8 Double Fault (Zero Error Code)

This exception is generated when a second exception is detected while the
processor is attempting to transfer control to the handler for an exception.
For instance, it is generated if the code segment containing the exception
handler is marked not present. It is also generated if invoking the
exception handler causes a stack overflow.

This exception is not generated during the execution of an exeception
handler. Faults detected within the instruction stream are handled by
regular exceptions.

The error code is normally zero. The saved CS:IP will point at the
instruction that was attempting to execute when the double fault occurred.
Since the error code is normally zero, no information on the source of the
exception is available. Restart is not possible.

The "double fault" exception does not occur when detecting a new exception
while trying to invoke handlers for the following exceptions: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 9, and 16.

If another exception is detected while attempting to perform the double
fault exception, the 80286 will enter shutdown (see section 11.5).


#GP 13 General Protection (Selector or Zero Error Code)

This exception is generated for all protection violations not covered by
the other exceptions in this section. Examples of this include:

  1.  An attempt to address a memory location by using an offset that
      exceeds the limit for the segment involved.

  2.  An attempt to jump to a data segment.

  3.  An attempt to load SS with a selector for a read-only segment.

  4.  An attempt to write to a read-only segment.

  5.  Exceeding the maximum instruction length of 10 bytes.

If #GP occurred while loading a descriptor, the error code passed contains
the selector involved. Otherwise, the error code is zero.

If the error code is not zero, the instruction can be restarted if the
erroneous condition is rectified. If the error code is zero either a limit
violation, a write protect violation, or an illegal use of invalid segment
register occurred. An invalid segment register contains the values 0-3. A
write protect fault on ADC, SBB, RCL, RCR, or XCHG is not restartable.


#MF 16 Math Fault (No Error Code)

This exception is generated when the numeric processor extension (the
80287) detects an error signalled by the ERROR input pin leading from the
80287 to the 80286. The ERROR pin is tested at the beginning of most
floating point instructions, and when a WAIT instruction is executed with
the EM bit of the Machine Status Word set to 0 (i.e., no emulation of the
math unit). The floating point instructions that do not cause the ERROR pin
to be tested are FNCLEX, FNINIT, FSETPM, FNSTCW, FNSTSW, FNSAVE, and
FNSTENV.

If the handler corrects the error condition causing the exception, the
floating point instruction that caused #MF can be restarted. This is not
accomplished by IRET, however, since the fault occurs at the floating point
instruction that follows the offending instruction. Before restarting the
numeric instruction, the handler must obtain from the 80287 the address of
the offending instruction and the address of the optional numeric operand.


#MP 9 Math Unit Protection Fault (No Error Code)

This exception is generated if the numeric operand is larger than one word
and has the second or subsequent words outside the segment's limit. Not all
math addressing errors cause exception 9. If the effective address of an
ESCAPE instruction is not in the segment's limit, or if a write is
attempted on a read-only segment, or if a one-word operand violates a
segment limit, exception 13 will occur.

The #MP exception occurs during the execution of the numeric instruction by
the 80287. Thus, the 80286 may be in an unrelated instruction stream at the
time. Exception 9 may occur in a task unrelated to the task that executed
the ESC instruction. The operating system should keep track of which task
last used the NPX (see section 11.4).

The offending floating point instruction cannot be restarted; the task
which attempted to execute the offending numeric instruction must be
aborted. However, if exception 9 interrupted another task, the interrupted
task may be restarted.

The exception 9 handler must execute FNINIT before executing any ESCAPE or
WAIT instruction.


#NM 7 No Math Unit Available (No Error Code)

This exception occurs when any floating point instruction is executed while
the EM bit or the TS bit of the Machine Status Word is 1. It also occurs
when a WAIT instruction is encountered and both the MP and TS bits of the
Machine Status Word are 1.

Depending on the setting of the MSW bits that caused this exception, the
exception handler could provide emulation of the 80287, or it could perform
a context switch of the math processor to prepare it for use by another
task.

The instruction causing #NM can be restarted if the handler performs a
numeric context switch. If the handler provided emulation of the math unit,
it should advance the return pointer beyond the floating point instruction
that caused NM.


#NP 11 Not Present (Selector Error Code)

This exception occurs when CS, DS, ES, or the Task Register is loaded with
a descriptor that is marked not present but is otherwise valid. It can occur
in an LLDT instruction, but the #NP exception will not occur if the
processor attempts to load the LDT register during a task switch. A
not-present LDT encountered during a task switch causes the #TS exception.

The error code passed is the selector of the descriptor that is marked not
present.

Typically, the Not Present exception handler is used to implement a virtual
memory system. The operating system can swap inactive memory segments to a
mass-storage device such as a disk. Applications programs need not be told
about this; the next time they attempt to access the swapped-out memory
segment, the Not Present handler will be invoked, the segment will be
brought back into memory, and the offending instruction within the
applications program will be restarted.

If #NP is detected on loading CS, DS, or ES in a task switch, the exception
occurs in the new task, and the IRET from the exception handler jumps
directly to the next instruction in the new task.

The Not Present exception handler must contain special code to complete the
loading of segment registers when #NP is detected in loading the CS or DS
registers in a task switch and a trap or interrupt gate was used. The DS and
ES registers have been loaded but their descriptors have not been loaded.
Any memory reference using the segment register may cause exception 13. The
#NP exception handler should execute code such as the following to ensure
full loading of the segment registers:

   MOV AX,DS
   MOV DS,AX
   MOV AX,ES
   MOV ES,AX

#SS 12 Stack Fault (Selector or Zero Error Code)

This exception is generated when a limit violation is detected in
addressing through the SS register. It can occur on stack-oriented
instructions such as PUSH or POP, as well as other types of memory
references using SS such as MOV AX,[BP+28]. It also can occur on an ENTER
instruction when there is not enough space on the stack for the indicated
local variable space, even if the stack exception is not triggered by
pushing BP or copying the display stack. A stack exception can therefore
indicate a stack overflow, a stack underflow or a wild offset. The error
code will be zero.

#SS is also generated on an attempt to load SS with a descriptor that is
marked not present but is otherwise valid. This can occur in a task switch,
an inter-level call, an inter-level return, a move to the SS instruction or
a pop to the SS instruction. The error code will be non-zero.

#SS is never generated when addressing through the DS or ES registers even
if the offending register points to the same segment as the SS register.

The #SS exception handler must contain special code to complete the loading
of segment registers. The DS and ES registers will not be fully loaded if a
not-present condition is detected while loading the SS register. Therefore,
the #SS exception handler should execute code such as the following to
insure full loading of the segment registers:

   MOV AX,DS
   MOV DS,AX
   MOV AX,ES
   MOV ES,AX

Generally, the instruction causing #SS can be restarted, but there is one
special case when it cannot: when a PUSHA or POPA instruction attempts to
wrap around the 64K boundary of a stack segment. This condition is
identified by the value of the saved SP, which can be either 0000H, 0001H,
0FFFEH, or 0FFFFH.


#TS 10 Invalid Task State Segment (Selector Error Code)

This exception is generated during a task switch when the new task state
segment is invalid, that is, when a task state segment is too small; when
the LDT indicated in a TSS is invalid or not present; when the SS, CS, DS,
or ES indicated in a TSS are invalid (task switch); when the back link in a
TSS is invalid (inter-task IRET).

#TS is not generated when the SS, CS, DS, or ES back link or privileged
stack selectors point to a descriptor that is not present but otherwise is
valid. #NP is generated in these cases.

The error code passed to the exception handler contains the selector of the
offending segment, which can either be the Task State Segment itself, or a
selector found within the Task State Segment.

The instruction causing #TS can be restarted.

#TS must be handled through a task gate.

The exception handler must reset the busy bit in the new TSS.


#UD 6 Undefined Opcode (No Error Code)

This exception is generated when an invalid operation code is detected in
the instruction stream. Following are the cases in which #UD can occur:

  1.  The first byte of an instruction is completely invalid (e.g., 64H).

  2.  The first byte indicates a 2-byte opcode and the second byte is
      invalid (e.g., 0FH followed by 0FFH).

  3.  An invalid register is used with an otherwise valid opcode (e.g., MOV
      CS,AX).

  4.  An invalid opcode extension is given in the REG field of the ModRM
      byte (e.g., 0F6H /1).

  5.  A register operand is given in an instruction that requires a memory
      operand (e.g., LGDT AX).

Since the offending opcode will always be invalid, it cannot be restarted.
However, the #UD handler might be coded to implement an extension of the
80286 instruction set. In that case, the handler could advance the return
pointer beyond the extended instruction and return control to the program
after the extended instruction is emulated. Any such extensions may be
incompatible with the 80386.


Privilege Level and Task Switching on the 80286

The 80286 supports many of the functions necessary to implement a
protected, multi-tasking operating system in hardware. This support is
provided not by additional instructions, but by extension of the semantics
of 8086/8088 instructions that change the value of CS:IP.

Whenever the 80286 performs an inter-segment jump, call, interrupt, or
return, it consults the Access Rights (AR) byte found in the descriptor
table entry of the selector associated with the new CS value. The AR byte
determines whether the long jump being made is through a gate, or is a task
switch, or is a simple long jump to the same privilege level. Table B-3
lists the possible values of the AR byte. The "privilege" headings at the
top of the table give the Descriptor Privilege Level, which is referred to
as the DPL within the instruction descriptions.

Each of the CALL, INT, IRET, JMP, and RET instructions contains on its
instruction set pages a listing of the access rights checking and actions
taken to implement the instruction. Instructions involving task switches
contain the symbol SWITCH_TASKS, which is an abbreviation for the following
list of checks and actions:

SWITCH_TASKS:
  Locked set AR byte of new TSS descriptor to Busy TSS (Bit 1 = 1)
  Current TSS cache must be valid with limit  41 else #TS (error code will
  be new TSS, but back link points at old TSS)
  Save machine state in current TSS
  If nesting tasks, set the new TSS link to the current TSS selector
  Any exception will be in new context Else set the AR byte of current TSS
  descriptor to Available TSS (Bit 1 = 0)
  Set the current TR to selector, base and limit of new TSS
  New TSS limit  43 else #TS (new TSS)
  Set all machine registers to values from new TSS without loading
  descriptors for DS, ES, CS, SS, LDT
  Clear valid flags for LDT, SS, CS, DS, ES (not valid yet)
  If nesting tasks, set the Nested Task flag to 1
  Set the Task Switched flag to 1
  LDT from the new TSS must be within GDT talbe limits else #TS(LDT)
  AR byte from LDT descriptor must specifiy LDT segment else #TS(LDT)
  AR byte from LDT descriptor must indicate PRESENT else #TS(LDT)
  Load LDT cache with new LDT descriptor  and set valid bit
  Set CPL to the RPL of the CS selector in the new TSS
  If new stack selector is null #TS(SS)
  SS selector must be within its descriptor table limits else #TS(SS)
  SS selector RPL must be equal to CPL else #TS(SS)
  DPL of SS descriptor must equal to CPL else #TS(SS)
  SS descriptor AR byte must indicate writable data segment else #TS(SS)
  SS descriptor AR byte must indicate PRESENT else #TS(SS)
  Load SS cache with new stack segment and set valid bit
  New CS selector must not be null else #TS(SS)
  CS selector must be within its descriptor table limits else #TS(SS)
  CS descriptor AR byte must indicate code segment else #TS(SS)
  If non-conforming then DPL must equal CPL else #TS(SS)
  If conforming then DPL must be ¾ CPL else #TS(SS)
  CS descriptor AR byte must indicate PRESENT else #TS(SS)
  Load CS cache with new code segment descriptor and set valid bit
  For DS and ES:
  If new selector is not null then perform following checks:
      Index must be within its descriptor table limits else
      #TS(segment selector)
      AR byte must indicate data or readable code else
      #TS(segment selector)
      If data or non-conforming code then:
          DPL must be  CPL else #TS(SS)
          DPL must be  RPL else #TS(SS)
      AR byte must indicate PRESENT else #TS(SS)
      Load cache with new segment descriptor and set valid bit


Table B-3. Hexadecimal Values for the Access Rights Byte


   Not present,           Present,         Descriptor Type
   privilege=             privilege=
0    1    2    3       0    1    2    3

00   20   40   60      80   A0   C0   E0   Illegal
01   21   41   61      81   A1   C1   E1   Available Task State Segment
02   22   42   62      82   A2   C2   E2   Local Descriptor Table Segment
03   23   43   63      83   A3   C3   E3   Busy Task State Segment
04   24   44   64      84   A4   C4   E4   Call Gate
05   25   45   65      85   A5   C5   E5   Task Gate
06   26   46   66      86   A6   C6   E6   Interrupt Gate
07   27   47   67      87   A7   C7   E7   Trap Gate
08   28   48   68      88   A8   C8   E8   Illegal
09   29   49   69      89   A9   C9   E9   Illegal
0A   2A   4A   6A      8A   AA   CA   EA   Illegal
0B   2B   4B   6B      8B   AB   CB   EB   Illegal
0C   2C   4C   6C      8C   AC   CC   EC   Illegal
0D   2D   4D   6D      8D   AD   CD   ED   Illegal
0E   2E   4E   6E      8E   AE   CE   EE   Illegal
0F   2F   4F   6F      8F   AF   CF   EF   Illegal
10   30   50   70      90   B0   D0   F0   Expand-up, read only, ignored Data Segment
11   31   51   71      91   B1   D1   F1   Expand-up, read only, accessed Data Segment
12   32   52   72      92   B2   D2   F2   Expand-up, writable, ignored Data Segment
13   33   53   73      93   B3   D3   F3   Expand-up, writable, accessed Data Segment
14   34   54   74      94   B4   D4   F4   Expand-down, read only, ignored Data Segment
15   35   55   75      95   B5   D5   F5   Expand-down, read only, accessed Data Segment
16   36   56   76      96   B6   D6   F6   Expand-down, writable, ignored Data Segment
17   37   57   77      97   B7   D7   F7   Expand-down, writable, accessed Data Segment
18   38   58   78      98   B8   D8   F8   Non-conform, no read, ignored Code Segment
19   39   59   79      99   B9   D9   F9   Non-conform, no read, accessed Code Segment
1A   3A   5A   7A      9A   BA   DA   FA   Non-conform, readable, ignored Code Segment
1B   3B   5B   7B      9B   BB   DB   FB   Non-conform, readable, accessed Code Segment
1C   3C   5C   7C      9C   BC   DC   FC   Conforming, no read, ignored Code Segment
1D   3D   5D   7D      9D   BD   DD   FD   Conforming, no read, accessed Code Segment
1E   3E   5E   7E      9E   BE   DE   FE   Conforming, readable, ignored Code Segment
1F   3F   5F   7F      9F   BF   DF   FF   Conforming, readable, accessed Code Segment


AAA‘‘ASCII Adjust AL After Addition

Opcode       Instruction      Clocks       Description

  37            AAA             3          ASCII adjust AL after addition

Flags Mofified

Auxiliary carry, carry

Flags Undefined

Overflow, sign, zero, parity

Operation

AAA should be executed only after an ADD instruction which leaves a byte
result in the AL register. The lower nibbles of the operands to the ADD
instruction should be in the range 0 through 9 (BCD digits). In this case,
the AAA instruction will adjust AL to contain the correct decimal digit
result. If the addition produced a decimal carry, the AH register is
incremented, and the carry and auxiliary carry flags are set to 1. If there
was no decimal carry, the carry and auxiliary carry flags are set to 0, and
AH is unchanged. In any case, AL is left with its top nibble set to 0. To
convert AL to an ASCII result, you can follow the AAA instruction with OR
AL,30H.

The precise definition of AAA is as follows: if the lower 4 bits of AL are
greater than nine, or if the auxiliary carry flag is 1, then increment AL by
6, AH by 1, and set the carry and auxiliary carry flags. Otherwise, reset
the carry and auxiliary carry flags. In any case, conclude the AAA
operation by setting the upper four bits of AL to zero.

Protected Mode Exceptions

None

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None

AAD‘‘ASCII Adjust AX Before Division

Opcode     Instruction     Clocks       Description

 D5 0A      AAD             14          ASCII adjust AX before division

Flags Modified

Sign, zero, parity

Flags Undefined

Overflow, auxiliary carry, carry

Operation

AAD is used to prepare two unpacked BCD digits (least significant in AL,
most significant in AH) for a division operation which will yield an
unpacked result. This is accomplished by setting AL to AL + (10 * AH), and
then setting AH to 0. This leaves AX equal to the binary equivalent of the
original unpacked 2-digit number.

Protected Mode Exceptions

None

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None


AAM‘‘ASCII Adjust AX After Multiply

Opcode     Instruction      Clocks       Description

 D4 0A      AAM              16          ASCII adjust AX after multiply

Flags Modified

Sign, zero, parity

Flags Undefined

Overflow, auxiliary carry, carry

Operation

AAM should be used only after executing a MUL instruction between two
unpacked BCD digits, leaving the result in the AX register. Since the result
is less than one hundred, it is contained entirely in the AL register. AAM
unpacks the AL result by dividing AL by ten, leaving the quotient (most
significant digit) in AH, and the remainder (least significant digit) in
AL.

Protected Mode Exceptions

None

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None


AAS‘‘ASCII Adjust AL After Subtraction

Opcode      Instruction      Clocks       Description

 3F          AAS               3          ASCII adjust AL after subtraction

Flags Modified

Auxiliary carry, carry

Flags Undefined

Overflow, sign, zero, parity

Operation

AAS should be executed only after a subtraction instruction which left the
byte result in the AL register. The lower nibbles of the operands to the SUB
instruction should have been in the range 0 through 9 (BCD digits). In this
case, the AAS instruction will adjust AL to contain the correct decimal
digit result. If the subtraction produced a decimal carry, the AH register
is decremented, and the carry and auxiliary carry flags are set to 1. If
there was no decimal carry, the carry and auxiliary carry flags are set to
0, and AH is unchanged. In any case, AL is left with its top nibble set to
0. To convert AL to an ASCII result, you can follow the AAS instruction with
OR AL,30H.

The precise definition of AAS is as follows: if the lower four bits of AL
are greater than 9, or if the auxiliary carry flag is 1, then decrement AL
by 6, AH by 1, and set the carry and auxiliary carry flags. Otherwise, reset
the carry and auxiliary carry flags. In any case, conclude the AAS
operation by setting the upper four bits of AL to zero.

Protected Mode Exceptions

None

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None


ADC/ADD‘‘Integer Addition


Opcode    Instruction  Clocks     Description

10 /r      ADC eb,rb   2,mem=7    Add with carry byte register into EA byte
11 /r      ADC ew,rw   2,mem=7    Add with carry word register into EA word
12 /r      ADC rb,eb   2,mem=7    Add with carry EA byte into byte register
13 /r      ADC rw,ew   2,mem=7    Add with carry EA word into word register
14 db      ADC AL,db   3          Add with carry immediate byte into AL
15 dw      ADC AX,dw   3          Add with carry immediate word into AX
80 /2 db   ADC eb,db   3,mem=7    Add with carry immediate byte into EA byte
81 /2 dw   ADC ew,dw   3,mem=7    Add with carry immediate word into EA word
83 /2 db   ADC ew,db   3,mem=7    Add with carry immediate byte into EA word
00 /r      ADD eb,rb   2,mem=7    Add byte register into EA byte
01 /r      ADD ew,rw   2,mem=7    Add word register into EA word
02 /r      ADD rb,eb   2,mem=7    Add EA byte into byte register
03 /r      ADD rw,ew   2,mem=7    Add EA word into word register
04 db      ADD AL,db   3          Add immediate byte into AL
05 dw      ADD AX,dw   3          Add immediate word into AX
80 /0 db   ADD eb,db   3,mem=7    Add immediate byte into EA byte
81 /0 dw   ADD ew,dw   3,mem=7    Add immediate word into EA word
83 /0 db   ADD ew,db   3,mem=7    Add immediate byte into EA word


Flags Modified

Overflow, sign, zero, auxiliary carry, parity, carry

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

ADD and ADC perform an integer addition on the two operands. The ADC
instruction also adds in the initial state of the carry flag. The result of
the addition goes to the first operand. ADC is usually executed as part of a
multi-byte or multi-word addition operation.

When a byte immediate value is added to a word operand, the immediate value
is first sign-extended.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if the result is in a non-writable segment. #GP(0) for an illegal
memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES segments; #SS(0) for
an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


AND‘‘Logical AND

Opcode     Instruction   Clocks     Description

20 /r      AND eb,rb     2,mem=7    Logical-AND byte register into EA byte
21 /r      AND ew,rw     2,mem=7    Logical-AND word register into EA word
22 /r      AND rb,eb     2,mem=7    Logical-AND EA byte into byte register
23 /r      AND rw,ew     2,mem=7    Logical-AND EA word into word register
24 db      AND AL,db     3          Logical-AND immediate byte into AL
25 dw      AND AX,dw     3          Logical-AND immediate word into AX
80 /4 db   AND eb,db     3,mem=7    Logical-AND immediate byte into EA byte
81 /4 dw   AND ew,dw     3,mem=7    Logical-AND immediate word into EA word

Flags Modified

Overflow=0, sign, zero, parity, carry=0

Flags Undefined

Auxiliary carry

Operation

Each bit of the result is a 1 if both corresponding bits of the operands
were 1; it is 0 otherwise.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if the result is in a non-writable segment. #GP(0) for an illegal
memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES segments; #SS(0) for
an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


ARPL‘‘Adjust RPL Field of Selector

Opcode  Instruction   Clocks       Description

63 /r    ARPL ew,rw   10,mem=11    Adjust RPL of EA word not less than
                                   RPL of rw

Flags Modified

Zero

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The ARPL instruction has two operands. The first operand is a 16-bit memory
variable or word register that contains the value of a selector. The second
operand is a word register. If the RPL field (bottom two bits) of the first
operand is less than the RPL field of the second operand, then the zero
flag is set to 1 and the RPL field of the first operand is increased to
match the second RPL. Otherwise, the zero flag is set to 0 and no change is
made to the first operand.

ARPL appears in operating systems software, not in applications programs.
It is used to guarantee that a selector parameter to a subroutine does not
request more privilege than the caller was entitled to. The second operand
used by ARPL would normally be a register that contains the CS selector
value of the caller.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if the result is in a non-writable segment. #GP(0) for an illegal
memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES segments; #SS(0) for
an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 6. ARPL is not recognized in Real Address mode.


BOUND‘‘Check Array Index Against Bounds

Opcode     Instruction     Clocks      Description

 62 /r      BOUND rw,md     noj=13     INT 5 if rw not within bounds

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

BOUND is used to ensure that a signed array index is within the limits
defined by a two-word block of memory. The first operand (a register) must
be greater than or equal to the first word in memory, and less than or equal
to the second word in memory. If the register is not within the bounds, an
INTERRUPT 5 occurs.

The two-word block might typically be found just before the array itself
and therefore would be accessible at a constant offset of -4 from the array,
simplifying the addressing.

Protected Mode Exceptions

INTERRUPT 5 if the bounds test fails, as described above. #GP(0) for an
illegal memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES segments;
#SS(0) for an illegal address in the SS segment.

The second operand must be a memory operand, not a register. If the BOUND
instruction is executed with a ModRM byte representing a register second
operand, then fault #UD will occur.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

INTERRUPT 5 if the bounds test fails, as described above. Interrupt 13 for
a second operand at offset 0FFFDH or higher. Interrupt 6 if the second
operand is a register, as described in the paragraph above.


CALL‘‘Call Procedure


Opcode  Instruction   Clocks
Add one clock for each byte in the next instruction executed.        Description

E8 cw      CALL cw       7          Call near, offset relative to
                                    next instruction
FF /2      CALL ew       7,mem=11   Call near, offset absolute at EA word
9A cd      CALL cd       13,pm=26   Call inter-segment, immediate
                                    4-byte address
9A cd      CALL cd       41         Call gate, same privilege
9A cd      CALL cd       82         Call gate, more privilege,
                                    no parameters
9A cd      CALL cd       86+4X      Call gate, more privilege,
                                    X parameters
9A cd      CALL cd       177        Call via Task State Segment
9A cd      CALL cd       182        Call via task gate
FF /3      CALL ed       16,mem=29  Call inter-segment, address at
                                    EA doubleword
FF /3      CALL ed       44         Call gate, same privilege
FF /3      CALL ed       83         Call gate, more privilege,
                                    no parameters
FF /3      CALL ed       90+4X      Call gate, more privilege,
                                    X parameters
FF /3      CALL ed       180        Call via Task State Segment
FF /3      CALL ed       185        Call via task gate


Flags Modified

None, except when a task switch occurs

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The CALL instruction causes the procedure named in the operand to be
executed. When the procedure is complete (a return instruction is executed
within the procedure), execution continues at the instruction that follows
the CALL instruction.

The CALL cw form of the instruction adds modulo 65536 (the 2-byte operand)
to the offset of the instruction following the CALL and sets IP to the
resulting offset. The 2-byte offset of the instruction that follows the CALL
is pushed onto the stack. It will be popped by a near RET instruction
within the procedure. The CS register is not changed by this form.

The CALL ew form of the instruction is the same as CALL cw except that the
operand specifies a memory location from which the absolute 2-byte offset
for the procedure is fetched.

The CALL cd form of the instruction uses the 4-byte operand as a pointer to
the procedure called. The CALL ed form fetches the long pointer from the
memory location specified. Both long pointer forms consult the AR byte in
the descriptor indexed by the selector part of the long pointer. The AR byte
can indicate one of the following descriptor types:

  1.  Code Segment‘‘The access rights are checked, the return pointer is
      pushed onto the stack, and the procedure is jumped to.

  2.  Call Gate‘‘The offset part of the pointer is ignored. Instead, the
      entire address of the procedure is taken from the call gate descriptor
      entry. If the routine being entered is more privileged, then a new
      stack (both SS and SP) is loaded from the task state segment for the
      new privilege level, and parameters determined by the wordcount field
      of the call gate are copied from the old stack to the new stack.

  3.  Task Gate‘‘The current task's context is saved in its Task State
      Segment (TSS), and the TSS named in the task-gate is used to load the
      new context. The selector for the outgoing task (from TR) is stored
      into the new TSS's link field, and the new task's Nested Task flag is
      set. The outgoing task is left marked busy, the new TSS is marked
      busy, and execution resumes at the point at which the new task was
      last suspended.

  4.  Task State Segment‘‘The current task is suspended and the new task
      initiated as in 3 above except that there is no intervening gate.

For long calls involving no task switch, the return link is the pointer of
the instruction that follows the CALL, i.e., the caller's CS and updated IP.
Task switches invoked by CALLs are linked by storing the outgoing task's TSS
selector in the incoming TSS's link field and setting the Nested Task flag
in the new task. Nested tasks must be terminated by an IRET. IRET releases
the nested task and follows the back link to the calling task if the NT flag
is set.

A precise list of the protection checks made and the actions taken is given
by the following list:

CALL FAR:
  If indirect then check access of EA doubleword #GP(0) if limit violation
  New CS selector must not be null else #GP(0)
  Check that new CS selector index is within its descriptor table limits;
  else #GP (new CS selector)
  Examine AR byte of selected descriptor for various legal values:

    CALL CONFORMING CODE SEGMENT:
      DPL must be ¾ CPL else #GP (code segment selector)
      Segment must be PRESENT else #NP (code segment selector)
      Stack must be big enough for return address else #SS(0)
      IP must be in code segment limit else #GP(0)
      Load code segment descriptor into CS cache
      Load CS with new code segment selector
      Load IP with new offset

    CALL NONCONFORMING CODE SEGMENT:
      RPL must be ¾ CPL else #GP (code segment selector)
      DPL must be = CPL else #GP (code segment selector)
      Segment must be PRESENT else #NP (code segment selector)
      Stack must be big enough for return address else #SS(0)
      IP must be in code segment limit else #GP(0)
      Load code segment descriptor into CS cache
      Load CS with new code segment selector
      Set RPL of CS to CPL
      Load IP with new offset

    CALL TO CALL GATE:
      Call gate DPL must be  CPL else #GP (call gate selector)
      Call gate DPL must be  RPL else #GP (call gate selector)
      Call gate must be PRESENT else #NP (call gate selector)
      Examine code segment selector in call gate descriptor:
        Selector must not be null else #GP(0)
        Selector must be within its descriptor table limits else #GP (code
        segment selector)
        AR byte of selected descriptor must indicate code segment else #GP
        (code segment selector)
        DPL of selected descriptor must be ¾ CPL else #GP(code segment
        selector)
        If non-conforming code segment and DPL < CPL then

    CALL GATE TO MORE PRIVILEGE:
    Get new SS selector for new privilege level from TSS
    Check selector and descriptor for new SS:
      Selector must not be null else #TS(0)
      Selector index must be within its descriptor table limits else #TS
      (SS selector)
      Selector's RPL must equal DPL of code segment else #TS (SS selector)
      Stack segment DPL must equal DPL of code segment else #TS
      (SS selector)
      Descriptor must indicate writable data segment else #TS (SS selector)
      Segment PRESENT else #SS (SS selector)
        New stack must have room for parameters plus 8 bytes else #SS(0)
        IP must be in code segment limit else #GP(0)
        Load new SS:SP value from TSS
        Load new CS:IP value from gate
        Load CS descriptor
        Load SS descriptor
        Push long pointer of old stack onto new stack
        Get word count from call gate, mask to 5 bits
        Copy parameters from old stack onto new stack
        Push return address onto new stack
        Set CPL to stack segment DPL
        Set RPL of CS to CPL
      Else
        CALL GATE TO SAME PRIVILEGE:
        Stack must have room for 4-byte return address else #SS(0)
        IP must be in code segment limit else #GP(0)
        Load CS:IP from gate
        Push return address onto stack
        Load code segment descriptor into CS-cache
        Set RPL of CS to CPL

      CALL TASK GATE:
        Task gate DPL must be  CPL else #GP (gate selector)
        Task gate DPL must be  RPL else #GP (gate selector)
        Task Gate must be PRESENT else #NP (gate selector)
        Examine selector to TSS, given in Task Gate descriptor:
           Must specify global in the local/global bit else #GP
           (TSS selector)
           Index must be within GDT limits else #GP (TSS selector)
           TSS descriptor AR byte must specify available TSS (bottom bits
           00001) else #GP (TSS selector)
           Task State Segment must be PRESENT else #NP (TSS selector)
        SWITCH_TASKS with nesting to TSS
        IP must be in code segment limit else #GP(0)

      TASK STATE SEGMENT:
         TSS DPL must be  CPL else #GP (TSS selector)
         TSS DPL must be  RPL else #GP (TSS selector)
         TSS descriptor AR byte must specify available TSS else #GP
         (TSS selector)
         Task State Segment must be PRESENT else #NP (TSS selector)
         SWITCH_TASKS with nesting to TSS
         IP must be in code segment limit else #GP(0)

      ELSE #GP (code segment selector)

Protected Mode Exceptions

FAR calls: #GP, #NP, #SS, and #TS, as indicated in the list above.

NEAR direct calls: #GP(0) if procedure location is beyond the code segment
limits.

NEAR indirect CALL: #GP(0) for an illegal memory operand effective address
in the CS, DS, or ES segments; #SS(0) for an illegal address in the SS
segment. #GP if the indirect offset obtained is beyond the code segment
limits.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


CBW‘‘Convert Byte into Word

Opcode   Instruction   Clocks    Description

 98       CBW           2        Convert byte into word (AH = top bit of AL)

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

CBW converts the signed byte in AL to a signed word in AX. It does so by
extending the top bit of AL into all of the bits of AH.

Protected Mode Exceptions

None

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None


CLC‘‘Clear Carry Flag

Opcode     Instruction     Clocks       Description

 F8         CLC             2           Clear carry flag

Flags Modified

Carry=0

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

CLC sets the carry flag to zero. No other flags or registers are affected.

Protected Mode Exceptions

None

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None


CLD‘‘Clear Direction Flag

Opcode  Instruction  Clocks   Description

 FC      CLD          2       Clear direction flag, SI and DI
                              will increment

Flags Modified

Direction=0

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

CLD clears the direction flag. No other flags or registers are affected.
After CLD is executed, string operations will increment the index registers
(SI and/or DI) that they use.

Protected Mode Exceptions

None

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None


CLI‘‘Clear Interrupt Flag

Opcode   Instruction   Clocks      Description

 FA       CLI           3          Clear interrupt flag; interrupts disabled

Flags Modified

Interrupt=0

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

CLI clears the interrupt enable flag if the current privilege level is at
least as privileged as IOPL. No other flags are affected. External
interrupts will not be recognized at the end of the CLI instruction or
thereafter until the interrupt flag is set.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if the current privilege level is bigger (has less privilege) than
the IOPL in the flags register. IOPL specifies the least privileged level at
which I/O may be performed.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None


CLTS‘‘Clear Task Switched Flag

Opcode     Instruction     Clocks      Description

 0F 06      CLTS            2          Clear task switched flag

Flags Modified

Task switched=0

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

CLTS clears the task switched flag in the Machine Status Word. This flag is
set by the 80286 every time a task switch occurs. The TS flag is used to
manage processor extensions as follows: every execution of a WAIT or an ESC
instruction will be trapped if the MP flag of MSW is set and the task
switched flag is set. Thus, if a processor extension is present and a task
switch has been made since the last ESC instruction was begun, the processor
extension's context must be saved before a new instruction can be issued.
The fault routine will save the context and reset the task switched flag or
place the task requesting the processor extension into a queue until the
current processor extension instruction is completed.

CLTS appears in operating systems software, not in applications programs.
It is a privileged instruction that can only be executed at level 0.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if CLTS is executed with a current privilege level other than 0.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None (valid in REAL ADDRESS MODE to allow power-up initialization for
Protected Mode)


CMC‘‘Complement Carry Flag

Opcode     Instruction    Clocks      Description

 F5         CMC            2          Complement carry flag

Flags Modified

Carry

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

CMC reverses the setting of the carry flag. No other flags are affected.

Protected Mode Exceptions

None

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None


CMP‘‘Compare Two Operands

Opcode       Instruction     Clocks      Description

3C db        CMP AL,db       3           Compare immediate byte from AL
3D dw        CMP AX,dw       3           Compare immediate word from AX
80 /7 db     CMP eb,db      3,mem=6      Compare immediate byte from EA byte
38 /r        CMP eb,rb      2,mem=7      Compare byte register from EA byte
83 /7 db     CMP ew,db      3,mem=6      Compare immediate byte from EA word
81 /7 dw     CMP ew,dw      3,mem=6      Compare immediate word from EA word
39 /r        CMP ew,rw      2,mem=7      Compare word register from EA word
3A /r        CMP rb,eb      2,mem=6      Compare EA byte from byte register
3B /r        CMP rw,ew      2,mem=6      Compare EA word from word register

Flags Modified

Overflow, sign, zero, auxiliary carry, parity, carry

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

CMP subtracts the second operand from the first operand, but it does not
place the result anywhere. Only the flags are changed by this instruction.
CMP is usually followed by a conditional jump instruction. See the "Jcond"
instructions in this chapter for the list of signed and unsigned flag tests
provided by the 80286.

If a word operand is compared to an immediate byte value, the byte value is
first sign-extended.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) for an illegal memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES
segments; #SS(0) for an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


CMPS/CMPSB/CMPSW‘‘Compare string operands

Opcode    Instruction   Clocks    Description

A6        CMPS mb,mb    8         Compare bytes ES:[DI] from [SI]
A6        CMPSB         8         Compare bytes ES:[DI] from DS:[SI]
A7        CMPSW         8         Compare words ES:[DI] from DS:[SI]

Flags Modified

Overflow, sign, zero, auxiliary carry, parity, carry

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

CMPS compares the byte or word pointed to by SI with the byte or word
pointed to by DI by performing the subtraction [SI] - [DI]. The result is
not placed anywhere; only the flags reflect the result of the subtraction.
The types of the operands to CMPS determine whether bytes or words are
compared. The segment addressability of the first (SI) operand determines
whether a segment override byte will be produced or whether the default
segment register DS is used. The second (DI) operand must be addressible
from the ES register; no segment override is possible.

After the comparison is made, both SI and DI are automatically advanced. If
the direction flag is 0 (CLD was executed), the registers increment; if the
direction flag is 1 (STD was executed), the registers decrement. The
registers increment or decrement by 1 if a byte was moved; by 2 if a word
was moved.

CMPS cn be preceded by the REPE or REPNE prefix for block comparison of CX
bytes or words. Refer to the REP instruction for details of this operation.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) for an illegal memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES
segments; #SS(0) for an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


CWD‘‘Convert Word to Doubleword

Opcode   Instruction     Clocks      Description

99       CWD             2           Convert word to doubleword (DX:AX = AX)

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

CWD converts the signed word in AX to a signed doubleword in DX:AX. It does
so by extending the top bit of AX into all the bits of DX.

Protected Mode Exceptions

None

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None


DAA‘‘Decimal Adjust AL After Addition

Opcode  Instruction    Clocks    Description

27      DAA            3         Decimal adjust AL after addition

Flags Modified

Sign, zero, auxiliary carry, parity, carry

Flags Undefined

Overflow

Operation

DAA should be executed only after an ADD instruction which leaves a
two-BCD-digit byte result in the AL register. The ADD operands should
consist of two packed BCD digits. In this case, the DAA instruction will
adjust AL to contain the correct two-digit packed decimal result.

The precise definition of DAA is as follows:

  1.  If the lower 4 bits of AL are greater than nine, or if the auxiliary
      carry flag is 1, then increment AL by 6, and set the auxiliary carry
      flag. Otherwise, reset the auxiliary carry flag.

  2.  If AL is now greater than 9FH, or if the carry flag is set, then
      increment AL by 60H, and set the carry flag. Otherwise, clear the
      carry flag.

Protected Mode Exceptions

None

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None


DAS‘‘Decimal Adjust AL After Subtraction

Opcode    Instruction     Clocks     Description

2F        DAS             3          Decimal adjust AL after subtraction

Flags Modified

Sign, zero, auxiliary carry, parity, carry

Flags Undefined

Overflow

Operation

DAS should be executed only after a subtraction instruction which leaves a
two-BCD-digit byte result in the AL register. The operands should consist of
two packed BCD digits. In this case, the DAS instruction will adjust AL to
contain the correct packed two-digit decimal result.

The precise definition of DAS is as follows:

  1.  If the lower four bits of AL are greater than 9, or if the auxiliary
      carry flag is 1, then decrement AL by 6, and set the auxiliary carry
      flag. Otherwise, reset the auxiliary carry flag.

  2.  If AL is now greater than 9FH, or if the carry flag is set, then
      decrement AL by 60H, and set the carry flag. Otherwise, clear the
      carry flag.

Protected Mode Exceptions

None

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None


DEC‘‘Decrement by 1

Opcode      Instruction    Clocks        Description

FE   /1     DEC eb         2,mem=7       Decrement EA byte by 1
FF   /1     DEC ew         2,mem=7       Decrement EA word by 1
48+  rw     DEC rw         2             Decrement word register by 1

Flags Modified

Overflow, sign, zero, auxiliary carry, parity

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

1 is subtracted from the operand. Note that the carry flag is not changed
by this instruction. If you want the carry flag set, use the SUB instruction
with a second operand of 1.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if the operand is in a non-writable segment. #GP(0) for an illegal
memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES segments; #SS(0) for
an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


DIV‘‘Unsigned Divide

Opcode     Instruction     Clocks         Description

F6  /6     DIV eb          14,mem=17      Unsigned divide AX by EA byte
F7  /6     DIV ew          22,mem=25      Unsigned divide DX:AX by
                                          EA word

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

Overflow, sign, zero, auxiliary carry, parity, carry

Operation

DIV performs an unsigned divide. The dividend is implicit; only the divisor
is given as an operand. If the source operand is a BYTE operand, divide AX
by the byte. The quotient is stored in AL, and the remainder is stored in
AH. If the source operand is a WORD operand, divide DX:AX by the word. The
high-order 16 bits of the dividend are kept in DX. The quotient is stored
in AX, and the remainder is stored in DX. Non-integral quotients are
truncated towards 0. The remainder is always less than the dividend.

Protected Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 0 if the quotient is too big to fit in the designated register
(AL or AX), or if the divisor is zero. #GP(0) for an illegal memory operand
effective address in the CS, DS, or ES segments; #SS(0) for an illegal
address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 0 if the quotient is too big to fit in the designated register
(AL or AX), or if the divisor is zero. Interrupt 13 for a word operand at
offset 0FFFFH.


ENTER‘‘Make Stack Frame for Procedure Parameters

Opcode     Instruction    Clocks   Description

C8 dw 00   ENTER dw,0     11       Make stack frame for procedure parameters
C8 dw 01   ENTER dw,1     15       Make stack frame for procedure parameters
C8 dw db   ENTER dw,db    12+4db   Make stack frame for procedure parameters

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

ENTER is used to create the stack frame required by most block-structured
high-level languages. The first operand specifies how many bytes of dynamic
storage are to be allocated on the stack for the routine being entered. The
second operand gives the lexical nesting level of the routine within the
high-level-language source code. It determines how many stack frame
pointers are copied into the new stack frame from the preceding frame. BP is
used as the current stack frame pointer.

If the second operand is 0, ENTER pushes BP, sets BP to SP, and subtracts
the first operand from SP.

For example, a procedure with 12 bytes of local variables would have an
ENTER 12,0 instruction at its entry point and a LEAVE instruction before
every RET. The 12 local bytes would be addressed as negative offsets from
[BP]. See also section 4.2.

The formal definition of the ENTER instruction for all cases is given by
the following listing. LEVEL denotes the value of the second operand.

LEVEL:=LEVEL MOD 32
Push BP
Set a temporary value FRAME_PTR := SP
If LEVEL > 0 then
    Repeat (LEVEL-1) times:
       BP := BP - 2
       Push the word pointed to by BP
    End repeat
    Push FRAME_PTR
End if
BP := FRAME-PTR
SP := SP - first operand

Protected Mode Exceptions

#SS(0) if SP were to go outside of the stack limit within any part of the
instruction execution.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None


HLT‘‘Halt

Opcode    Instruction    Clocks    Description

F4        HLT            2         Halt

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

Successful execution of HLT causes the 80286 to cease executing
instructions and to enter a HALT state. Execution resumes only upon receipt
of an enabled interrupt or a reset. If an interrupt is used to resume
program execution after HLT, the saved CS:IP value will point to the
instruction that follows HLT.

Protected Mode Exceptions

HLT is a privileged instruction. #GP(0) if the current privilege level is
not 0.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None


IDIV‘‘Signed Divide

Opcode   Instruction    Clocks       Description

F6 /7    IDIV eb       17,mem=20     Signed divide AX by EA byte
                                     (AL=Quo,AH=Rem)
F7 /7    IDIV ew       25,mem=28     Signed divide DX:AX by
                                     EA word (AX=Quo,DX=Rem)

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

Overflow, sign, zero, auxiliary carry, parity, carry

Operation

IDIV performs a signed divide. The dividend is implicit; only the divisor
is given as an operand. If the source operand is a BYTE operand, divide AX
by the byte. The quotient is stored in AL, and the remainder is stored in
AH. If the source operand is a WORD operand, divide DX:AX by the word. The
high-order 16 bits of the dividend are in DX. The quotient is stored in AX,
and the remainder is stored in DX. Non-integral quotients are truncated
towards 0. The remainder has the same sign as the dividend and always has
less magnitude than the dividend.

Protected Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 0 if the quotient is too big to fit in the designated register
(AL or AX), or if the divisor is 0. #GP(0) for an illegal memory operand
effective address in the CS, DS, or ES segments; #SS(0) for an illegal
address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 0 if the quotient is too big to fit in the designated register
(AL or AX), or if the divisor is 0. Interrupt 13 for a word operand at
offset 0FFFFH.


IMUL‘‘Signed Multiply

Opcode     Instruction    Clocks      Description

F6 /5      IMUL eb        13,mem=16   Signed multiply (AX = AL * EA byte)
F7 /5      IMUL ew        21,mem=24   Signed multiply (DXAX = AX * EA word)
6B /r db   IMUL rw,db     21,mem=24   Signed multiply imm. byte
                                      into word reg.
69 /r dw   IMUL rw,ew,dw  21,mem=24   Signed multiply
                                      (rw = EA word * imm. word)
6B /r db   IMUL rw,ew,db  21,mem=24   Signed multiply
                                      (rw = EA word * imm. byte)

Flags Modified

Overflow, carry

Flags Undefined

Sign, zero, auxiliary carry, parity

Operation

IMUL performs signed multiplication. If IMUL has a single byte source
operand, then the source is multiplied by AL and the 16-bit signed result is
left in AX. Carry and overflow are set to 0 if AH is a sign extension of AL;
they are set to 1 otherwise.

If IMUL has a single word source operand, then the source operand is
multiplied by AX and the 32-bit signed result is left in DX:AX. DX contains
the high-order 16 bits of the product. Carry and overflow are set to 0 if DX
is a sign extension of AX; they are set to 1 otherwise.

If IMUL has three operands, then the second operand (an effective address
word) is multiplied by the third operand (an immediate word), and the 16
bits of the result are placed in the first operand (a word register). Carry
and overflow are set to 0 if the result fits in a signed word (between
-32768 and +32767, inclusive); they are set to 1 otherwise.

The low 16 bits of the product of a 16-bit signed multiply are the same as
those of an unsigned multiply. The three operand IMUL instruction can be
used for unsigned operands as well.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) for an illegal memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES
segments; #SS(0) for an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


IN‘‘Input from Port

Opcode    Instruction   Clocks     Description

E4 db     IN AL,db       5         Input byte from immediate portinto AL
EC        IN AL,DX       5         Input byte from port DX into AL
E5 db     IN AX,db       5         Input word from immediate portinto AX
ED        IN AX,DX       5         Input word from port DX into AX

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

IN transfers a data byte or data word from the port numbered by the second
operand into the register (AL or AX) given as the first operand. You can
access any port from 0 to 65535 by placing the port number in the DX
register then using an IN instruction with DX as the second parameter.
These I/O instructions can be shortened by using an 8-bit port I/O in the
instruction. The upper 8 bits of the port address will be zero when an 8-bit
port I/O is used.

Intel has reserved I/O port addresses 00F8H through 00FFH; they should not
be used.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if the current privilege level is bigger (has less privilege) than
IOPL, which is the privilege level found in the flags register.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None


INC‘‘Increment by 1

Opcode    Instruction    Clocks        Description

FE /0     INC eb         2,mem=7       Increment EA byte by 1
FF /0     INC ew         2,mem=7       Increment EA word by 1
40+rw     INC rw         2             Increment word register by 1

Flags Modified

Overflow, sign, zero, auxiliary carry, parity

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

1 is added to the operand. Note that the carry flag is not changed by this
instruction. If you want the carry flag set, use the ADD instruction with a
second operand of 1.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if the operand is in a non-writable segment. #GP(0) for an illegal
memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES segments; #SS(0) for
an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


INS/INSB/INSW‘‘Input from Port to String

Opcode  Instruction    Clocks    Description

6C      INS eb,DX      5         Input byte from port DX into ES:[DI]
6D      INS ew,DX      5         Input word from port DX into ES:[DI]
6C      INSB           5         Input byte from port DX into ES:[DI]
6D      INSW           5         Input word from port DX into ES:[DI]

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

INS transfers data from the input port numbered by the DX register to the
memory byte or word at ES:DI. The memory operand must be addressable from
the ES register; no segment override ispossible.

INS does not allow the specification of the port number as an immediate
value. The port must be addressed through the DX register.

After the transfer is made, DI is automatically advanced. If the direction
flag is 0 (CLD was executed), DI increments; if the direction flag is 1 (STD
was executed), DI decrements. DI increments or decrements by 1 if a byte was
moved; by 2 if a word was moved.

INS can be preceded by the REP prefix for block input of CX bytes or words.
Refer to the REP instruction for details of this operation.

Intel has reserved I/O port addresses 00F8H through 00FFH; they should not
be used.

Not all input port devices can handle the rate at which this instruction
transfers input data to memory.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if CPL > IOPL. #GP(0) if the destination is in a non-writable
segment. #GP(0) for an illegal memory operand effective address in the CS,
DS, or ES segments; #SS(0) for an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


INT/INTO‘‘Call to Interrupt Procedure

Opcode  Instruction   Clocks
Add one clock for each byte of the next instruction executed.    Description

CC      INT 3         23
(real mode)        Interrupt 3 (trap to debugger)
CC      INT 3         40         Interrupt 3, protected mode, same privilege
CC      INT 3         78         Interrupt 3, protected mode, more privilege
CC      INT 3         167        Interrupt 3, protected mode, via task gate
CD db   INT db        23
(real mode)        Interrupt numbered by immediate byte
CD db   INT db        40         Interrupt, protected mode, same privilege
CD db   INT db        78         Interrupt, protected mode, more privilege
CD db   INT db        167        Interrupt, protected mode, via task gate
CE      INTO          24,noj=3
(real mode)  Interrupt 4 if overflow flag is 1


Flags Modified

All if a task switch takes place; Trap Flag reset if no task switch takes
place. Interrupt Flag is always reset in Real Mode, and reset in Protected
Mode when INT references an interrupt gate.

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The INT instruction generates via software a call to an interrupt
procedure. The immediate operand, from 0 to 255, gives the index number into
the Interrupt Descriptor Table of the interrupt routine to be called. In
protected mode, the IDT consists of 8-byte descriptors; the descriptor for
the interrupt invoked must indicate an interrupt gate, a trap gate, or a
task gate. In real address mode, the IDT is an array of 4-byte long pointers
at the fixed location 00000H.

The INTO instruction is identical to the INT instruction except that the
interrupt number is implicitly 4, and the interrupt is made only if the
overflow flag of the 80286 is on. The clock counts for the four forms of
INT db are valid for INTO, with the number of clocks increased by 1 for the
overflow flag test.

The first 32 interrupts are reserved by Intel for systems use. Some of
these interrupts are exception handlers for internally-generated faults.
Most of these exception handlers should not be invoked with the INT
instruction.

Generally, interrupts behave like far CALLs except that the flags register
is pushed onto the stack before the return address. Interrupt procedures
return via the IRET instruction, which pops the flags from the stack.

In Real Address mode, INT pushes the flags, CS and the return IP onto the
stack in that order, then resets the Trap Flag, then jumps to the long
pointer indexed by the interrupt number, in the interrupt vector table.

In Protected mode, INT also resets the Trap Flag. In Protected mode, the
precise semantics of the INT instruction are given by the following:

INTERRUPT
 Interrupt vector must be within IDT table limits else #GP (vector number *
 8+2+EXT)
 Descriptor AR byte must indicate interrupt gate, trap gate, or task gate
 else #GP (vector number * 8+2+EXT)
 If INT instruction then gate descriptor DPL must be  CPL else #GP (vector
 number * 8+2+EXT)
 Gate must be PRESENT else #NP (vector number * 8+2+EXT)
 If TRAP GATE or INTERRUPT GATE:
 Examine CS selector and descriptor given in the gate descriptor:
      Selector must be non-null else #GP (EXT)
      Selector must be within its descriptor table limits else
      #GP (selector+EXT)
      Descriptor AR byte must indicate code segment else
      #GP (selector + EXT)
      Segment must be PRESENT else #NP (selector+EXT)
 If code segment is non-conforming and DPL < CPL then
   INTERRUPT TO INNER PRIVILEGE:
      Check selector and descriptor for new stack in current Task State
      Segment:
          Selector must be non-null else #TS(EXT)
          Selector index must be within its descriptor table limits else
             #TS (SS selector+EXT)
          Selector's RPL must equal DPL of code segment else
             #TS (SS selector+EXT)
          Stack segment DPL must equal DPL of code segment else #TS (SS
            selector+EXT)
          Descriptor must indicate writable data segment else #TS (SS
            selector+EXT)
          Segment must be PRESENT else #SS (SS selector+EXT)
      New stack must have room for 10 bytes else #SS(0)
      IP must be in CS limit else #GP(0)
      Load new SS and SP value from TSS
      Load new CS and IP value from gate
      Load CS descriptor
      Load SS descriptor
      Push long pointer to old stack onto new stack
      Push return address onto new stack
      Set CPL to new code segment DPL
      Set RPL of CS to CPL
      If INTERRUPT GATE then set the Interrupts Enabled Flag to 0 (disabled)
      Set the Trap Flag to 0
      Set the Nested Task Flag to 0
 If code segment is conforming or code segment DPL = CPL then
   INTERRUPT TO SAME PRIVILEGE LEVEL:
      Current stack limits must allow pushing 6 bytes else #SS(0)
      If interrupt was caused by fault with error code then
      Stack limits must allow push of two more bytes else #SS(0)
      IP must be in CS limit else #GP(0)
      Push flags onto stack
      Push current CS selector onto stack
      Push return offset onto stack
      Load CS:IP from gate
      Load CS descriptor
      Set the RPL field of CS to CPL
      Push error code (if any) onto stack
      If INTERRUPT GATE then set the Interrupts Enabled Flag to 0 (disabled)
      Set the Trap Flag to 0
      Set the Nested Task Flag to 0

Else #GP (CS selector + EXT)

If TASK GATE:
   Examine selector to TSS, given in Task Gate descriptor:
    Must specify global in the local/global bit else #GP (TSS selector)
    Index must be within GDT limits else #GP (TSS selector)
    AR byte must specify available TSS (bottom bits 00001) else #GP (TSS
    selector)
    Task State Segment must be PRESENT else #NP (TSS selector)
SWITCH_TASKS with nesting to TSS
If interrupt was caused by fault with error code then
    Stack limits must allow push of two more bytes else #SS(0)
    Push error code onto stack
IP must be in CS limit else #GP(0)

EXT is 1 if an external event (i.e., a single step, an external interrupt,
an MF exception, or an MP exception) caused the interrupt; 0 if not (i.e.,
an INT instruction or other exceptions).

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP, #NP, #SS, and #TS, as indicated in the list above.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None; the 80286 will shut down if the SP = 1, 3, or 5 before executing the
INT or INTO instruction‘‘due to lack of stack space.


IRET‘‘Interrupt Return

Opcode   Instruction  Clocks
Add one clock for each byte in the next instruction executed.    Description

 CF        IRET       17,pm=31   Interrupt return (far return and pop flags)
 CF        IRET       55         Interrupt return, lesser privilege
 CF        IRET       169        Interrupt return, different task (NT=1)


Flags Modified

Entire flags register popped from stack

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

In real address mode, IRET pops IP, CS, and FLAGS from the stack in that
order, and resumes the interrupted routine.

In protected mode, the action of IRET depends on the setting of the Nested
Task Flag (NT) bit in the flag register. When popping the new flag image
from the stack, note that the IOPL bits in the flag register are changed
only when CPL=0.

If NT=0, IRET returns from an interrupt procedure without a task switch.
The code returned to must be equally or less privileged than the interrupt
routine as indicated by the RPL bits of the CS selector popped from the
stack. If the destination code is of less privilege, IRET then also pops SP
and SS from the stack.

If NT=1, IRET reverses the operation of a CALL or INT that caused a task
switch. The task executing IRET has its updated state saved in its Task
State Segment. This means that if the task is re-entered, the code that
follows IRET will be executed.

The exact checks and actions performed by IRET in protected mode are given
on the following page.

INTERRUPT RETURN:
  If Nested Task Flag=1 then
    RETURN FROM NESTED TASK:
      Examine Back Link Selector in TSS addressed by the current Task
       Register:
         Must specify global in the local/global bit else
         #TS (new TSS selector)
         Index must be within GDT limits else #TS (new TSS selector)
         AR byte must specify TSS else #TS (new TSS selector)
         New TSS must be busy else #TS (new TSS selector)
         Task State Segment must be PRESENT else #NP (new TSS selector)
      SWITCH_TASKS without nesting to TSS specified by back link selector
      Mark the task just abandoned as NOT BUSY
      IP must be in code segment limit else #GP(0)
  If Nested Task Flag=0 then
    INTERRUPT RETURN ON STACK:
      Second word on stack must be within stack limits else #SS(0)
      Return CS selector RPL must be  CPL else #GP (Return selector)
      If return selector RPL = CPL then
         INTERRUPT RETURN TO SAME LEVEL:
         Top 6 bytes on stack must be within limits else #SS(0)
         Return CS selector (at SP+2) must be non-null else #GP(0)
         Selector index must be within its descriptor table limits else
         #GP (Return selector)
         AR byte must indicate code segment else #GP (Return selector)
         If non-conforming then code segment DPL must = CPL else
         #GP (Return selector)
         If conforming then code segment DPL must be ¾ CPL else
         #GP (Return selector)
         Segment must be PRESENT else #NP (Return selector)
         IP must be in code segment limit else #GP(0)
         Load CS:IP from stack
         Load CS-cache with new code segment descriptor
         Load flags with third word on stack
         Increment SP by 6
      Else
      INTERRUPT RETURN TO OUTER PRIVILEGE LEVEL:
      Top 10 bytes on stack must be within limits else #SS(0)
      Examine return CS selector (at SP+2) and associated descriptor:
         Selector must be non-null else #GP(0)
         Selector index must be within its descriptor table limits else
         #GP (Return selector)
         AR byte must indicate code segment else #GP (Return selector)
         If non-conforming then code segment DPL must = CS selector RPL else
         #GP (Return selector)
         If conforming then code segment DPL must be > CPL else #GP (Return
         selector)
         Segment must be PRESENT else #NP (Return selector)
      Examine return SS selector (at SP+8) and associated descriptor:
         Selector must be non-null else #GP(0)
         Selector index must be within its descriptor table limits else
         #GP (SS selector)
         Selector RPL must equal the RPL of the return CS selector else
         #GP (SS selector)
         AR byte must indicate a writable data segment else
         #GP (SS selector)
         Stack segment DPL must equal the RPL of the return CS selector else
         #GP (SS selector)
         SS must be PRESENT else #SS (SS selector)
      IP must be in code segment limit else #GP(0)
      Load CS:IP from stack
      Load flags with values at (SP+4)
      Load SS:SP from stack
      Set CPL to the RPL of the return CS selector
      Load the CS-cache with the CS descriptor
      Load the SS-cache with the SS descriptor
      For each of ES and DS:
         If the current register setting is not valid for the outer level,
             then zero the register and clear the valid flag
         To be valid, the register setting must satisfy the following
         properties:
             Selector index must be within descriptor table limits
             AR byte must indicate data or readable code segment
             If segment is data or non-conforming code, then:
             DPL must be  CPL, or
             DPL must be  RPL.


Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP, #NP, or #SS, as indicated in the above listing.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 if the stack is popped when it has offset 0FFFFH.


Jcond‘‘Jump Short If Condition Met


Opcode  Instruction   Clocks
When a jump is taken, add one clock for every byte of the next instruction
executed.   Description
77  cb     JA cb      7,noj=3   Jump short if above (CF=0 and ZF=0)
73  cb     JAE cb     7,noj=3   Jump short if above or equal (CF=0)
72  cb     JB cb      7,noj=3   Jump short if below (CF=1)
76  cb     JBE cb     7,noj=3   Jump short if below or equal (CF=1 or ZF=1)
72  cb     JC cb      7,noj=3   Jump short if carry (CF=1)
E3  cb     JCXZ cb    8,noj=4   Jump short if CX register is zero
74  cb     JE cb      7,noj=3   Jump short if equal (ZF=1)
7F  cb     JG cb      7,noj=3   Jump short if greater (ZF=0 and SF=OF)
7D  cb     JGE cb     7,noj=3   Jump short if greater or equal (SF=OF)
7C  cb     JL cb      7,noj=3   Jump short if less (SF/=OF)
7E  cb     JLE cb     7,noj=3   Jump short if less or equal (ZF=1 or SF/=OF)
76  cb     JNA cb     7,noj=3   Jump short if not above (CF=1 or ZF=1)
72  cb     JNAE cb    7,noj=3   Jump short if not above/equal (CF=1)
73  cb     JNB cb     7,noj=3   Jump short if not below (CF=0)
77  cb     JNBE cb    7,noj=3   Jump short if not below/equal
                                (CF=0 and ZF=0)
73  cb     JNC cb     7,noj=3   Jump short if not carry (CF=0)
75  cb     JNE cb     7,noj=3   Jump short if not equal (ZF=0)
7E  cb     JNG cb     7,noj=3   Jump short if not greater (ZF=1 or SF/=OF)
7C  cb     JNGE cb    7,noj=3   Jump short if not greater/equal (SF/=OF)
7D  cb     JNL cb     7,noj=3   Jump short if not less (SF=OF)
7F  cb     JNLE cb    7,noj=3   Jump short if not less/equal
                                (ZF=0 and SF=OF)
71  cb     JNO cb     7,noj=3   Jump short if notoverflow (OF=0)
7B  cb     JNP cb     7,noj=3   Jump short if not parity (PF=0)
79  cb     JNS cb     7,noj=3   Jump short if not sign (SF=0)
75  cb     JNZ cb     7,noj=3   Jump short if not zero (ZF=0)
70  cb     JO cb      7,noj=3   Jump short if overflow (OF=1)
7A  cb     JP cb      7,noj=3   Jump short if parity (PF=1)
7A  cb     JPE cb     7,noj=3   Jump short if parity even (PF=1)
7B  cb     JPO cb     7,noj=3   Jump short if parity odd (PF=0)
78  cb     JS cb      7,noj=3   Jump short if sign (SF=1)
74  cb     JZ cb      7,noj=3   Jump short if zero (ZF=1)


Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

Conditional jumps (except for JCXZ, explained below) test the flags, which
presumably have been set in some meaningful way by a previous instruction.
The conditions for each mnemonic are given in parentheses after each
description above. The terms "less" and "greater" are used for comparing
signed integers; "above" and "below" are used for unsigned integers.

If the given condition is true, then a short jump is made to the label
provided as the operand. Instruction encoding is most efficient when the
target for the conditional jump is in the current code segment and within
-128 to +127 bytes of the first byte of the next instruction.
Alternatively, the opposite sense (e.g., JNZ has opposite sense to that of
JZ) of the conditional jump can skip around an unconditional jump to the
destination.

This range is necessary for the assembler to construct a one-byte signed
displacement from the end of the current instruction. If the label is
out-of-range, or if the label is a FAR label, then you must perform a jump
with the opposite condition around an unconditional jump to the non-short
label.

Because there are, in many instances, several ways to interpret a
particular state of the flags, ASM286 provides more than one mnemonic for
most of the conditional jump opcodes. For example, consider that a
programmer who has just compared a character to another in AL might wish to
jump if the two were equal (JE), while another programmer who had just ANDed
AX with a bit field mask would prefer to consider only whether the result
was zero or not (he would use JZ, a synonym for JE).

JCXZ differs from the other conditional jumps in that it actually tests the
contents of the CX register for zero, rather than interrogating the flags.
This instruction is useful following a conditionally repeated string
operation (REPE SCASB, for example) or a conditional loop instruction (such
as LOOPNE TARGETLABEL). These instructions implicitly use a limiting count
in the CX register. Looping (repeating) ends when either the CX register
goes to zero or the condition specified in the instruction (flags indicating
equals in both of the above cases) occurs. JCXZ is useful when the
terminations must be handled differently.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if the offset jumped to is beyond the limits of the code segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None


JMP‘‘Jump

Opcode       Instruction    Clocks
Add one clock for every byte of the next instruction executed.      Description

 EB   cb     JMP cb         7            Jump short
 EA   cd     JMP cd         180          Jump to task gate
 E9   cw     JMP cw         7            Jump near
 EA   cd     JMP cd         11,pm=23     Jump far (4-byte immediate address)
 EA   cd     JMP cd         38           Jump to call gate, same privilege
 EA   cd     JMP cd         175          Jump via Task State Segment
 FF   /4     JMP ew         7,mem=11     Jump near to EA word
                                         (absolute offset)
 FF   /5     JMP ed         15,pm=26     Jump far (4-byte effective address
                                         in memory doubleword)
 FF   /5     JMP ed         41           Jump to call gate, same privilege
 FF   /5     JMP ed         178          Jump via Task State Segment
 FF   /5     JMP ed         183          Jump to task gate


Flags Modified

All if a task switch takes place; none if no task switch occurs.

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The JMP instruction transfers program control to a different instruction
stream without recording any return information.

For inter-segment jumps, the destination can be a code segment, a call
gate, a task gate, or a Task State Segment. The latter two destinations
cause a complete task switch to take place.

Control transfers within a segment use the JMP cw or JMP cb forms. The
operand is a relative offset added modulo 65536 to the offset of the
instruction that follows the JMP. The result is the new value of IP; the
value of CS is unchanged. The byte operand is sign-extended before it is
added; it can therefore be used to address labels within 128 bytes in either
direction from the next instruction.

Indirect jumps within a segment use the JMP ew form. The contents of the
register or memory operand is an absolute offset, which becomes the new
value of IP. Again, CS is unchanged.

Inter-segment jumps in real address mode simply set IP to the offset part
of the long pointer and set CS to the selector part of the pointer.

In protected mode, inter-segment jumps cause the 80286 to consult the
descriptor addressed by the selector part of the long pointer. The AR byte
of the descriptor determines the type of the destination. (See table B-3
for possible values of the AR byte.) Following are the possible
destinations:

  1.  Code segment‘‘The addressability and visibility of the destination
      are verified, and CS and IP are loaded with the destination pointer
      values.

  2.  Call gate‘‘The offset part of the destination pointer is ignored.
      After checking for validity, the processor jumps to the location
      stored in the call gate descriptor.

  3.  Task gate‘‘The current task's state is saved in its Task State
      Segment (TSS), and the TSS named in the task gate is used to load a
      new context. The outgoing task is marked not busy, the new TSS is
      marked busy, and execution resumes at the point at which the new task
      was last suspended.

  4.  TSS‘‘The current task is suspended and the new task is initiated as
      in 3 above except that there is no intervening gate.

Following is the list of checks and actions taken for long jumps in
protected mode:

JUMP FAR:
  If indirect then check access of EA doubleword #GP(0) or #SS(0) if limit
  violation
  Destination selector is not null else #GP(0)
  Destination selector index is within its descriptor table limits else
  #GP (selector)
  Examine AR byte of destination selector for legal values:

   JUMP CONFORMING CODE SEGMENT:
      Descriptor DPL must be ¾ CPL else #GP (selector)
      Segment must be PRESENT else #NP (selector)
      IP must be in code segment limit else #GP(0)
      Load CS:IP from destination pointer
      Load CS-cache with new segment descriptor

   JUMP NONCONFORMING CODE SEGMENT:
      RPL of destination selector must be ¾ CPL else #GP (selector)
      Descriptor DPL must = CPL else #GP (selector)
      Segment must be PRESENT else #NP (selector)
      IP must be in code segment limit else #GP(0)
      Load CS:IP from destination pointer
      Load CS-cache with new segment descriptor
      Set RPL field of CS register to CPL

   JUMP TO CALL GATE:
      Descriptor DPL must be  CPL else #GP (gate selector)
      Descriptor DPL must be  gate selector RPL else #GP (gate selector)
      Gate must be PRESENT else #NP (gate selector)
      Examine selector to code segment given in call gate descriptor:
      Selector must not be null else #GP(0)
      Selector must be within its descriptor table limits else
      #GP (CS selector)
      Descriptor AR byte must indicate code segment else #GP (CS selector)
      If non-conforming, code segment descriptor DPL must = CPL else
      #GP (CS selector)
      If conforming, then code segment descriptor DPL must be ¾ CPL else
      #GP (CS selector)
      Code Segment must be PRESENT else #NP (CS selector)
      IP must be in code segment limit else #GP(0)
      Load CS:IP from call gate
      Load CS-cache with new code segment
      Set RPL of CS to CPL

   JUMP TASK GATE:
      Gate descriptor DPL must be  CPL else #GP (gate selector)
      Gate descriptor DPL must be  gate selector RPL else
      #GP (gate selector)
      Task Gate must be PRESENT else #NP (gate selector)
      Examine selector to TSS, given in Task Gate descriptor:
      Must specify global in the local/global bit else #GP (TSS selector)
      Index must be within GDT limits else #GP (TSS selector)
      Descriptor AR byte must specify available TSS (bottom bits 00001) else
      #GP (TSS selector)
      Task State Segment must be PRESENT else #NP (TSS selector)
      SWITCH_TASKS without nesting to TSS
      IP must be in code segment limit else #GP(0)

   JUMP TASK STATE SEGMENT:
      TSS DPL must be  CPL else #GP (TSS selector)
      TSS DPL must be  TSS selector RPL else #GP (TSS selector)
      Descriptor AR byte must specify available TSS (bottom bits 00001) else
      #GP (TSS selector)
      Task State Segment must be PRESENT else #NP (TSS selector)
      SWITCH_TASKS with nesting to TS.
      IP must be in code segment limit else #GP(0)

   Else GP (selector)

Protected Mode Exceptions

For NEAR jumps, #GP(0) if the destination offset is beyond the limits of
the current code segment. For FAR jumps, #GP, #NP, #SS, and #TS, as
indicated above. #UD if indirect inter-segment jump operand is a register.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

#UD if indirect inter-segment jump operand is a register.


LAHF‘‘Load Flags into AH Register

Opcode    Instruction     Clocks      Description

  9F         LAHF            2        Load: AH = flags
                                      SF ZF xx AF xx PF xx CF

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The low byte of the flags word is transferred to AH. The bits, from MSB to
LSB, are as follows: sign, zero, indeterminate, auxiliary carry,
indeterminate, parity, indeterminate, and carry. See figure 3-5.

Protected Mode Exceptions

None

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None


LAR‘‘Load Access Rights Byte

Opcode     Instruction     Clocks         Description

0F 02 /r   LAR rw,ew      14,mem=16       Load: high(rw)= Access Rights
                                          byte, selector ew

Flags Modified

Zero

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

LAR expects the second operand (memory or register word) to contain a
selector. If the associated descriptor is visible at the current privilege
level and at the selector RPL, then the access rights byte of the descriptor
is loaded into the high byte of the first (register) operand, and the low
byte is set to zero. The zero flag is set if the loading was performed
(i.e., the selector index is within the table limit, descriptor DPL  CPL,
and descriptor DPL  selector RPL); the zero flag is cleared otherwise.

Selector operands cannot cause protection exceptions.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) for an illegal memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES
segments; #SS(0) for an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exception

INTERRUPT 6; LAR is unrecognized in Real Address mode.


LDS/LES‘‘Load Doubleword Pointer

Opcode   Instruction  Clocks    Description

C5 /r    LDS rw,ed    7,pm=21   Load EA doubleword into DS and word register
C4 /r    LES rw,ed    7,pm=21   Load EA doubleword into ES and word register

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The four-byte pointer at the memory location indicated by the second
operand is loaded into a segment register and a word register. The first
word of the pointer (the offset) is loaded into the register indicated by
the first operand. The last word of the pointer (the selector) is loaded
into the segment register (DS or ES) given by the instruction opcode.

When the segment register is loaded, its associated cache is also loaded.
The data for the cache is obtained from the descriptor table entry for the
selector given.

A null selector (values 0000-0003) can be loaded into DS or ES without a
protection exception. Any memory reference using such a segment register
value will cause a #GP(0) exception but will not result in a memory
reference. The saved segment register value will be null.

Following is a list of checks and actions taken when loading the DS or ES
registers:

If selector is non-null then:
    Selector index must be within its descriptor table limits else
    #GP(selector)
    Examine descriptor AR byte:

       Data segment or readable non-conforming code segment
          Descriptor DPL  CPL else #GP (selector)
          Descriptor DPL  selector RPL else #GP (selector)

       Readable conforming code segment
          No DPL, RPL, or CPL checks

       Else #GP (selector)

    Segment must be present else #NP (selector)
    Load registers from operand
    Load segment register descriptor cache

If selector is null then:
    Load registers from operand
    Mark segment register cache as invalid

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP or #NP, as indicated in the list above. #GP(0) or #SS(0) if operand
lies outside segment limit. #UD if the source operand is a register.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for operand at offset 0FFFFH or 0FFFDH. #UD if the source
operand is a register.


LEA‘‘Load Effective Address Offset

Opcode  Instruction    Clocks    Description

8D /r    LEA rw,m        3       Calculate EA offset given by m, place in rw

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The effective address (offset part) of the second operand is placed in the
first (register) operand.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#UD if second operand is a register.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

#UD if second operand is a register.


LEAVE‘‘High Level Procedure Exit

Opcode     Instruction       Clocks           Description

C9         LEAVE                5             Set SP to BP, then POP BP

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

LEAVE is the complementary operation to ENTER; it reverses the effects of
that instruction. By copying BP to SP, LEAVE releases the stack space used
by a procedure for its dynamics and display. The old frame pointer is now
popped into BP, restoring the caller's frame, and a subsequent RET
instruction will follow the back-link and remove any arguments pushed on
the stack for the exiting procedure.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#SS(0) if BP does not point to a location within the current stack segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


LGDT/LIDT‘‘Load Global/Interrupt Descriptor Table Register

Opcode    Instruction  Clocks     Description

0F 01 /2   LGDT m       11        Load m into Global Descriptor Table reg
0F 01 /3   LIDT m       12        Load m into Interrupt Descriptor Table reg

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The Global or the Interrupt Descriptor Table Register is loaded from the
six bytes of memory pointed to by the effective address operand (see figure
10-3). The LIMIT field of the descriptor table register loads from the
first word; the next three bytes go to the BASE field of the register; the
last byte is ignored.

LGDT and LIDT appear in operating systems software; they are not used in
application programs. These are the only instructions that directly load a
physical memory address in 80286 protected mode.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if the current privilege level is not 0.

#UD if source operand is a register.

#GP(0) for an illegal memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES
segments; #SS(0) for an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

These instructions are valid in Real Address mode to allow the power-up
initialization for Protected mode.

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH. #UD if source operand is
a register.


LLDT‘‘Load Local Descriptor Table Register

Opcode     Instruction    Clocks     Description

0F 00 /2   LLDT ew        17,mem=19  Load selector ew into Local
                                     Descriptor Table register

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The word operand (memory or register) to LLDT should contain a selector
pointing to the Global Descriptor Table. The GDT entry should be a Local
Descriptor Table Descriptor. If so, then the Local Descriptor Table Register
is loaded from the entry. The descriptor cache entries for DS, ES, SS, and
CS are not affected. The LDT field in the TSS is not changed.

The selector operand is allowed to be zero. In that case, the Local
Descriptor Table Register is marked invalid. All descriptor references
(except by LAR, VERR, VERW or LSL instructions) will cause a #GP fault.

LLDT appears in operating systems software; it does not appear in
applications programs.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if the current privilege level is not 0. #GP (selector) if the
selector operand does not point into the Global Descriptor Table, or if the
entry in the GDT is not a Local Descriptor Table. #NP (selector) if LDT
descriptor is not present. #GP(0) for an illegal memory operand effective
address in the CS, DS, or ES segments; #SS(0) for an illegal address in the
SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 6; LLDT is not recognized in Real Address Mode.


LMSW‘‘Load Machine Status Word

Opcode      Instruction    Clocks     Description

0F 01 /6    LMSW ew        3,mem=6    Load EA word into Machine Status Word

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The Machine Status Word is loaded from the source operand. This instruction
may be used to switch to protected mode. If so, then it must be followed by
an intra-segment jump to flush the instruction queue. LMSW will not switch
back to Real Address Mode.

LMSW appears only in operating systems software. It does not appear in
applications programs.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if the current privilege level is not 0. #GP(0) for an illegal
memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES segments; #SS(0) for
an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


LOCK‘‘Assert BUS LOCK Signal

Opcode  Instruction  Clocks   Description

F0      LOCK          0       Assert BUSLOCK signal for the next instruction

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

LOCK is a prefix that will cause the BUS LOCK signal of the 80286 to be
asserted for the duration of the instruction that it prefixes. In a
multiprocessor environment, this signal should be used to ensure that the
80286 has exclusive use of any shared memory while BUS LOCK is asserted.
The read-modify-write sequence typically used to implement TEST-AND-SET in
the 80286 is the XCHG instruction.

The 80286 LOCK prefix activates the lock signal for the following
instructions: MOVS, INS, and OUTS. XCHG always asserts BUS LOCK regardless
of the presence or absence of the LOCK prefix.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if the current privilege level is bigger (less privileged) than the
I/O privilege level.

Other exceptions may be generated by the subsequent (locked) instruction.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None. Exceptions may still be generated by the subsequent (locked)
instruction.


LODS/LODSB/LODSW‘‘Load String Operand

 Opcode    Instruction      Clocks      Description

 AC         LODS mb           5         Load byte [SI] into AL
 AD         LODS mw           5         Load word [SI] into AX
 AC         LODSB             5         Load byte DS:[SI] into AL
 AD         LODSW             5         Load word DS:[SI] into AX

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

LODS loads the AL or AX register with the memory byte or word at SI. After
the transfer is made, SI is automatically advanced. If the direction flag is
0 (CLD was executed), SI increments; if the direction flag is 1 (STD was
executed), SI decrements. SI increments or decrements by 1 if a byte was
moved; by 2 if a word was moved.

Protected Address Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) for an illegal memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES
segments; #SS(0) for an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


LOOP/LOOPcond‘‘Loop Control with CX Counter

Opcode   Instruction   Clocks   Description

E2 cb    LOOP cb       8,noj=4  DEC CX; jump short if CX<>0
E1 cb    LOOPE cb      8,noj=4  DEC CX; jump short if CX<>E0 and equal
                                (ZF=1)
E0 cb    LOOPNE cb     8,noj=4  DEC CX; jump short if CX<>E0 and not equal
                                (ZF=0)
E0 cb    LOOPNZ cb     8,noj=4  DEC CX; jump short if CX<>E0 and ZF=0
E1 cb    LOOPZ cb      8,noj=4  DEC CX; jump short if CX<>E0 and zero (ZF=1)

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

LOOP first decrements the CX register without changing any of the flags.
Then, conditions are checked as given in the description above for the form
of LOOP being used. If the conditions are met, then an intra-segment jump is
made. The destination to LOOP is in the range from 126 (decimal) bytes
before the instruction to 127 bytes beyond the instruction.

The LOOP instructions are intended to provide iteration control and to
combine loop index management with conditional branching. To use the LOOP
instruction you load an unsigned iteration count into CX, then code the LOOP
at the end of a series of instructions to be iterated. The destination of
LOOP is a label that points to the beginning of the iteration.

Protected Address Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if the offset jumped to is beyond the limits of the current code
segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None


LSL‘‘Load Segment Limit

Opcode    Instruction    Clocks      Description

0F 03 /r     LSL rw,ew   14,mem=16   Load: rw = Segment Limit, selector ew

Flags Modified

Zero

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

If the descriptor denoted by the selector in the second (memory or
register) operand is visible at the CPL, a word that consists of the limit
field of the descriptor is loaded into the left operand, which must be a
register. The value is the limit field for that segment. The zero flag is
set if the loading was performed (that is, if the selector is non-null, the
selector index is within the descriptor table limits, the descriptor is a
non-conforming segment descriptor with DPL  CPL, and the descriptor DPL 
selector RPL); the zero flag is cleared otherwise.

The LSL instruction returns only the limit field of segments, task state
segments, and local descriptor tables. The interpretation of the limit value
depends on the type of segment.

The selector operand's value cannot result in a protection exception.

Protected Address Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) for an illegal memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES
segments; #SS(0) for an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 6; LSL is not recognized in Real Address mode.


LTR‘‘Load Task Register

Opcode    Instruction     Clocks       Description

0F 00 /3   LTR ew         17,mem=19    Load EA word into Task Register

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The Task Register is loaded from the source register or memory location
given by the operand. The loaded TSS is marked busy. A task switch operation
does not occur.

LTR appears only in operating systems software. It is not used in
applications programs.

Protected Address Mode Exceptions

#GP for an illegal memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES
segments; #SS for an illegal address in the SS segment.

#GP(0) if the current privilege level is not 0. #GP (selector) if the
object named by the source selector is not a TSS or is already busy. #NP
(selector) if the TSS is marked not present.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 6; LTR is not recognized in Real Address mode.


MOV‘‘Move Data


Opcode    Instruction  Clocks        Description
88 /r      MOV eb,rb   2,mem=3       Move byte register into EA byte
89 /r      MOV ew,rw   2,mem=3       Move word register into EA word
8A /r      MOV rb,eb   2,mem=5       Move EA byte into byte register
8B /r      MOV rw,ew   2,mem=5       Move EA word into word register
8C /0      MOV ew,ES   2,mem=3       Move ES into EA word
8C /1      MOV ew,CS   2,mem=3       Move CS into EA word
8C /2      MOV ew,SS   2,mem=3       Move SS into EA word
8C /3      MOV ew,DS   2,mem=3       Move DS into EA word
8E /0      MOV ES,mw   5,pm=19       Move memory word into ES
8E /0      MOV ES,rw   2,pm=17       Move word register into ES
8E /2      MOV SS,mw   5,pm=19       Move memory word into SS
8E /2      MOV SS,rw   2,pm=17       Move word register into SS
8E /3      MOV DS,mw   5,pm=19       Move memory word into DS
8E /3      MOV DS,rw   2,pm=17       Move word register into DS
A0 dw      MOV AL,xb   5             Move byte variable (offset dw) into AL
A1 dw      MOV AX,xw   5             Move word variable (offset dw=) into AX
A2 dw      MOV xb,AL   3             Move AL into byte variable (offset dw=)
A3 dw      MOV xw,AX   3             Move AX into word register (offset dw=)
B0+ rb db  MOV rb,db   2             Move immediate byte into byte register
B8+ rw dw  MOV rw,dw   2             Move immediate word into word register
C6 /0 db   MOV eb,db   2,mem=3       Move immediate byte into EA byte
C7 /0 dw   MOV ew,dw   2,mem=3       Move immediate word into EA word


Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The second operand is copied to the first operand.

If the destination operand is a segment register (DS, ES, or SS), then the
associated segment register cache is also loaded. The data for the cache is
obtained from the descriptor table entry for the selector given.

A null selector (values 0000-0003) can be loaded into DS and ES registers
without causing a protection exception. Any use of a segment register with a
null selector to address memory will cause #GP(0) exception. No memory
reference will occur.

Any move into SS will inhibit all interrupts until after the execution of
the next instruction.

Following is a listing of the protected-mode checks and actions taken in
the loading of a segment register:

If SS is loaded:
    If selector is null then #GP(0)
    Selector index must be within its descriptor table limits else
    #GP (selector)
    Selector's RPL must equal CPL else #GP (selector)
    AR byte must indicate a writable data segment else #GP (selector)
    DPL in the AR byte must equal CPL else #GP (selector)
    Segment must be marked PRESENT else #SS (selector)
    Load SS with selector
    Load SS cache with descriptor
If ES or DS is loaded with non-null selector
    Selector index must be within its descriptor table limits else
      #GP (selector)
    AR byte must indicate data or readable code segment else #GP (selector)
    If data or non-conforming code, then both the RPL and the
         CPL must be less than or equal to DPL in AR byte else
         #GP (selector)
    Segment must be marked PRESENT else #NP (selector)
Load segment register with selector
Load segment register cache with descriptor
If ES or DS is loaded with a null selector:
    Load segment register with selector
    Clear descriptor valid bit

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


MOVS/MOVSB/MOVSW‘‘Move Data from String to String

Opcode    Instruction   Clocks   Description

A4        MOVS mb,mb    5        Move byte [SI] to ES:[DI]
A5        MOVS mw,mw    5        Move word [SI] to ES:[DI]
A4        MOVSB         5        Move byte DS:[SI] to ES:[DI]
A5        MOVSW         5        Move word DS:[SI] to ES:[DI]

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

MOVS copies the byte or word at [SI] to the byte or word at ES:[DI]. The
destination operand must be addressable from the ES register; no segment
override is possible. A segment override may be used for the source operand.

After the data movement is made, both SI and DI are automatically advanced.
If the direction flag is 0 (CLD was executed), the registers increment; if
the direction flag is 1 (STD was executed), the registers decrement. The
registers increment or decrement by 1 if a byte was moved; by 2 if a word
was moved.

MOVS can be preceded by the REP prefix for block movement of CX bytes or
words. Refer to the REP instruction for details of this operation.

Protected Address Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if the destination is in a non-writable segment. #GP(0) for an
illegal memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES segments;
#SS(0) for an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


MUL‘‘Unsigned Multiplication of AL or AX

Opcode   Instruction    Clocks       Description

F6  /4   MUL eb         13,mem=16    Unsigned multiply (AX = AL * EA byte)
F7  /4   MUL ew         21,mem=24    Unsigned multiply (DXAX = AX * EA word)

Flags Modified

Overflow, carry

Flags Undefined

Sign, zero, auxiliary carry, parity

Operation

If MUL has a byte operand, then the byte is multiplied by AL, and the
result is left in AX. Carry and overflow are set to 0 if AH is 0; they are
set to 1 otherwise.

If MUL has a word operand, then the word is multiplied by AX, and the
result is left in DX:AX. DX contains the high order 16 bits of the product.
Carry and overflow are set to 0 if DX is 0; they are set to 1 otherwise.

Protected Address Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) for an illegal memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES
segments; #SS(0) for an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


NEG‘‘Two's Complement Negation

Opcode    Instruction      Clocks         Description

F6  /3       NEG eb        2,mem=7        Two's complement negate EA byte
F7  /3       NEG ew        2,mem=7        Two's complement negate EA word

Flags Modified

Overflow, sign, zero, auxiliary carry, parity, carry

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The two's complement of the register or memory operand replaces the old
operand value. Likewise, the operand is subtracted from zero, and the result
is placed in the operand.

The carry flag is set to 1 except when the input operand is zero, in which
case the carry flag is cleared to 0.

Protected Address Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if the result is in a non-writable segment. #GP(0) for an illegal
memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES segments; #SS(0) for
an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


NOP‘‘No OPERATION

Opcode     Instruction      Clocks      Description

90            NOP              3        No OPERATION

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

Performs no operation. NOP is a one-byte filler instruction that takes up
space but affects none of the machine context except IP.

Protected Address Mode Exceptions

None

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None


NOT‘‘One's Complement Negation

Opcode    Instruction   Clocks     Description

F6  /2    NOT eb        2,mem=7    Reverse each bit of EA byte
F7  /2    NOT ew        2,mem=7    Reverse each bit of EA word

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The operand is inverted; that is, every 1 becomes a 0 and vice versa.

Protected Address Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if the result is in a non-writable segment. #GP(0) for an illegal
memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES segments; #SS(0) for
an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


OR‘‘Logical Inclusive OR

Opcode    Instruction     Clocks    Description

08 /r      OR eb,rb       2,mem=7   Logical-OR byte register into EA byte
09 /r      OR ew,rw       2,mem=7   Logical-OR word register into EA word
0A /r      OR rb,eb       2,mem=7   Logical-OR EA byte into byte register
0B /r      OR rw,ew       2,mem=7   Logical-OR EA word into word register
0C db      OR AL,db       3         Logical-OR immediate byte into AL
0D dw      OR AX,dw       3         Logical-OR immediate word into AX
80 /1 db   OR eb,db       3,mem=7   Logical-OR immediate byte  into EA byte
81 /1 dw   OR ew,dw       3,mem=7   Logical-OR immediate word into EA word

Flags Modified

Overflow=0, sign, zero, parity, carry=0

Flags Undefined

Auxiliary carry

Operation

This instruction computes the inclusive OR of the two operands. Each bit of
the result is 0 if both corresponding bits of the operands are 0; each bit
is 1 otherwise. The result is placed in the first operand.

Protected Address Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if the result is in a non-writable segment. #GP(0) for an illegal
memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES segments; #SS(0) for
an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


OUT‘‘Output to Port

Opcode   Instruction   Clocks    Description

E6 db    OUT db,AL     3         Output byte AL to immediate port number db
E7 db    OUT db,AX     3         Output word AX to immediate port number db
EE       OUT DX,AL     3         Output byte AL to port number DX
EF       OUT DX,AX     3         Output word AX to port number DX

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

OUT transfers a data byte or data word from the register (AL or AX) given
as the second operand to the output port numbered by the first operand. You
can output to any port from 0-65535 by placing the port number in the DX
register then using an OUT instruction with DX as the first operand. If the
instruction contains an 8-bit port ID, that value is zero-extended to 16
bits.

Intel reserves I/O port addresses 00F8H through 00FFH; these addresses
should not be used.

Protected Address Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if the current privilege level is bigger (has less privilege) than
IOPL, which is the privilege level found in the flags register.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None


OUTS/OUTSB/OUTSW‘‘Output String to Port

Opcode  Instruction    Clocks     Description

6E      OUTS DX,eb     5          Output byte [SI] to port number DX
6F      OUTS DX,ew     5          Output word [SI] to port number DX
6E      OUTSB          5          Output byte DS:[SI] to port number DX
6F      OUTSW          5          Output word DS:[SI] to port number DX

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined
None

Operation

OUTS transfers data from the memory byte or word at SI to the output port
numbered by the DX register.

OUTS does not allow the specification of the port number as an immediate
value. The port must be addressed through the DX register.

After the transfer is made, SI is automatically advanced. If the direction
flag is 0 (CLD was executed), SI increments; if the direction flag is 1 (STD
was executed), SI decrements. SI increments or decrements by 1 if a byte was
moved; by 2 if a word was moved.

OUTS can be preceded by the REP prefix for block output of CX bytes or
words. Refer to the REP instruction for details of this operation.

Intel reserves I/O port addresses 00F8H through 00FFH; these addresses
should not be used.

‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘
NOTE
  Not all output devices can handle the rate at which this instruction
  transfers data.
‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if CPL > IOPL. #GP(0) for an illegal memory operand effective
address in the CS, DS, or ES segments; #SS(0) for an illegal address in the
SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


POP‘‘Pop a Word from the Stack

Opcode     Instruction       Clocks      Description

 1F          POP DS           5,pm=20    Pop top of stack into DS
 07          POP ES           5,pm=20    Pop top of stack into ES
 17          POP SS           5,pm=20    Pop top of stack into SS
 8F /0       POP mw           5          Pop top of stack into memory word
 58+rw       POP rw           5          Pop top of stack into word register

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The word on the top of the 80286 stack, addressed by SS:SP, replaces the
previous contents of the memory, register, or segment register operand. The
stack pointer SP is incremented by 2 to point to the new top of stack.

If the destination operand is another segment register (DS, ES, or SS), the
value popped must be a selector. In protected mode, loading the selector
initiates automatic loading of the descriptor information associated with
that selector into the hidden part of the segment register; loading also
initiates validation of both the selector and the descriptor information.

A null value (0000-0003) may be loaded into the DS or ES register without
causing a protection exception. Attempts to reference memory using a segment
register with a null value will cause #GP(0) exception. No memory reference
will occur. The saved value of the segment register will be null.

A POP SS instruction will inhibit all interrupts, including NMI, until
after the execution of the next instruction. This permits a POP SP
instruction to be performed first.

Following is a listing of the protected-mode checks and actions taken in
the loading of a segment register:

If SS is loaded:
  If selector is null then #GP(0)
  Selector index must be within its descriptor table limits else #GP
  (selector)
  Selector's RPL must equal CPL else #GP (selector)
  AR byte must indicate a writable data segment else #GP (selector)
  DPL in the AR byte must equal CPL else #GP (selector)
  Segment must be marked PRESENT else #SS (selector)
  Load SS register with selector
  Load SS cache with descriptor
If ES or DS is loaded with non-null selector:
  AR byte must indicate data or readable code segment else #GP (selector)
  If data or non-conforming code, then both the RPL and the
          CPL must be less than or equal to DPL in AR byte else
          #GP (selector)
  Segment must be marked PRESENT else #NP (selector)
  Load segment register with selector
  Load segment register cache with descriptor
If ES or DS is loaded with a null selector:
  Load segment register with selector
  Clear valid bit in cache

Protected Mode Exceptions

If a segment register is being loaded, #GP, #SS, and #NP, as described in
the listing above.

Otherwise, #SS(0) if the current top of stack is not within the stack
segment.

#GP(0) if the destination is in a non-writable segment. #GP(0) for an
illegal memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES segments;
#SS(0) for an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


POPA‘‘Pop All General Registers

Opcode     Instruction     Clocks     Description

 61         POPA            19         Pop in order: DI,SI,BP,SP,BX,DX,CX,AX

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

POPA pops the eight general registers given in the description above,
except that the SP value is discarded instead of loaded into SP. POPA
reverses a previous PUSHA, restoring the general registers to their values
before PUSHA was executed. The first register popped is DI.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#SS(0) if the starting or ending stack address is not within the stack
segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


POPF‘‘Pop from Stack into the Flags Register

Opcode     Instruction     Clocks     Description

 9D         POPF            5          Pop top of stack into flags register

Flags Modified

Entire flags register is popped from stack

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The top of the 80286 stack, pointed to by SS:SP, is copied into the 80286
flags register. The stack pointer SP is incremented by 2 to point to the new
top of stack. The flags, from the top bit (bit 15) to the bottom (bit 0),
are as follows: undefined, nested task, I/O privilege level (2 bits),
overflow, direction, interrupts enabled, trap, sign, zero, undefined,
auxiliary carry, undefined, parity, undefined, and carry.

The I/O privilege level will be altered only when executing at privilege
level 0. The interrupt enable flag will be altered only when executing at a
level at least as privileged as the I/O privilege level. If you execute a
POPF instruction with insufficient privilege, there will be no exception
nor will the privileged bits be changed.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#SS(0) if the top of stack is not within the stack segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at 0FFFFH.

In real mode the NT and IOPL bits will not be modified.


PUSH‘‘Push a Word onto the Stack

Opcode     Instruction  Clocks    Description

 06         PUSH ES      3         Push ES
 0E         PUSH CS      3         Push CS
 16         PUSH SS      3         Push SS
 1E         PUSH DS      3         Push DS
 50+ rw     PUSH rw      3         Push word register
 FF  /6     PUSH mw      5         Push memory word
 68  dw     PUSH dw      3         Push immediate word
 6A  db     PUSH db      3         Push immediate sign-extended byte

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The stack pointer SP is decremented by 2, and the operand is placed on the
new top of stack, which is pointed to by SS:SP.

The 80286 PUSH SP instruction pushes the value of SP as it existed before
the instruction. This differs from the 8086, which pushes the new
(decremented by 2) value.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#SS(0) if the new value of SP is outside the stack segment limit.

#GP(0) for an illegal memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES
segments; #SS(0) for an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None; the 80286 will shut down if SP = 1 ‘‘due to lack of stack space.


PUSHA‘‘Push All General Registers

Opcode     Instruction     Clocks     Description

 60         PUSHA           17         Push in order: AX,CX,DX,BX,original
                                       SP,BP,SI,DI

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

PUSHA saves the registers noted above on the 80286 stack. The stack pointer
SP is decremented by 16 to hold the 8 word values. Since the registers are
pushed onto the stack in the order in which they were given, they will
appear in the 16 new stack bytes in the reverse order. The last register
pushed is DI.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#SS(0) if the starting or ending address is outside the stack segment
limit.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

The 80286 will shut down if SP = 1, 3, or 5 before executing PUSHA. If SP =
7, 9, 11, 13, or 15, exception 13 will occur.


PUSHF‘‘Push Flags Register onto the Stack

Opcode     Instruction     Clocks     Description

 9C         PUSHF           3          Push flags register

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The stack pointer SP is decremented by 2, and the 80286 flags register is
copied to the new top of stack, which is pointed to by SS:SP. The flags,
from the top bit (15) to the bottom bit (0), are as follows: undefined,
nested task, I/O privilege level (2 bits), overflow, direction, interrupts
enabled, trap, sign, zero, undefined, auxiliary carry, undefined, parity,
undefined, and carry.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#SS(0) if the new value of SP is outside the stack segment limit.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None; the 80286 will shut down if SP=1 due‘‘to lack of stack space.


RCL/RCR/ROL/ROR‘‘Rotate Instructions


Opcode    Instruction  Clocks-N
Add 1 clock to the times shown for each rotate made Description
D0 /2     RCL eb,1     2,mem=7   Rotate 9-bits (CF, EA byte) left once
D2 /2     RCL eb,CL    5,mem=8   Rotate 9-bits (CF, EA byte) left CL times
C0 /2 db  RCL eb,db    5,mem=8   Rotate 9-bits (CF, EA byte) left db times
D1 /2     RCL ew,1     2,mem=7   Rotate 17-bits (CF, EA word) left once
D3 /2     RCL ew,CL    5,mem=8   Rotate 17-bits (CF, EA word) left CL times
C1 /2 db  RCL ew,db    5,mem=8   Rotate 17-bits (CF, EA word) left db times
D0 /3     RCR eb,1     2,mem=7   Rotate 9-bits (CF, EA byte) right once
D2 /3     RCR eb,CL    5,mem=8   Rotate 9-bits (CF, EA byte) right CL times
C0 /3 db  RCR eb,db    5,mem=8   Rotate 9-bits (CF, EA byte) right db times
D1 /3     RCR ew,1     2,mem=7   Rotate 17-bits (CF, EA word) right once
D3 /3     RCR ew,CL    5,mem=8   Rotate 17-bits (CF, EA word) right CL times
C1 /3 db  RCR ew,db    5,mem=8   Rotate 17-bits (CF, EA word) right db times
D0 /0     ROL eb,1     2,mem=7   Rotate 8-bit EA byte left once
D2 /0     ROL eb,CL    5,mem=8   Rotate 8-bit EA byte left CL times
C0 /0 db  ROL eb,db    5,mem=8   Rotate 8-bit EA byte left db times
D1 /0     ROL ew,1     2,mem=7   Rotate 16-bit EA word left once
D3 /0     ROL ew,CL    5,mem=8   Rotate 16-bit EA word left CL times
C1 /0 db  ROL ew,db    5,mem=8   Rotate 16-bit EA word left db times
D0 /1     ROR eb,1     2,mem=7   Rotate 8-bit EA byte right once
D2 /1     ROR eb,CL    5,mem=8   Rotate 8-bit EA byte right CL times
C0 /1 db  ROR eb,db    5,mem=8   Rotate 8-bit EA byte right db times
D1 /1     ROR ew,1     2,mem=7   Rotate 16-bit EA word right once
D3 /1     ROR ew,CL    5,mem=8   Rotate 16-bit EA word right CL times
C1 /1 db  ROR ew,db    5,mem=8   Rotate 16-bit EA word right db times


Flags Modified

Overflow (only for single rotates), carry

Flags Undefined

Overflow for multi-bit rotates

Operation

Each rotate instruction shifts the bits of the register or memory operand
given. The left rotate instructions shift all of the bits upward, except for
the top bit, which comes back around to the bottom. The right rotate
instructions do the reverse: the bits shift downward, with the bottom bit
coming around to the top.

For the RCL and RCR instructions, the carry flag is part of the rotated
quantity. RCL shifts the carry flag into the bottom bit and shifts the top
bit into the carry flag; RCR shifts the carry flag into the top bit and
shifts the bottom bit into the carry flag. For the ROL and ROR
instructions, the original value of the carry flag is not a part of the
result; nonetheless, the carry flag receives a copy of the bit that was
shifted from one end to the other.

The rotate is repeated the number of times indicated by the second operand,
which is either an immediate number or the contents of the CL register. To
reduce the maximum execution time, the 80286 does not allow rotation counts
greater than 31. If a rotation count greater than 31 is attempted, only the
bottom five bits of the rotation are used. The 8086 does not mask rotate
counts.

The overflow flag is set only for the single-rotate (second operand = 1)
forms of the instructions. The OF bit is set to be accurate if a shift of
length 1 is done. Since it is undefined for all other values, including a
zero shift, it can always be set for the count-of-1 case regardless of the
actual count. For left shifts/rotates, the CF bit after the shift is XORed
with the high-order result bit. For right shifts/rotates, the high-order
two bits of the result are XORed to get OF. Neither flag bit is modified
when the count value is zero.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if the result is in a non-writable segment. #GP(0) for an illegal
memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES segments; #SS(0) for
an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


REP/REPE/REPNE‘‘Repeat Following String Operation


Opcode  Instruction      Clocks
N denotes the number of iterations actually executed.   Description
F3 6C   REP INS eb,DX    5+4 CX    Input CX bytes from port DX into ES:[DI]
F3 6D   REP INS ew,DX    5+4 CX    Input CX words from port DX into ES:[DI]
F3 6C   REP INSB         5+4 CX    Input CX bytes from port DX into ES:[DI]
F3 6D   REP INSW         5+4 CX    Input CX words from port DX into ES:[DI]
F3 A4   REP MOVS mb,mb   5+4 CX    Move CX bytes from [SI] to ES:[DI]
F3 A5   REP MOVS mw,mw   5+4 CX    Move CX words from [SI] to ES:[DI]
F3 A4   REP MOVSB        5+4 CX    Move CX bytes from DS:[SI] to ES:[DI]
F3 A5   REP MOVSW        5+4 CX    Move CX words from DS:[SI] to ES:[DI]
F3 6E   REP OUTS DX,eb   5+4 CX    Output CX bytes from [SI] to port DX
F3 6F   REP OUTS DX,ew   5+4 CX    Output CX words from [SI] to port DX
F3 6E   REP OUTSB        5+4 CX    Output CX bytes from DS:[SI] to port DX
F3 6F   REP OUTSW        5+4 CX    Output CX words from DS:[SI] to port DX
F3 AA   REP STOS mb      4+3 CX    Fill CX bytes at ES:[DI] with AL
F3 AB   REP STOS mw      4+3 CX    Fill CX words at ES:[DI] with AX
F3 AA   REP STOSB        4+3 CX    Fill CX bytes at ES:[DI] with AL
F3 AB   REP STOSW        4+3 CX    Fill CX words at ES:[DI] with AX
F3 A6   REPE CMPS mb,mb  5+9 N     Find nonmatching bytes in
                                   ES:[DI] and [SI]
F3 A7   REPE CMPS mw,mw  5+9 N     Find nonmatching words in
                                   ES:[DI] and [SI]
F3 A6   REPE CMPSB       5+9 N     Find nonmatching bytes in ES:[DI]
                                   and DS:[SI]
F3 A7   REPE CMPSW       5+9 N     Find nonmatching words in ES:[DI]
                                   and DS:[SI]
F3 AE   REPE SCAS mb     5+8 N     Find non-AL byte starting at ES:[DI]
F3 AF   REPE SCAS mw     5+8 N     Find non-AX word starting at ES:[DI]
F3 AE   REPE SCASB       5+8 N     Find non-AL byte starting at ES:[DI]
F3 AF   REPE SCASW       5+8 N     Find non-AX word starting at ES:[DI]
F2 A6   REPNE CMPS mb,mb 5+9 N     Find matching bytes in
                                   ES:[DI] and [SI]
F2 A7   REPNE CMPS mw,mw 5+9 N     Find matching words in
                                   ES:[DI] and [SI]
F2 A6   REPNE CMPSB      5+9 N     Find matching bytes in ES:[DI]
                                   and DS:[SI]
F2 A7   REPNE CMPSW      5+9 N     Find matching words in ES:[DI]
                                   and DS:[SI]
F2 AE   REPNE SCAS mb    5+8 N     Find AL, starting at ES:[DI]
F2 AF   REPNE SCAS mw    5+8 N     Find AX, starting at ES:[DI]
F2 AE   REPNE SCASB      5y+8 N    Find AL, starting at ES:[DI]
F2 AF   REPNE SCASW      5+8 N     Find AX, starting at ES:[DI]


Flags Modified

By CMPS and SCAS, none by REP

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

REP, REPE, and REPNE are prefix operations. These prefixes cause the string
instruction that follows to be repeated CX times or (for REPE and REPNE)
until the indicated condition in the zero flag is no longer met. Thus, REPE
stands for "Repeat while equal," REPNE for "Repeat while not equal."

The REP prefixes make sense only in the contexts listed above. They cannot
be applied to anything other than string operations.

Synonymous forms of REPE and REPNE are REPZ and REPNZ, respectively.

The REP prefixes apply only to one string instruction at a time. To repeat
a block of instructions, use a LOOP construct.

The precise action for each iteration is as follows:

  1.  Check the CX register. If it is zero, exit the iteration and move to
      the next instruction.

  2.  Acknowledge any pending interrupts.

  3.  Perform the string operation once.

  4.  Decrement CX by 1; no flags are modified.

  5.  If the string operation is SCAS or CMPS, check the zero flag. If the
      repeat condition does not hold, then exit the iteration and move to
      the next instruction. Exit if the prefix is REPE and ZF=0 (the last
      comparison was not equal), or if the prefix is REPNE and ZF=1 (the
      last comparison was equal).

  6.  Go to step 1 for the next iteration.

As defined by the individual string-ops, the direction of movement through
the block is determined by the direction flag. If the direction flag is 1
(STD was executed), SI and/or DI start at the end of the block and move
backward; if the direction flag is 0 (CLD was executed), SI and/or DI start
at the beginning of the block and move forward.

For repeated SCAS and CMPS operations the repeat can be exited for one of
two different reasons: the CX count can be exhausted or the zero flag can
fail the repeat condition. Your code will probably want to distinguish
between the two cases. It can do so via either the JCXZ instruction or the
conditional jumps that test the zero flag (JZ, JNZ, JE, and JNE).

Not all input/output ports can handle the rate at which the repeated I/O
instructions execute.

Protected Mode Exceptions

None by REP; exceptions can be generated when the string-op is executed.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None by REP; exceptions can be generated when the string-op is executed.


RET‘‘Return from Procedure

Opcode  Instruction  Clocks
Add 1 clock for each byte in the next instruction executed.    Description

 CB      RET          15,pm=25   Return to far caller, same privilege
 CB      RET          55         Return, lesser privilege, switch stacks
 C3      RET          11         Return to near caller, same privilege
 CA dw   RET dw       15,pm=25   RET (far), same privilege, pop dw bytes
 CA dw   RET dw       55         RET (far), lesser privilege, pop dw bytes
 C2 dw   RET dw       11         RET (near), same privilege, pop dw bytes
                                 pushed before Call

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

RET transfers control to a return address located on the stack. The address
is usually placed on the stack by a CALL instruction; in that case, the
return is made to the instruction that follows the CALL.

There is an optional numeric parameter to RET. It gives the number of stack
bytes to be released after the return address is popped. These bytes are
typically used as input parameters to the procedure called.

For the intra-segment return, the address on the stack is a 2-byte quantity
popped into IP. The CS register is unchanged.

For the inter-segment return, the address on the stack is a 4-byte-long
pointer. The offset is popped first, followed by the selector. In real
address mode, CS and IP are directly loaded.

In protected mode, an inter-segment return causes the processor to consult
the descriptor addressed by the return selector. The AR byte of the
descriptor must indicate a code segment of equal or less privilege (of
greater or equal numeric value) than the current privilege level. Returns
to a lesser privilege level cause the stack to be reloaded from the value
saved beyond the parameter block.

The DS and ES segment registers may be set to zero by the inter-segment RET
instruction. If these registers refer to segments which cannot be used by
the new privilege level, they are set to zero to prevent unauthorized
access.

The following list of checks and actions describes the protected-mode
inter-segment return in detail.

Inter-segment RET:
    Second word on stack must be within stack limits else #SS(0)
    Return selector RPL must be  CPL else #GP (return selector)
    If return selector RPL = CPL then
    RETURN TO SAME LEVEL:
    Return selector must be non-null else #GP(0)
    Selector index must be within its descriptor table limits else
    #GP (selector)
    Descriptor AR byte must indicate code segment else #GP (selector)
    If non-conforming then code segment DPL must equal CPL else
    #GP (selector)
    If conforming then code segment DPL must be ¾ CPL else #GP (selector)
    Code segment must be PRESENT else #NP (selector)
    Top word on stack must be within stack limits else #SS(0)
    IP must be in code segment limit else #GP(0)
    Load CS:IP from stack
    Load CS-cache with descriptor
    Increment SP by 4 plus the immediate offset if it exists
Else
    RETURN TO OUTER PRIVILEGE LEVEL:
    Top (8+immediate) bytes on stack must be within stack limits else #SS(0)
    Examine return CS selector (at SP+2) and associated descriptor:
       Selector must be non-null else #GP(0)
       Selector index must be within its descriptor table limits else
       #GP (selector)
       Descriptor AR byte must indicate code segment else #GP (selector)
       If non-conforming then code segment DPL must equal return selector
       RPL else #GP (selector)
       If conforming then code segment DPL must be ¾ return selector RPL
       else #GP (selector)
       Segment must be PRESENT else #NP (selector)
    Examine return SS selector (at SP+6+imm) and associated descriptor:
       Selector must be non-null else #GP(0)
       Selector index must be within its descriptor table limits else
       #GP (selector)
       Selector RPL must equal the RPL of the return CS selector else
       #GP (selector)
       Descriptor AR byte must indicate a writable data segment else
       #GP (selector)
       Descriptor DPL must equal the RPL of the return CS selector else
       #GP (selector)
       Segment must be PRESENT else #SS (selector)
    IP must be in code segment limit else # GP(0)
    Set CPL to the RPL of the return CS selector
    Load CS:IP from stack
    Set CS RPL to CPL
    Increment SP by 4 plus the immediate offset if it exists
    Load SS:SP from stack
    Load the CS-cache with the return CS descriptor
    Load the SS-cache with the return SS descriptor
    For each of ES and DS:
       If the current register setting is not valid for the outer level,
       set the register to null (selector = AR = 0)
       To be valid, the register setting must satisfy the following
       properties:
           Selector index must be within descriptor table limits
           Descriptor AR byte must indicate data or readable code segment
           If segment is data or non-conforming code, then:
              DPL must be  CPL, or
              DPL must be  RPL

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP, #NP, or #SS, as described in the above listing.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 if the stack pop wraps around from 0FFFFH to 0.


SAHF‘‘Store AH into Flags

Opcode    Instruction     Clocks   Description

 9E         SAHF            2       Store AH into flags
                                    SF ZF xx AF xx PF xx CF

Flags Modified

Sign, zero, auxiliary carry, parity, carry

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The flags listed above are loaded with values from the AH register, from
bits 7, 6, 4, 2, and 0, respectively.

Protected Mode Exceptions

None

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None


SAL/SAR/SHL/SHR‘‘Shift Instructions

Opcode     Instruction   Clocks-N
Add 1 clock to the times shown for each shift performed    Description

D0 /4      SAL eb,1      2,mem=7      Multiply EA byte by 2, once
D2 /4      SAL eb,CL     5,mem=8      Multiply EA byte by 2, CL times
C0 /4 db   SAL eb,db     5,mem=8      Multiply EA byte by 2, db times
D1 /4      SAL ew,1      2,mem=7      Multiply EA word by 2, once
D3 /4      SAL ew,CL     5,mem=8      Multiply EA word by 2, CL times
C1 /4 db   SAL ew,db     5,mem=8      Multiply EA word by 2, db times
D0 /7      SAR eb,1      2,mem=7      Signed divide EA byte by 2, once
D2 /7      SAR eb,CL     5,mem=8      Signed divide EA byte by 2, CL times
C0 /7 db   SAR eb,db     5,mem=8      Signed divide EA byte by 2, db times
D1 /7      SAR ew,1      2,mem=7      Signed divide EA word by 2, once
D3 /7      SAR ew,CL     5,mem=8      Signed divide EA word by 2, CL times
C1 /7 db   SAR ew,db     5,mem=8      Signed divide EA word by 2, db times
D0 /5      SHR eb,1      2,mem=7      Unsigned divide EA byte by 2, once
D2 /5      SHR eb,CL     5,mem=8      Unsigned divide EA byte by 2, CL times
C0 /5 db   SHR eb,db     5,mem=8      Unsigned divide EA byte by 2, db times
D1 /5      SHR ew,1      2,mem=7      Unsigned divide EA word by 2, once
D3 /5      SHR ew,CL     5,mem=8      Unsigned divide EA word by 2, CL times


Flags Modified

Overflow (only for single-shift form), carry, zero, parity, sign

Flags Undefined

Auxiliary carry; also overflow for multibit shifts (only).

Operation

SAL (or its synonym SHL) shifts the bits of the operand upward. The
high-order bit is shifted into the carry flag, and the low-order bit is set
to 0.

SAR and SHR shift the bits of the operand downward. The low-order bit is
shifted into the carry flag. The effect is to divide the operand by 2. SAR
performs a signed divide: the high-order bit remains the same. SHR performs
an unsigned divide: the high-order bit is set to 0.

The shift is repeated the number of times indicated by the second operand,
which is either an immediate number or the contents of the CL register. To
reduce the maximum execution time, the 80286 does not allow shift counts
greater than 31. If a shift count greater than 31 is attempted, only the
bottom five bits of the shift count are used. The 8086 uses all 8 bits of
the shift count.

The overflow flag is set only if the single-shift forms of the instructions
are used. For left shifts, it is set to 0 if the high bit of the answer is
the same as the result carry flag (i.e., the top two bits of the original
operand were the same); it is set to 1 if they are different. For SAR it is
set to 0 for all single shifts. For SHR, it is set to the high-order bit of
the original operand. Neither flag bit is modified when the count value is
zero.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if the operand is in a non-writable segment. #GP(0) for an illegal
memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES segments; #SS(0) for
an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


SBB‘‘Integer Subtraction With Borrow

Opcode      Instruction  Clocks    Description

18 /r       SBB eb,rb    2,mem=7   Subtract with borrow byte
                                   register from EA byte
19 /r       SBB ew,rw    2,mem=7   Subtract with borrow word
                                   register from EA word
1A /r       SBB rb,eb    2,mem=7   Subtract with borrow EA byte
                                   from byte register
1B /r       SBB rw,ew    2,mem=7   Subtract with borrow EA word
                                   from word register
1C db       SBB AL,db    3         Subtract with borrow imm.
                                   byte from AL
1D dw       SBB AX,dw    3         Subtract with borrow imm.
                                   word from AX
80 /3 db    SBB eb,db    3,mem=7   Subtract with borrow imm. byte
                                   from EA byte
81 /3 dw    SBB ew,dw    3,mem=7   Subtract with borrow imm. word
                                   from EA word
83 /3 db    SBB ew,db    3,mem=7   Subtract with borrow imm. byte
                                   from EA word

Flags Modified

Overflow, sign, zero, auxiliary carry, parity, carry

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The second operand is added to the carry flag and the result is subtracted
from the first operand. The first operand is replaced with the result of the
subtraction, and the flags are set accordingly.

When a byte-immediate value is subtracted from a word operand, the
immediate value is first sign-extended.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if the result is in a non-writable segment. #GP(0) for an illegal
memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES segments; #SS(0) for
an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


SCAS/SCASB/SCASW‘‘Compare String Data

Opcode   Instruction   Clocks   Description

 AE       SCAS mb       7        Compare bytes AL - ES:[DI], advance DI
 AF       SCAS mw       7        Compare words AX - ES:[DI], advance DI
 AE       SCASB         7        Compare bytes AL - ES:[DI], advance DI
 AF       SCASW         7        Compare words AX - ES:[DI], advance DI

Flags Modified

Overflow, sign, zero, auxiliary carry, parity, carry

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

SCAS subtracts the memory byte or word at ES:DI from the AL or AX register.
The result is discarded; only the flags are set. The operand must be
addressable from the ES register; no segment override is possible.

After the comparison is made, DI is automatically advanced. If the
direction flag is 0 (CLD was executed), DI increments; if the direction flag
is 1 (STD was executed), DI decrements. DI increments or decrements by 1 if
bytes were compared; by 2 if words were compared.

SCAS can be preceded by the REPE or REPNE prefix for a block search of CX
bytes or words. Refer to the REP instruction for details of this operation.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) for an illegal memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES
segments; #SS(0) for an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


SGDT/SIDT‘‘Store Global/Interrupt Descriptor Table Register

Opcode     Instruction  Clocks    Description

0F 01 /0   SGDT m       11        Store Global Descriptor Table register 
                                  to m
0F 01 /1   SIDT m       12        Store Interrupt Descriptor Table
                                  register to m

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The contents of the descriptor table register are copied to six bytes of
memory indicated by the operand. The LIMIT field of the register goes to the
first word at the effective address; the next three bytes get the BASE field
of the register; and the last byte is undefined.

SGDT and SIDT appear only in operating systems software; they are not used
in applications programs.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#UD if the destination operand is a register. #GP(0) if the destination is
in a non-writable segment. #GP(0) for an illegal memory operand effective
address in the CS, DS, or ES segments; #SS(0) for an illegal address in the
SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

These instructions are valid in Real Address mode to facilitate power-up or
to reset initialization prior to entering Protected mode.

#UD if the destination operand is a register. Interrupt 13 for a word
operand at offset 0FFFFH.


SLDT‘‘Store Local Descriptor Table Register

Opcode    Instruction   Clocks    Description

0F 00 /0   SLDT ew       2,mem=3   Store Local Descriptor Table register to
                                   EA word

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The Local Descriptor Table register is stored in the 2-byte register or
memory location indicated by the effective address operand. This register is
a selector that points into the Global Descriptor Table.

SLDT appears only in operating systems software. It is not used in
applications programs.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if the destination is in a non-writable segment. #GP(0) for an
illegal memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES segments;
#SS(0) for an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 6; SLDT is not recognized in Real Address mode.


SMSW‘‘Store Machine Status Word

Opcode     Instruction   Clocks      Description

0F 01 /4   SMSW ew       2,mem=3     Store Machine Status Word to EA word

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The Machine Status Word is stored in the 2-byte register or memory location
indicated by the effective address operand.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if the destination is in a non-writable segment. #GP(0) for an
illegal memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES segments;
#SS(0) for an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


STC‘‘Set Carry Flag

Opcode     Instruction      Clocks      Description

 F9         STC              2           Set carry flag

Flags Modified

Carry=1

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The carry flag is set to 1.

Protected Mode Exceptions

None

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None


STD‘‘Set Direction Flag

Opcode   Instruction   Clocks    Description

FD        STD           2         Set direction flag so SI and DI
                                  will decrement

Flags Modified

Direction=1

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The direction flag is set to 1. This causes all subsequent string
operations to decrement the index registers (SI and/or DI) on which they
operate.

Protected Mode Exceptions

None

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None


STI‘‘Set Interrupt Enable Flag

Opcode   Instruction   Clocks   Description

FB        STI             2      Set interrupt enable flag,
                                 interrupts enabled

Flags Modified

Interrupt=1 (enabled)

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The interrupts-enabled flag is set to 1. The 80286 will now respond to
external interrupts after executing the STI instruction.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if the current privilege level is bigger (has less privilege) than
the I/O privilege level.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

None


STOS/STOSB/STOSW‘‘Store String Data

Opcode  Instruction     Clocks    Description

AA       STOS mb         3          Store AL to byte ES:[DI], advance DI
AB       STOS mw         3          Store AX to word ES:[DI], advance DI
AA       STOSB           3          Store AL to byte ES:[DI], advance DI
AB       STOSW           3          Store AX to word ES:[DI], advance DI

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

STOS transfers the contents the AL or AX register to the memory byte or
word at ES:DI. The operand must be addressable from the ES register; no
segment override is possible.

After the transfer is made, DI is automatically advanced. If the direction
flag is 0 (CLD was executed), DI increments; if the direction flag is 1 (STD
was executed), DI decrements. DI increments or decrements by 1 if a byte was
moved; by 2 if a word was moved.

STOS can be preceded by the REP prefix for a block fill of CX bytes or
words. Refer to the REP instruction for details of this operation.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if the destination is in a non-writable segment. #GP(0) for an
illegal memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES segments;
#SS(0) for an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


STR‘‘Store Task Register

Opcode      Instruction    Clocks      Description

0F 00 /1     STR ew         2,mem=3     Store Task Register to EA word

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The contents of the Task Register are copied to the 2-byte register or
memory location indicated by the effective address operand.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if the destination is in a non-writable segment. #GP(0) for an
illegal memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES segments;
#SS(0) for an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 6; STR is not recognized in Real Address mode.


SUB‘‘Integer Subtraction

Opcode     Instruction    Clocks      Description

28 /r      SUB eb,rb      2,mem=7     Subtract byte register from EA byte
29 /r      SUB ew,rw      2,mem=7     Subtract word register from EA word
2A /r      SUB rb,eb      2,mem=7     Subtract EA byte from byte register
2B /r      SUB rw,ew      2,mem=7     Subtract EA word from word register
2C db      SUB AL,db      3           Subtract immediate byte from AL
2D dw      SUB AX,dw      3           Subtract immediate word from AX
80 /5 db   SUB eb,db      3,mem=7     Subtract immediate byte from EA byte
81 /5 dw   SUB ew,dw      3,mem=7     Subtract immediate word from EA word
83 /5 db   SUB ew,db      3,mem=7     Subtract immediate byte from
                                      EA word

Flags Modified

Overflow, sign, zero, auxiliary carry, parity, carry

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The second operand is subtracted from the first operand, and the first
operand is replaced with the result.

When a byte-immediate value is subtracted from a word operand, the
immediate value is firstsign-extended.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if the result is in a non-writable segment. #GP(0) for an illegal
memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES segments; #SS(0) for
an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


TEST‘‘Logical Compare

Opcode    Instruction    Clocks     Description

84 /r      TEST eb,rb    2,mem=6    AND byte register into EA byte
                                    for flags only
84 /r      TEST rb,eb    2,mem=6    AND EA byte into byte register
                                    for flags only
85 /r      TEST ew,rw    2,mem=6    AND word register into EA word
                                    for flags only
85 /r      TEST rw,ew    2,mem=6    AND EA word into word register
                                    for flags only
A8 db      TEST AL,db    3          AND immediate byte into AL
                                    for flags only
A9 dw      TEST AX,dw    3          AND immediate word into AX
                                    for flags only
F6 /0 db   TEST eb,db    3,mem=6    AND immediate byte into EA byte
                                    for flags only
F7 /0 dw   TEST ew,dw    3,mem=6    AND immediate word into EA word
                                    for flags only

Flags Modified

Overflow=0, sign, zero, parity, carry=0

Flags Undefined

Auxiliary carry

Operation

TEST computes the bit-wise logical AND of the two operands given. Each bit
of the result is 1 if both of the corresponding bits of the operands are 1;
each bit is 0 otherwise. The result of the operation is discarded; only the
flags are modified.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) for an illegal memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES
segments; #SS(0) for an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


VERR,VERW‘‘Verify a Segment for Reading or Writing

Opcode     Instruction  Clocks      Description

0F 00 /4   VERR ew      14,mem=16   Set ZF=1 if seg. can be read,
                                    selector ew
0F 00 /5   VERW ew      14,mem=16   Set ZF=1 if seg. can be written,
                                    selector ew

Flags Modified

Zero

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

VERR and VERW expect the 2-byte register or memory operand to contain the
value of a selector. The instructions determine whether the segment denoted
by the selector is reachable from the current privilege level; the
instructions also determine whether it is readable or writable. If the
segment is determined to be accessible, the zero flag is set to 1; if the
segment is not accessible, it is set to 0. To set ZF, the following
conditions must be met:

  1.  The selector must denote a descriptor within the bounds of the table
      (GDT or LDT); that is, the selector must be "defined."

  2.  The selector must denote the descriptor of a code or data segment.

  3.  If the instruction is VERR, the segment must be readable. If the
      instruction is VERW, the segment must be a writable data segment.

  4.  If the code segment is readable and conforming, the descriptor
      privilege level (DPL) can be any value for VERR. Otherwise, the DPL
      must be greater than or equal to (have less or the same privilege as)
      both the current privilege level and the selector's RPL.

The validation performed is the same as if the segment were loaded into DS
or ES and the indicated access (read or write) were performed. The zero flag
receives the result of the validation. The selector's value cannot result in
a protection exception. This enables the software to anticipate possible
segment access problems.

Protected Mode Exceptions

The only faults that can occur are those generated by illegally addressing
the memory operand which contains the selector. The selector is not loaded
into any segment register, and no faults attributable to the selector
operand are generated.

#GP(0) for an illegal memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES
segments; #SS(0) for an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 6; VERR and VERW are not recognized in Real Address Mode.


WAIT‘‘Wait Until BUSY Pin Is Inactive (HIGH)

Opcode   Instruction    Clocks   Description

9B        WAIT           3        Wait until BUSY pin is inactive (HIGH)

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

WAIT suspends execution of 80286 instructions until the BUSY pin is inactive
(high). The BUSY pin is driven by the 80287 numeric processor extension.
WAIT is issued to ensure that the numeric instruction being executed is
complete, and to check for a possible numeric fault (see below).

Protected Mode Exceptions

#NM if task switch flag in MSW is set. #MF if 80287 has detected an
unmasked numeric error.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Same as Protected mode.


XCHG‘‘Exchange Memory/Register with Register

Opcode    Instruction    Clocks      Description

86 /r     XCHG eb,rb     3,mem=5     Exchange byte register with EA byte
86 /r     XCHG rb,eb     3,mem=5     Exchange EA byte with byte register
87 /r     XCHG ew,rw     3,mem=5     Exchange word register with EA word
87 /r     XCHG rw,ew     3,mem=5     Exchange EA word with word register
90+ rw    XCHG AX,rw     3           Exchange word register with AX
90+ rw    XCHG rw,AX     3           Exchange with word register

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

The two operands are exchanged. The order of the operands is immaterial.
BUS LOCK is asserted for the duration of the exchange, regardless of the
presence or absence of the LOCK prefix or IOPL.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if either operand is in a non-writable segment. #GP(0) for an
illegal memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES segments;
#SS(0) for an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


XLAT‘‘Table Look-up Translation

Opcode    Instruction  Clocks   Description

D7        XLAT mb      5        Set AL to memory byte DS:[BX + unsigned AL]
D7        XLATB        5        Set AL to memory byte DS:[BX + unsigned AL]

Flags Modified

None

Flags Undefined

None

Operation

When XLAT is executed, AL should be the unsigned index into a table
addressed by DS:BX. XLAT changes the AL register from the table index into
the table entry. BX is unchanged.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) for an illegal memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES
segments; #SS(0) for an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


XOR‘‘Logical Exclusive OR

Opcode    Instruction Clocks    Description

30 /r     XOR eb,rb   2,mem=7   Exclusive-OR byte register into EA byte
31 /r     XOR ew,rw   2,mem=7   Exclusive-OR word register into EA word
32 /r     XOR rb,eb   2,mem=7   Exclusive-OR EA byte into byte register
33 /r     XOR rw,ew   2,mem=7   Exclusive-OR EA word into word register
34 db     XOR AL,db   3         Exclusive-OR immediate byte into AL
35 dw     XOR AX,dw   3         Exclusive-OR immediate word into AX
80 /6 db  XOR eb,db   3,mem=7   Exclusive-OR immediate byte into EA byte
81 /6 dw  XOR ew,dw   3,mem=7   Exclusive-OR immediate word into EA word

Flags Modified

Overflow=0, sign, zero, parity, carry=0

Flags Undefined

Auxiliary carry

Operation

XOR computes the exclusive OR of the two operands. Each bit of the result
is 1 if the corresponding bits of the operands are different; each bit is 0
if the corresponding bits are the same. The answer replaces the first
operand.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) if the result is in a non-writable segment. #GP(0) for an illegal
memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, or ES segments; #SS(0) for
an illegal address in the SS segment.

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 for a word operand at offset 0FFFFH.


Appendix C  8086/8088 Compatibility Considerations

‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘

Software Compatibility Considerations

In general, the real address mode 80286 will correctly execute ROM-based
8086/8088 software. The following is a list of the minor differences between
8086 and 80286 (Real mode).

  1.  Add Six Interrupt Vectors. The 80286 adds six interrupts which arise
      only if the 8086 program has a hidden bug. These interrupts occur only
      for instructions which were undefined on the 8086/8088 or if a segment
      wraparound is attempted. It is recommended that you add an interrupt
      handler to the 8086 software that is to be run on the 80286, which
      will treat these interrupts as invalid operations. This additional
      software does not significantly effect the existing 8086 software
      because the interrupts do not normally occur and should not already
      have been used since they are in the interrupt group reserved by
      Intel. Table C-1 describes the new 80286 interrupts.

  2.  Do not Rely on 8086/8088 Instruction Clock Counts. The 80286 takes
      fewer clocks for most instructions than the 8086/8088. The areas to
      look into are delays between I/O operations, and assumed delays in
      8086/8088 operating in parallel with an 8087.

  3.  Divide Exceptions Point at the DIV Instruction. Any interrupt on the
      80286 will always leave the saved CS:IP value pointing at the
      beginning of the instruction that failed (including prefixes). On the
      8086, the CS:IP value saved for a divide exception points at the next
      instruction.

  4.  Use Interrupt 16 for Numeric Exceptions. Any 80287 system must use
      interrupt vector 16 for the numeric error interrupt. If an 8086/8087
      or 8088/8087 system uses another vector for the 8087 interrupt, both
      vectors should point at the numeric error interrupt handler.

  5.  Numeric Exception Handlers Should allow Prefixes. The saved CS:IP
      value in the NPX environment save area will point at any leading
      prefixes before an ESC instruction. On 8086/8088 systems, this value
      points only at the ESC instruction.

  6.  Do Not Attempt Undefined 8086/8088 Operations. Instructions like
      POP CS or MOV CS,op will either cause exception 6 (undefined opcode)
      or perform a protection setup operation like LIDT on the 80286.
      Undefined bit encodings for bits 5-3 of the second byte of POP MEM or
      PUSH MEM will cause exception 13 on the 80286.

  7.  Place a Far JMP Instruction at FFFF0H. After reset, CS:IP = F000:FFF0
      on the 80286 (versus FFFF:0000 on the 8086/8088). This change was made
      to allow sufficient code space to enter protected mode without
      reloading CS. Placing a far JMP instruction at FFFF0H will avoid this
      difference. Note that the BOOTSTRAP option of LOC86 will automatically
      generate this jump instruction.

  8.  Do not Rely on the Value Written by PUSH SP. The 80286 will push a
      different value on the stack for PUSH SP than the 8086/8088. If the
      value pushed is important, replace PUSH SP instructions with the
      following three instructions:
         PUSH      BP
         MOV       BP,SP
         XCHG      BP,[BP]
      This code functions as the 8086/8088 PUSH SP instruction on the 80286.

  9.  Do not Shift or Rotate by More than 31 Bits. The 80286 masks all
      shift/rotate counts to the low 5 bits. This MOD 32 operation limits
      the count to a maximum of 31 bits. With this change, the longest
      shift/rotate instruction is 39 clocks. Without this change, the
      longest shift/rotate instruction would be 264 clocks, which delays
      interrupt response until the instruction completes execution.

  10. Do not Duplicate Prefixes. The 80286 sets an instruction length limit
      of 10 bytes. The only way to violate this limit is by duplicating a
      prefix two or more times before an instruction. Exception 6 occurs if
      the instruction length limit is violated. The 8086/8088 has no
      instruction length limit.

  11. Do not Rely on Odd 8086/8088 LOCK Characteristics. The LOCK prefix and
      its corresponding output signal should only be used to prevent other
      bus masters from interrupting a data movement operation. The 80286
      will always assert LOCK during an XCHG instruction with memory (even
      if the LOCK prefix was not used). LOCK should only be used with the
      XCHG, MOV, MOVS, INS, and OUTS instructions. The 80286 LOCK signal
      will not go active during an instruction prefetch.

  12. Do not Single Step External Interrupt Handlers. The priority of the
      80286 single step interrupt is different from that of the 8086/8088.
      This change was made to prevent an external interrupt from being
      single-stepped if it occurs while single stepping through a program.
      The 80286 single step interrupt has higher priority than any external
      interrupt. The 80286 will still single step through an interrupt
      handler invoked by INT instructions or an instruction exception.

  13. Do not Rely on IDIV Exceptions for Quotients of 80H or 8000H. The
      80286 can generate the largest negative number as a quotient for IDIV
      instructions. The 8086 will instead cause exception 0.

  14. Do not Rely on NMI Interrupting NMI Handlers. After an NMI is
      recognized, the NMI input and processor extension limit error
      interrupt is masked until the first IRET instruction is executed.

  15. The NPX error signal does not pass through an interrupt controller
      (an 8087 INT signal does). Any interrupt controller-oriented
      instructions for the 8087 may have to be deleted.

  16. If any real-mode program relies on address space wrap-around (e.g.,
      FFF0:0400=0000:0300), then external hardware should be used to force
      the upper 4 addresses to zero during real mode.

  17. Do not use I/O ports 00F8-00FFH. These are reserved for controlling
      80287 and future processor extensions.


Table C-1. New 80286 Interrupts

Interrupt   Function
Number

  5         A BOUND instruction was executed with a register value outside
            the two limit values.
  6         An undefined opcode was encountered.
  7         The EM bit in the MSW has been set and an ESC instruction was
            executed. This interrupt will also occur on WAIT instructions
            if TS is set.
  8         The interrupt table limit was changed by the LIDT instruction
            to a value between 20H and 43H. The default limit after reset is
            3FFH, enough for all 256 interrupts.
  9         A processor extension data transfer exceeded offset 0FFFFH in a
            segment.  This interrupt handler must execute FNINIT before
            any ESC or WAIT instruction is executed.
  13        Segment wraparound was attempted by a word operation at offset
            0FFFFH.
  16        When 80286 attempted to execute a coprocessor instruction
            ERROR pin indicated an unmasked exception from previous
            coprocessor instruction.


Hardware Compatibility Considerations

  1.  Address after Reset

      8086 has CS:IP = FFFF:0000 and physical address FFFF0.
      80286 has CS:IP = F000:FFF0 and physical address FFFFF0.

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NOTE
  After 80286 reset, until the first 80286 far JMP or far CALL, the
  code segment base is FF0000. This means A20-A23 will be high for
  CS-relative bus cycles (code fetch or use of CS override prefix)
  after reset until the first far JMP or far CALL instruction is
  performed.
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  2.  Physical Address Formation

      In real mode or protected mode, the 80286 always forms a physical
      address by adding a 16-bit offset with a 24-bit segment base value
      (8086 has 20-bit base value). Therefore, if the 80286 in real mode
      has a segment base within 64K of the top of the 1 Mbyte address space,
      and the program adds an offset of ffffh to the segment base, the
      physical address will be slightly above 1Mbyte. Thus, to fully
      duplicate 1Mbyte wraparound that the 8086 has, it is always necessary
      to force A20 low externally when the 80286 is in real mode, but system
      hardware uses all 24 address lines.

  3.  LOCK signal

      On the 8086, LOCK asserted means this bus cycle is within a group of
      two or more locked bus cycles. On the 80286, the LOCK signal means
      lock this bus cycle to the NEXT bus cycle. Therefore, on the 80286,
      the LOCK signal is not asserted on the last locked bus cycle of the
      group of locked bus cycles.

  4.  Coprocessor Interface

      8086, synchronous to 8086, can become a bus master.
      80287, asynchronous to 80286 and 80287, cannot become a bus master.
      8087 pulls opcode and pointer information directly from data bus.
      80286 passes opcode and pointer information to 80287.
      8087 uses interrupt path to signal errors to 8086.
      80287 uses dedicated ERROR signal.
      8086 requires explicit WAIT opcode preceding all ESC instructions to
      synchronize with 8087. 80286 has automatic instruction synchronization
      with 80287.

  5.  Bus Cycles

      8086 has four-clock minimum bus cycle, with a time-multiplexed
      address/data bus. 80286 has two-clock minimum bus cycle, with separate
      buses for address and data.


Appendix D  80286/80386 Software Compatibility Considerations

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This appendix describes the considerations required in designing an
Operating System for the protected mode 80286 so that it will operate
on an 80386. An 80286 Operating System running on the 80386 would not use
any of the advanced features of the 80386 (i.e., paging or segments larger
than 64K), but would run 80286 code faster. Use of the new 80386 features
requires changes in the 80286Operating System.

The 80386 is no different than any other software compatible processor in
terms of requiring the same system environment to run the same software; the
80386 must have the same amount of physical memory and I/O devices in the
system as the 80286 system to run the same software. Note that an 80386
system requires a different memory system to achieve the higher
performance.

The 80286 design considerations can be generally characterized as avoiding
use of functions or memory that the 80386 will use. The exception to this
rule is initialization code executed after power up. Such code must be
changed to configure the 80386 system to match that of the 80286 system.

The following are 80286/80386 software compatibility design considerations:

  1.  Isolate the protected mode initialization code.

      System initialization code will be required on the 80386 to program
      operating parameters before executing any significant amount of 80286
      software. The 80286 initialization software should be isolated from
      the rest of the Operating System.

      The initialization code in Appendix A is an example of isolated
      initialization code. Such code can be extended to include programming
      of operating parameters before executing the initial protected
      mode task.

  2.  Avoid wraparound of 80286 24-bit physical address space.

      Since the 80386 has a larger physical address space, any segment
      whose base address is greater than FF0000 and whose limit is beyond
      FFFFFF will address the seventeenth megabyte of memory in the 80386
      32-bit physical address space instead of the first megabyte on an
      80286.

      No expand-down segments shouldhave a base address in the range
      FF00001-FFFFFF. No expand-up segments should wrap around the 80286
      address space (the sum of their base and limit is in the range
      000000-00FFFE).

  3.  Zero the last word of every 80286 descriptor.

      The 80386 uses the last word of each descriptor to expand the base
      address and limit fields of segments. Placing zeros in the descriptor
      will cause the 80386 to treat the segments the same way as an 80286
      (except for address space wraparound as mentioned above).

  4.  Use only 80H or 00H for invalid descriptors.

      The 80386 uses more descriptor types than the 80286. Numeric values
      of 8-15 in bits 3-0 of the access byte for control descriptors will
      cause a protection exception on the 80286, but may be defined for
      other segment types on the 80386. Access byte values of 80H and 00H
      will remain undefined descriptors on both the 80286 and the 80386.

  5.  Put error interrupt handlers in reserved interrupts 14, 15, 17-31.

      Some of the unused, Intel-reserved interrupts of the 80286
      will be used by the 80386 (i.e., page fault or bus error). These
      interrupts should not occur while executing an 80286 operating system
      on an 80386. However, it is safest to place an interrupt handler in
      these interrupts to print an error message and stop the system if
      they do occur.

  6.  Do not change bits 15-4 of MSW.

      The 80386 uses some of the undefined bits in the machine status word.
      80286 software should ignore bits 15-4 of the MSW. To change the MSW
      on an 80286, read the old value first with LMSW, change bits 3-0 only,
      then write the new value with SMSW.

  7.  Use a restricted LOCK protocol for multiprocessor systems.

      The 80386 supports the 8086/80286 LOCK functions for simple
      instructions, but not the string move instructions. Any need for
      locked string moves can be satisfied by gaining control of a status
      semaphore before using the string move instruction. Any attempt to
      execute a locked string move will cause a protection exception on the
      80386.

      The general 80286 LOCK protocol does not efficiently extend to large
      multiprocessor systems. If all the processors in the system frequently
      use the 8086/80286 LOCK, they will prevent other processors from
      accessing memory and thereby impact system performance.

Access to semaphores in the future, including current 80286 Operating
Systems, should use a protocol with the following restrictions:

  Ž  Be sure the semaphore starts at a physical memory address that is a
     multiple of 4.

  Ž  Do not use string moves to access the variable.

  Ž  All accesses by any instruction or I/O device (even simple reads or
     writes) must use the LOCK prefix or system LOCK signal.


Index
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A
‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘
AAA
AAD
AAM
AAS
ADC
ADD
Addressing Modes
 Based Indexed Mode
 Based Indexed Mode with Displacement
 Based Mode (on BX or BP Registers)
 Direct Address Mode
 Displacement
 Immediate Operand
 Indexed Mode (by DI or SI)
 Opcode
 Register Indirect Mode
 Summary
AF Flag, (see Flags)
AH Register
AL Register
AND Instruction
Arithmetic Instructions
ASCII (see Data Types)
AX Register


B
‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘
Based Index Mode (see Addressing Modes)
Based Index Mode with Displacement (see Addressing Modes)
Based Mode (see Addressing Modes)
BCD Arithmetic (see Data Management Instructions)
BH Register
BL Register
BOUND Instruction (see Extended Instruction Set)
Bound Range Exceeded (Interrupt 5), (see Interrupt Handling)
BP Register
Breakpoint Interrupt 3, (see Interrupt Handling)
BUSY
BX Register
    (cont.)
Byte (See Data Types)


C
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CALL Instructions
Call Gates
CBW Instructions
CF (Carry Flag) (see Flags)
CH Register
CL Register
CLC Instruction
CLD Instruction
CLI Instruction
CLTS Instruction
CMP Instruction
Code Segment Access
Comparison Instructions
Conforming Code Segments
Constant Instructions
Control Transfers
CPL (Current Privilege Level)
CS Register
CWD Instruction
CX Register


D
‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘
DAA
DAS
Data Management Instructions
 Address Manipulation
 Arithmetic Instructions
  Addition Instructions
  Division Instructions
  Multiplication Instructions
  Subtraction Instructions
 BCD Arithmetic
 Character Transfer and String Instructions
  Repeat Prefixes
  String Move
  String Translate
 Control Transfer Instructions
  Conditional Transfer
  Software Generated Interrupts
   Interrupt Instructions
  Unconditional Transfer
 Flag Control
 Logical Instructions
  Shift and Rotate Instructions
  Type Conversion Instructions
 Processor Extension Intructions
 Test and Compare Instructions
 Trusted Instructions
  Input/Output Instructions
 Stack Manipulation
Data Transfer Instructions
Data Types
 ASCII
 BCD
 Byte
 Floating Point
 Integer
 Packed BCD
 Pointer
 Strings
 Word
DEC Instruction
Dedicated Interrupt Vector
Descriptor Table
Descriptor Table Register
DF Flag, (see Flags)
DH Register
DI Instruction
Direct Address Mode (see Addressing Modes)
Divide Error (Interrupt 0) (see Interrupt Handling)
DIV Instruction
DL Register
DPL (Descriptor Privilege Level)
DS Register
DX Register


E
‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘
EM (Bit in MSW)
ENTER Instruction
ES Register
ESC (Instructions for Coprocessor)
Extended Instruction Set (Chapter 4)
 ENTER Build Stackframe
 LEAVE Remove Stackframe
 Repeated IN and OUT String Instructions


F
‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘
Flag Register
Flags see also Use of Flags with Basic
   Instructions
 AF (Auxilliary Carry Flag)
 CF (Carry Flag)
         (cont.)
 DF (Direction Flag)
 IF (Interrupt Flag)
 IOPL (Privilege Level)
 NT (Nested Task Flag)
 OF (Overflow Flag)
 PF (Parity Flag)
 SF (Sign Flag)
 TF (Trap Flag)
 TS (Task Switch)
 ZF (Zero Flag)
Floating Point (see Data Types)


G
‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘
Gates
GDT
GDTR (Global Descriptor Register)
General Protection Fault (Interrupt 3), (see Interrupt Handling)
General Registers


H
‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘
HLT Instruction
Hierarchy of 86, 186, 286 Instruction Sets
 Basic Instruction Set, Chapter 3
 Extended Instruction Set
 Instruction Set Overview
 System Control Register Set, Chapter 4, Chapter 5, Chapter 6, Chapter 7
                      (cont.) Chapter 8, Chapter 9, Chapter 10


I
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I/O
IDIV Instruction
IDT (Interrupt Descriptor Table)
IDTR (Interrupt Descriptor Table Register)
IF (Interrupt Flag), (see Flags)
IMUL Instruction
IN Instruction
INC Instruction
INDEX Field
Indexed Mode
Index, Pointer and Base Register
Input/Output
 Instructions
 Memory Mapped I/O
 Restrictions in Protected Mode
 Separate I/O Space
INS/INSB/INSW Instruction
INT Instruction, (see Interrupt Handling)
Integer, (see Data Types)
Interrupt Handling
           (cont.)
Interrupt Priorities
 Interrupt 0 Divide Error
 Interrupt 1 Single-Step
 Interrupt 2 Nonmaskable
 Interrupt 3 Breakpoint
 Interrupt 4 INTO Detected Overflow
 Interrupt 5 BOUND Range Exceeded
 Interrupt 6 Invalid Opcode
 Interrupt 7 Processor Extension Not Available
 Interrupt 8, Interrupt Table Limit Too Small
 Interrupt Vectors
 Reserved Vectors
Interrupt Vector Table
Interrupts and Exceptions,(see Interrupt Handling and Interrupt Priorities)
INTO Detected Overflow (Interrupt 4), (see Interrupt Handling and Interrupt
 Priorities)
INTO Instruction
INTR
Invalid opcode (Interrupt 6), (see Interrupt Handling and Interrupt
 Priorities)
IOPL (I/O Privilege Level), (see Flags)
IP Register
IRET Instruction


J
‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘
JCXZ Instruction
JMP Instruction


L
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LAHF Instruction
LAR Instruction
LDS Instruction
LDT (Local Descriptor Table)
                     (cont.)
LEA Instruction
LEAVE Instruction
LES Instruction
LGDT Instruction
LIDT Instruction
LLDT Instruction
LMSW Instruction
LOCK Prefix
LODS/LODSB/LODSW
LOOP Instruction
LOOPE Instruction
LOOPNE
LOOPNZ
LSL Instruction


M
‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘
Memory,
 Physical Size
 Segmentation
  Implied Usage
  Interpretation in Protected Mode
  Interpretation in Real Mode
  Modularity
 Virtual Size
Memory Addressing Modes
Memory Management
 Task Managment, Chapter 8
  Context Switching (Task Switching)
  Overview
Memory Management Registers, Chapter 6
Memory Mapped I/O, (see Input/Output)
Memory Mode
Memory Segmentation and Segment Registers
MOV Instructions
MOVS Instructions
MOVSB Instructions
MOVSW Instruction
MSW Register
MUL Instruction


N
‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘
NEG Instruction
NMI (Non maskable Interrupt)
Nonmaskable (Interrupt 2), (see Interrupt Priorities)
NOP Instruction
NOT Instruction
Not Present (Interrupt 11) (see Interrupt Priorities)
NPX Processor Extension
NT (Nested Task Flag), (see Flags)
Numeric Data Processor Instructions


O
‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘
OF (Overflow Flag), (see Flags)
Offset Computation
Operands
OR Instruction
OUT/OUTW
OUTS/OUTSB/OUTSW Instruction


P
‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘
PF (Parity Flag), (see Flags)
Pointer, (see Data Types)
POP Instruction
POPA Instruction
POPF Instruction
Processor Extension Error (Interrupt 6), (see Interrupt Handling and
 Interrupt Priorities)
Processor Extension Not Available, (Interrupt 7), (see Interrupt and
 Interrupt Priorities)
Processor Extension Segment Overrun Interrupt (Interrupt 9), (see Interrupt
 and Interrupt Priorities)
Protected Mode
 Protected Virtual Address Mode
Protection Implementation
Protection Mechanisms
PUSH
PUSHA
PUSHF


R
‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘
Real Address Mode
Register,
 Base Architecture Diagram
 Base Register BX
 Flags Register
 General Registers
 Index Registers DI, SI
 Overview
 Pointer Registers BP and SP
 Segment Registers
 Status and Control
Register Direct Mode
Register and Immediate Modes
Register Indirect Mode (see Addressing Modes)
Reserved Interrupt Vectors, (see Interrupt Handling and Interrupt
 Priorities)
RESET
RCL Instruction
RCR Instruction
REP Prefix
REPE Prefix
REPNE Prefix
REPNZ Prefix
REPZ Prefix
RET Instructon
ROL Instruction
ROR Instruction
RPL


S
‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘
SAL Instruction
SAR Instruction
SBB Instruction
SCAS Instruction
SEG (Segment Override Prefix)
Segment Address Translation Registers
Segment Descriptor
Segment Overrun Exception (Interrupt 13), (see Interrupt Handling and
 Interrupt Priorities)
Segment Selection
SF (Sign Flag), (see Flags)
SGDT Instruction
SHL Instruction
SHR Instruction
SI Register
SIDT Instruction
Single Step (Interrupt 1), (see Interrupt Priorities)
SMSW Instruction
SP Register
SS Register
    (cont.)
Status and Control Registers
Stack Flag, (see Flags)
Stack Fault (Interrupt 12), (see Interrupt Priorities)
Stack Manipulation Instructions
Stack Operations
 Grow Down
 Overview
 Segment Register Usage
 Segment Usage Override
 Stack Frame Base Pointer BP
 Top of Stack
 TOS
 with BP and SP Registers
Status Flags
STC Instructions
STD Instructions
STI Instructions
String Instructions
SUB Instruction
System Address Registers
System Initialization
System Control Instructions


T
‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘
TEST Instruction
TF (Trap Flags), (see Flags)
TOS (Top of Stack), (see Stack Operation)
TR (Task Register)
Transcendental Instruction
TSS (Task State Segment)


U
‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘
Use of Flags with Basic Instructions


V
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Virtual Address


W
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WAIT Instruction


X
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XCHG Instruction
XLAT Instruction
XOR Instruction